America at war! (1941– ) (Part 1)


Interruption of Giants-Dodgers football game (WOR), Dec. 7, 2:26 p.m. EST:

University of Chicago Roundtable: “Canada: A Neighbor At War” begins with a bulletin on Pearl Harbor (NBCR), 2:29 p.m. EST:

The World Today (CBS), 2:31 p.m. EST:

Chats About Dogs (NBCR), 3:00 p.m. EST:

H. V. Kaltenborn (NBCR), 3:15 p.m. EST:

Listen America (NBCR), 3:30 p.m. EST:

Clip from The New York Philharmonic Society broadcast (CBS), 3:35 p.m. EST (includes “I Can Hear It Now” 1948 recreation of John Daly’s broadcasts on Pearl Harbor):

National Vespers (NBCB), 4:00 p.m. EST:

Sylvia Marlowe and Richard Dyer Bennett (NBCR), 4:00 p.m. EST:

WCAE Pittsburgh report, 4:00 p.m. EST:

CBS news update, 4:00 p.m. EST:

News preempting The Olivia Santoro Show (NBCR), 4:30 p.m. EST:

Japan declares war (NYK), 4:00 p.m. EST:


Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British Empire
December 7, 1941, 4:00 p.m. EST







We, by the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial, enjoin upon ye, Our loyal and brave subjects:

We hereby declare War on the United States of America and the British Empire. The men and officers of Our Army and Navy shall do their utmost in prosecuting the war. Our public servants of various departments shall perform faithfully and diligently their respective duties; the entire nation with a united will shall mobilize their total strength so that nothing will miscarry in the attainment of Our war aims.

To ensure the stability of East Asia and to contribute to world peace is the far-sighted policy which was formulated by Our Great Illustrious Imperial Grandsire and Our Great Imperial Sire succeeding Him, and which We lay constantly to heart. To cultivate friendship among nations and to enjoy prosperity in common with all nations, has always been the guiding principle of Our Empire’s foreign policy. It has been truly unavoidable and far from Our wishes that Our Empire has been brought to cross swords with America and Britain. More than four years have passed since China, failing to comprehend the true intentions of Our Empire, and recklessly courting trouble, disturbed the peace of East Asia and compelled Our Empire to take up arms. Although there has been reestablished the National Government of China, with which Japan had effected neighborly intercourse and cooperation, the regime which has survived in Chungking, relying upon American and British protection, still continues its fratricidal opposition. Eager for the realization of their inordinate ambition to dominate the Orient, both America and Britain, giving support to the Chungking regime, have aggravated the disturbances in East Asia. Moreover these two Powers, inducing other countries to follow suit, increased military preparations on all sides of Our Empire to challenge Us. They have obstructed by every means Our peaceful commerce and finally resorted to a direct severance of economic relations, menacing gravely the existence of Our Empire. Patiently have We waited and long have We endured, in the hope that Our government might retrieve the situation in peace. But Our adversaries, showing not the least spirit of conciliation, have unduly delayed a settlement; and in the meantime they have intensified the economic and political pressure to compel thereby Our Empire to submission. This trend of affairs, would, if left unchecked, not only nullify Our Empire’s efforts of many years for the sake of the stabilization of East Asia, but also endanger the very existence of Our nation. The situation being such as it is, Our Empire, for its existence and self-defense has no other recourse but to appeal to arms and to crush every obstacle in its path.

The hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors guarding Us from above, We rely upon the loyalty and courage of Our subjects in Our confident expectation that the task bequeathed by Our forefathers will be carried forward and that the sources of evil will be speedily eradicated and an enduring peace immutably established in East Asia, preserving thereby the glory of Our Empire.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set Our hand and caused the Grand Seal of the Empire to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, Tokyo, this seventh day of the 12th month of the 15th year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,602nd year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu.


Metropolitan Opera Auditions of the Air (NBCR), 5:00 p.m. EST:

BBC broadcast snippets, 5:00 p.m. EST:


Honolulu Star-Bulletin (December 7, 1941)


Six known dead, 21 injured, at emergency hospital

Attack made on island’s defense areas

San Francisco, California (AP by Trans-Pacific Telephone) –
President Roosevelt announced this morning that Japanese planes had attacked Manila and Pearl Harbor.

Washington (UP) –
A White House announcement detailing the attack on the Hawaiian Islands read:

The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor from the air and all naval and military activities on the island of Oahu, principal American base in the Hawaiian Islands.

Oahu was attacked at 7:55 this morning by Japanese planes.

The Rising Sun, the emblem of Japan, was seen on plane wingtips.

Wave after wave of bombers streamed through the cloudy morning sky from the southwest and flung their missiles on a city resting in a peaceful Sabbath calm.

According to an unconfirmed report received at the Governor’s office, the Japanese force that attacked Oahu reached island waters aboard two small airplane carriers.

It was also reported that at the Governor’s office, either an attempt had been made to bomb the USS Lexington, or that it had been bombed.

Within 10 minutes, the city was in an uproar. As bombs fell in many parts of the city, and in defense areas, the defenders of the islands went into quick action.

Army intelligence officers at Fort Shafter officially announced shortly after 9:00 a.m. the fact of the bombardment by an enemy but long previous Army and Navy had taken immediate measures in defense.

Oahu is under a sporadic air raid. Civilians are ordered to stay off the streets until further notice.

Civilians ordered off streets

The Army has ordered that all civilians stay off the streets and highways and not use telephones.

Evidence that the Japanese attack has registered some hits was shown by three billowing pillars of smoke in the Pearl Harbor and Hickam Field areas.

All Navy personnel and civilian defense workers, with the exception of women, have been ordered to duty at Pearl Harbor.

The Pearl Harbor Highway was immediately a mass of racing cars.

A trickling stream of injured people began pouring into the city emergency hospital a few minutes after the bombardment started.

Thousands of telephone calls almost swamped the Mutual Telephone Company, which put extra operators on duty. At the Star-Bulletin office, the phone calls deluged the single operator and it was impossible for this newspaper, for some time, to handle the flood of calls. Here also, an emergency operator was called.

Hour of attack – 7:55 a.m.

An official Army report from Department headquarters, made public shortly before 11:00 a.m., is that the first attack was at 7:55 a.m. Witnesses said they saw at least 50 airplanes over Pearl Harbor.

The attack centered in the Pearl Harbor area, Army authorities said:

The Rising Sun was seen on the wingtips of the airplanes.

Although martial law has not been declared officially, the city of Honolulu was operating under M-Day conditions.

It is reliably reported that enemy objectives under attack were Wheeler Field, Hickam Field, NAS Kaneohe Bay and Pearl Harbor.

Some enemy planes were reported shot down. The body of the pilot was seen in a plane burning at Wahiawa.

Oahu appeared to be taking calmly after the first uproar of queries.

Anti-aircraft guns in action

First indication of the raid came shortly before 8 this morning when anti-aircraft guns around Pearl Harbor began sending up a thunderous barrage.

At the same time, a vast cloud of black smoke arose from the naval base and also from Hickam Field where flames could be seen.

Bomb near Governor’s mansion

Shortly before 9:30 a.m., a bomb fell near Washington Place, the residence of the Governor. Governor Poindexter and Secretary Charles M. Hite were there. It was reported that the bomb killed an unidentified Chinese man across the street in front of the Schuman Carriage Company building where windows were broken.

C. E. Daniels, a welder, found a fragment of a shell or bomb at South and Queen Sts. which he brought into the City Hall. This fragment weighed about a pound.

At 10:05 a.m. today, Governor Poindexter telephoned to the Star-Bulletin announcing he has declared a state of emergency for the entire territory. He announced that Edouard L. Doty, executive secretary of the major disaster council, has been appointed director under the M-Day law’s provisions.

Governor Poindexter urged all residents of Honolulu to remain off the street, and the people of the territory to remain calm.

Mr. Doty reported that all major disaster council wardens and medical units were on duty within a half-hour at the time the alarm was given.

Workers employed at Pearl Harbor were ordered at 10:10 a.m. not to report at Pearl Harbor.

The mayor’s major disaster council was to meet at the city hall at about 10:30 this morning.

At least two Japanese planes were reported at Hawaiian Department headquarters to have been shot down. One of the planes was shot down at Fort Kamehameha and the other back of the Wahiawa Courthouse.

Damage done around the city

At 9:38 a.m., a live wire was reported down at Richards and Beretania Sts.

At 9:42 a.m., Nuʻuanu above Vineyard, a gas line was leaking.

At 9:44 a.m., at 2840 Kalihi St., a bomb on the road. There was a mysterious Japanese in a tent camped near there.

At 9:45 a.m., at 2683 Pacific Heights Rd., a bomb struck a house.

Report airplane crashes, Wahiawa

It was reported that an airplane (nationality undisclosed) crashed near the Hawaiian Electric Company plant at Wahiawa. It was destroyed by fire as were two houses near which it fell. The Army and police flung a guarding cordon around the location and civilians were kept at a distance.

Many injuries are reported

An unidentified Army witness arriving at Hawaiian Department headquarters about 9:30 a.m. reported that two oil tanks at Pearl Harbor were ablaze.

A bomb was reported to have struck at 9:25 this morning near 624 Ala Moana.

At 8:35 a.m., the Police Department broadcast a statement to all officers to warn persons to leave the streets and return to their homes. All soldiers, sailors and Marines off-duty were ordered to report at once to their respective posts and stations.

Residents were ordered by radio not to use their telephones.

At 8:17 a.m., a Honolulan at Pearl Harbor Gate heard Marines ordered out.

Bomb hits home in Damon Tract

At 8:05 a.m., according to a police report, a bomb crashed through the kitchen of the home of Thomas Fujimoto, 610 E Rd., Damon Tract, while the family of three was eating breakfast. No one was injured, according to the police.

According to another police report, several persons were injured by a bomb dropping in Kalihi St.

At 9:10 a.m., a report was made to the police that a wave of five dive bombers attacked the oil tanks at Pearl Harbor, the planes flying as low as 100 feet.

At 9:10 a.m., the Pearl Harbor housing area was reported ordered evacuated.

At 9:12 a.m., according to the police, two planes were reported to have dropped bombs on Pearl Harbor Rd.

At 9:13 a.m., the police received a report that a house on ‘Ālewa Heights had been bombed.

At 9:17 a.m., Damon Tract residents, according to a police report, were ordered evacuated and the police said nearby residents were cooperating in helping them leave the area.

Incendiary bomb at Fort and School

A wooden frame house was split in half by an incendiary bomb at Fort and School Sts., about 9:20 a.m. Fire Department could not stop the flames. About 100 firemen are operating out of headquarters at Fort and Beretania Sts.

All departments of the Fire Department have been called at headquarters. At present, there are six companies operating. Three companies were sent to Hickam Field this morning.

The firetrucks are sent out to investigate a fire and, after investigating and doing all possible to put it out, return to headquarters for the next assignment.

At 9:25 a.m., a bomb broke a power line at 625 Ala Moana.

At 9:26 a.m., a man was injured at Richards and Beretania Sts.

At 9:27 a.m., a sampan, heavily-laden, was reported off Moanalua.

At 9:30 a.m., a bomb fell at Kuhio and Kalakaua Aves. No one was hurt.

At 9:34 a.m., a Japanese plane was reported shot down at Wahiawa.

At 9:32 a.m., a bomb fell near E St. in Damon Tract.

At 9:36 a.m., a bomb hit on N School St.

At 9:50 a.m., all truck drivers and motorboat operators of the U.S. engineers and Hawaiian Constructors were ordered to report at Kewalo Basin.

All Legionnaires who are in the emergency police force were reporting to the police station. All Legionnaires who are not on the emergency police force are being held at the Legion Clubhouse, Kapiolani Blvd., for call.

The emergency disaster council, headed by Maj. Robert Faus, was called and are at their posts at schoolhouses. Col. James R. Mahaffay and Joe McGettigan, coordinators, were on duty.

At 10:08 a.m., two Japanese were reported near the water tank at Sierra Drive and Wilhelmina Rise.

At 10:22 a.m., Yuz Marimatsu reported that his house at 758 Kaaloa St. was bombed. A 5-inch shell went directly through the house, injuring no one.

A house at 1807 Liliha St. was reported bombed with no injuries.

Police have been ordered to guard vital spots throughout the city where soldiers have not yet been stationed.

Hundreds see city bombed

Hundreds of Honolulans who hurried to the top of Punchbowl seen after bombs began to fall, saw spread out before them the whole panoramas of surprise attack and defense.

Far off over Pearl Harbor, the white sky was polka-dotted with anti-aircraft smoke.

Rolling away from the Navy base were billowing clouds of ugly black smoke. Sometimes, a burst of flame reddened the black sources of the smoke.

Out from the silver-surfaced mouth of the harbor, a flotilla of destroyers streamed to battle, smoke pouring from their stacks.

Editorial: Hawaii meets the crisis

Honolulu and Hawaii will meet the emergency of war today as Honolulu and Hawaii have met emergencies in the past – coolly, calmly and with immediate and complete support of the officials, officers and troops who are in charge.

Governor Poindexter and the Army and Navy leaders have called upon the public to remain calm, for civilians who have an essential business on the streets to stay off; and for every man and woman to do his duty.

That request, coupled with the measures promptly taken to meet the situation that has suddenly and terribly developed, will be needed.

In this crisis, every difference of race, creed and color will be submerged in the one desire and determination to play the part that Americans always play in crisis.

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I know it may be late for inclusion in an episode before it is over, but the story of Pan American Flight 18602 beginning yesterday on the 7th and ending in the 6th of January is a fascinating example of how civilian air crews will play a part in the supply chain of the conflict.


For anyone curious:

KDKA Pittsburgh sabotage bulletin, 5:30 p.m. EST:

New Friends of Music (NBCB), 6:00 p.m. EST:

The Catholic Hour (NBCR), 6:00 p.m. EST:

Drew Pearson and Robert S. Allen (NBCB), 6:30 p.m. EST:

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt’s broadcast (NBCB), 6:45 p.m. EST:

News Roundup (NBCB), 7:00 p.m. EST:

The Jack Benny Program (NBCR), 7:00 p.m. EST:


Reported ‘dealt successfully’ with

Washington (UP) –
Unconfirmed reports said tonight that U.S. forces “dealt successfully” with Japanese bombers over Hawaii and Manila.

Hull accuses Japanese of outright lies

Washington (UP) –
Secretary of State Cordell Hull tonight angrily told Saburō Kurusu and Kichisaburō Nomura, Japanese negotiators, that their government’s answer to his memorandum was “crowded with infamous falsehoods and distortions.”

Hull’s statement was read directly to Kurusu and Nomura after he read Japan’s document handed to him at 2:20 p.m. EST (8:50 a.m. HT).

The State Department thus far had not published the document. However, a Department statement described the scene as follows:

Hull carefully read the statement presented by the Japanese Ambassador and with the greatest indignation said:

I must say that in all my conversations with you during the last nine months I never uttered one word of untruth. This is borne out absolutely by the record. In all my 50 years of public service I have never seen a document that was more crowded with infamous falsehoods and distortions – on a scale so huge that I never imagined until today any government on this planet was capable of uttering them.

Attacks on Hawaii understood continuing

Washington (UP) –
White House Secretary Stephen Early issued a statement tonight declaring that Japanese attacks are continuing so far as the United States knows. Mr. Early said that the Honolulu and Manila attacks occurred when both nations were “at peace” and within an hour or so of the time Nomura and Kurusu handed Secretary of State Hull the Japanese reply to Hull’s memorandum.

Mr. Early said the Army received distress signals from an American vessel, presumably a cargo ship, 700 miles west of San Francisco. Mr. Early said:

This indicates that Japanese submarines are strung out over the entire area.

U.S. Army transport reported torpedoed

Washington (UP) –
An Army transport was torpedoed 1,300 miles west of San Francisco, it was announced tonight.

Naval engagement reported off Honolulu

New York (UP) –
NBC tonight reported a naval engagement in progress off Honolulu.

6 planes, 4 subs reported sunk

Washington (UP) –
It was reliably reported tonight that anti-aircraft and naval action bagged six Japanese planes and four submarines during the Hawaii action.

Schools closed

All schools on Oahu, both public and private, will remain closed until further notice, Edouard L. Doty, territorial director of civilian defense, announced at 11 a.m. today. This does not apply elsewhere in the territory.

Guam bombed; attack on Manila reported repulsed

Paul Findelsen, radio editor of the Star-Bulletin, while listening in by shortwave this afternoon at his home at 2512 Waolani Ave., reports news items received by broadcast:

The island of Guam was subjected to a bombing attack this afternoon.

The Japanese also attempted to take Cavite in the Philippine Islands, but the attack was successfully repulsed.

Manila denies any reports of damage to that city.

Mokapu attacked

A Mokapu resident reporting at Iolani Palace for emergency duty reported the first bomb at 8:10 a.m. today took NAS Kaneohe Bay there completely by surprise and struck and set fire a large seaplane moored on the eastern side of the hangers in the bay.

Bombers exploded oil tanks causing such a conflagration that the hangers could not be seen but it is certain that they were in great danger.

Another plane was struck and set on fire at Kokokahi near the Coral Gardens.

A witness reported that there was no answering gunfire from the base and no planes went up to drive off the attackers. As the enemy planes swooped low and machine-gunned the base, scattered rifle fire was directed at them.

Witnesses said the Japanese machine gunners’ marksmanship was very poor.

HRT buses run on reduced schedule

Addison E. Kirk, president and general manager of the Honolulu Rapid Transit, reported that although there were several hits by bombs on overhead power wires, the company is running its buses on a reduced schedule.

Parachutists land on Oahu, Army reports

Parachute troops wearing blue uniforms and red shields have landed on Oahu, Army authorities reported to police at 1:10 this afternoon.

Parachutist report is probed by police

An unidentified parachute was seen to land at St. Louis Heights about 2:00 p.m., it was reported. Lookouts reported to the police within five minutes and an investigation was started.

Sixteen provisional policemen and all regular patrolmen in that district were ordered to proceed to the area behind St. Louis College and make a search.

The landing was made at Makapuʻu, according to the report.

Suspicious group probed by police

A guard patrolling a water tank at Diamond Head Circle reported he had observed a suspicious group of Japanese at a Monsarrat Ave. address at 2:00 p.m., and a squad of police was sent to investigate.

Bombs hit many sections of city

Bombs rained from the skies on many sections of Honolulu this morning during the Japanese attacks.

A bomb fell about 200 feet from Iolani Palace during the second bombing raid at 11:30 a.m. HT. Observers estimated it was about a 25-pound bomb.

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Bomb damage

The interior of the Paul Goo home at Liliha and Kuakini St., hit by a bomb.

Names of dead, injured

The city emergency hospital reported at 10:30 a.m. a list of 6 killed and 21 injured.

The complete list will be carried later. Here is a partial list:

  • Peter Lopes, 34, of 2641 Kamanaiki St., was reported at 9:30 a.m. to be in serious condition from wounds in the upper abdomen.

  • Bernice Gouveia, 12, 2708 Kalihi St., is suffering from a mangled thigh, lacerations on the right leg and left arm.

  • A Portuguese girl, unidentified, 10 years old, died on arrival from puncture wounds.

  • Another victim who died on arrival was Frank Ohashi, 29, 2705 Kamanaiki St., from puncture wounds in the chest.

  • Cecelia Broadly, 38, Moanalua Gardens, was released from the hospital after treatment for lacerations.

  • Three were reported injured and one reported killed from the bomb that fell at Fort and School Sts.

Tokyo announces ‘state of war’ with U.S.; Japanese raids on Guam, Panama are reported; Oahu blackout tonight, fleet here moves out to sea

Four waves start at 7:55 a.m., Oahu hit in many places
By the Associated Press

Honolulu and Oahu came through a baptism of fire today with calm and determination as wave after wave of Japanese bombers rained missiles all over the island.


Tokyo, Japan (AP) –
Imperial Headquarters announced at 6:00 a.m. Monday JST (10:30 a.m. HT) that Japan had entered a state of war with the United States and Great Britain in the Western Pacific from dawn today.

At 3:00 p.m. this afternoon, Army, Navy, the police and various civilian agencies were on a war footing, and faced possible further attacks with undaunted vigor and courage.

The police reported that, based on information from the city emergency hospital and the morgue, there are 25 known dead and 56 known injured in the bombing raids.

In Washington, President Roosevelt announced that the raids were by Japanese bombers.

A United Press dispatch at 3:00 p.m. said that estimates given out in Washington are that 400 are dead and 300 injured of the Army forces on Oahu alone.

Japanese raiding planes struck hardest at the Army and Navy bases, but the city of Honolulu itself suffered severe damage.

Deaths on Oahu are reported at more than 400, counting Army and civilian fatalities. Navy casualties have not been announced. Estimate of the Army deaths was given out in a White House statement in Washington tonight.

Unconfirmed reports this afternoon, based on fragmentary broadcast reports heard on mainland stations, were that both Guam and Panama had been attacked by the Japanese. Press association dispatches mentioned possible attacks on Manila, but there was no confirmation of this.

Washington (UP) –
The White House tonight issued a preliminary estimate that 400 were dead and more than 300 wounded in the Armed Forces alone on Oahu. Civilian casualties were not mentioned.

New York (UP) –
NBC tonight heard the Panama radio broadcast that a Japanese aircraft carrier was sunk off Honolulu.

Shanghai, China (UP) –
The Osaka Mainichi reported from Tokyo today that Japanese Imperial Headquarters announced a naval battle between the Japanese and the British and U.S. fleets is going on “in the Western Pacific.”

By United Press

The U.S. Fleet steamed from Pearl Harbor Sunday after a Japanese dive bomber, torpedo plane and parachute raid on the great U.S. naval and air base, causing heavy loss of life and property damage in an unprovoked assault which precipitated a general war in the Pacific.

Reportedly, the sound of gunfire was heard off Oahu and gun flashes were seen.

The White House confirmed reports of heavy damage and casualties in Pearl Harbor and also announced that the Navy reported to President Roosevelt an unidentified squadron of airplanes was sighted off Guam. The White House said it was unable to confirm reports of an attack on Manila.

Reportedly, Hawaiian officials have been expecting the attack for about a week and gave the raiders a warm reception.

Several planes are shot down

Attacking planes, several of which were reported shot down, clearly bore the insignia of the Rising Sun.

Hickam Field appeared to be the principal objective, but fires were also started on Ford Island in the middle of the harbor.

Reportedly, 50 planes attacked later and parachute troops were sighted. However, the parachutists were believed handled.

NBC said 350 were killed by a direct hit on Hickam Field.

The battleship USS Oklahoma, according to NBC, was also reported attacked and set afire in Pearl Harbor.

Governor Joseph Poindexter of Hawaii declared a state of emergency and the islands operated under a prearranged plan.

Meanwhile, in Washington, President Roosevelt conferred with the Cabinet and then summoned Congressional leaders. It was believed Mr. Roosevelt was preparing a message to a joint session of Congress asking a declaration of war – which was expected to pass as soon as asked.

Complete censorship established

The Navy established censorship immediately on all outgoing cable and radio messages. Army and Navy posts throughout the nation were mobilized. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox ordered Army and Navy men to wear uniforms at all times.

Damage at Pearl Harbor

Huge fires were raging at Pearl Harbor at 1:10 p.m. and five Navy vessels appeared to have been destroyed in the air raids.

One ship had turned over on its side. Fires raging on four other warships appeared to be gaining in intensity and they had settled low in the water.

The base itself apparently was extensively damaged in the raids and great clouds of smoke rose above it.

Patrols were scouring the hills above Pearl Harbor for parachute troops reported to have been seen in the vicinity.

Governor proclaims national emergency

Governor Poindexter said he would make a full report to President Roosevelt of the bombing attacks on Honolulu by radiophone immediately after his radio message to the people of Honolulu.

The Governor said at 11:30 a.m. that there had been no evidence of sabotage by local Japanese residents.

Governor Poindexter this morning issued the following proclamation declaring a defense period to exist throughout the territory, thereby putting into effect the provisions of the M-Day Act of the special session of the legislature:

Under and by virtue of the powers vested in me by Act 24 of the special session laws of Hawaii, 1941, and particularly Section 5 thereof, and under virtue of all powers in me vested by law, I, J. M. Poindexter, Governor of the Territory of Hawaii, hereby find that a state[?] of affairs exist arising out of an attack upon the Territory of Hawaii and that all of the circumstances make it advised to protect the territory and its inhabitants as provided in and by said Act 24 of the special session laws of Hawaii, 1941, and all other laws relating thereto; and by reason of the foregoing.

I do declare and proclaim a defense period to exist throughout the Territory of Hawaii.

This proclamation shall take effect upon promulgation thereof by official announcement by me by means of radio broadcast which I do further declare to have taken place at 10 a.m. on the date hereof, done at Honolulu, Territory of Hawaii, this seventh day of December 1941.

Governor of the Territory of Hawaii

This hereby puts the M-Day bill into full effect.

Known Oahu casualties

With eight persons dead upon arrival at the emergency hospital and at least 20 reported dead at Hickam Field, the death toll from air attacks on Oahu this morning continued to mount after noon.

Two identified bodies, mangled by shrapnel, taken to the emergency hospital about 11:00 a.m. brought the total number dead there to eight.


  • Portuguese girl, 10 years old, unidentified, puncture wound left temple.
  • Caucasian male, 35, unidentified, had initials on shirt.
  • Frank Ohashi, 29, puncture wound in chest, 2705 Kamanaiki St.
  • Migita Taro, 26, Schofield.
  • Japanese girl, unidentified, age about 9, fur on coat only identification.
  • Mrs. White, 44, Dorsett Tract, puncture wound in chest.
  • Toshio Tokusaki, 5, Peleula Lane.
  • Unidentified, 30-40.
  • Patrick J. Chong, 30, 1457 Fort St.

A report to the police early this afternoon was that two members of the provisional police were shot and killed by machine-gun fire from low flying planes at Wailupe this morning.


  • Joseph Akana, Chinese-Hawaiian, 27, Papakolea.
  • George Stanley, 4, 1920 Colburn St.
  • Mrs. Ida Gouveia, 41, 2708 Kalihiuka.
  • Kaneshiro Uto, 145-A Fort St.
  • Thomas Fujimuro, 13, 610-I Rd., Damon Tract.
  • Elton Capps, 19, Signal Service Corps, Fort Shafter.
  • Ruth Sakamoto, 37, 44-C N. School St.
  • Alfred Moniz, 20, 298th Infantry, Company D.
  • Irene Bradley, 15, Moanalua Gardens.
  • Cecelia Bradley, 38, Moanalua Gardens.
  • Harriet Ide, 20, 1332 Nuʻuanu Ave.
  • Rudolph Bartels, U.S. district engineer.
  • H. Dallas, 18, Headquarters 18th Wing, Wheeler Field.
  • Eunice Wilson, 22, 1457 Fort St.
  • George Correa, Company No. 1, Fire Department, was brought in injured from Hickam Field and rushed to emergency hospital.
  • Albert Fong, 45, 627-E Waipa Lane
  • Yoshio Ogura, 23, 1453 Fort St.
  • Sidney Carlson, 37, 2210 Kuhio Ave.
  • Glen Hinkle, 21, Fort Shafter.

Hurt in second raid:

Persons injured in the second raid taken to the emergency hospital, were:

  • Uso Konda, 50, 1630 Leilehua Lane.
  • Mildred Irvine, 1113 Duval St.
  • Charles Harkins, no address.
  • John Kim, 989 Akepo Moana.
  • Edward Lilikoa, 1262 Ala Moana.
  • Ceasar Costa, 35, 1821 Colburn St.
  • Tony Oshiro, 20, 944 McCully St.
  • Alfred La Forge, 36, 607 Mokauea St.
  • Unidentified female, no age, no address, both legs amputated.
  • Yoshiko Konda, no age, no address given.
  • R. Izumi, 19, Pelehula Lane.
  • Abel Gleason, 32, Leilehua Lane.
  • Toshio Tokusato, Pelehula Lane.
  • K. Yoshiki, no address.
  • James Konda, Kukui St.
  • Matthews Kitchen, 38, 2813 Kamiki St., discharged.
  • Eishien Tamanaha, 24, 50 Peleula Lane.
  • Janice Koga, 20, Kukui St.
  • Teruya Kenichi, 18, 19 Peleula Lane.
  • Eddie Sakar, 38, 149 N. Vineyard St.
  • Warren Tong, 18, 911-B Luka St.
  • Hisao Uyene, 20, 15 Palua St.
  • Yoshiro Toshisaka, no age, 10 Peleula Lane.
  • Mida Escoler, 42, 970 Kawaiaho St.
  • Unidentified, 25, no address, female.
  • Abraham Kulia, 5, 1920 Colburn St.
  • Ellen Kondo, 11, 1630 Leilehua.
  • An unidentified 10-year-old Japanese girl with a mangled left leg and shock, in critical condition, was taken to the Children’s Hospital.
  • Yoicki Tomisaka, 8, was taken from 1497 River St. to the Japanese Hospital.
  • Fire Chief William Benedict has been injured by shrapnel in his head and legs at Hickam Field.
  • Frederick Malarsie, Hickam fireman, injured by shrapnel in the legs and stomach, was taken to Tripler Hospital.
  • Bernice Gouveia, 12, 2708 Kalihi St.
  • Peter Lopes, 34, 2641 Kamanaiki St.
  • Mildred Gouveia, 3, 2708 Kamanaiki St.
  • Unidentified woman, address unknown.
  • Unidentified Japanese man, 28 years old.
  • Malani Chun, 21, 2112 Coyne St.
  • Mildren Irvine, 8, Fort Ruger.
  • Olive Ishiro, 4, 22 Peleula Lane.
  • Solomon Napailoea, 4, 1260 Kamanuwai Lane.
  • Laura Carlton, 4, 714 15th St. Navy housing.
  • Usa Kondo, 50, 1630 Peleula Lane.
  • Unidentified Japanese boy, 6, address unknown.
  • Unidentified Japanese girl, 3, address unknown.
  • John Hopeau, 23, 2012 Democrat St.
  • Matilda Faufata, 12, 2009 Oholena St.
  • K. Horinouchi, 54, 952 Robello Lane. Laceration of the head.
  • Mrs. K. Horiuchi, 39, 952 Robello Lane. Lacerated wound on cheek.
  • Yoshiko Harauchi, 26, 952 Robello Lane. Laceration of arm.
  • Toshimi Harauchi, 952 Robello Lane. Injury of ear.
  • Ichiko Hiroki 36, 987 Robello Lane. Laceration, right shoulder.
  • Yoshiko Matsumoto, 20, 952 Robello Lane. Ear injury.
  • Ventura Mathis, 31, 101 N. School St. Concussion, right arm.
  • Akio Harauchi, 21, 952 Robello Lane. Laceration on right shoulder.

Inter-island ships, planes are held up

All inter-island sailings to and from Honolulu were ordered cancelled by President Stanley C. Kennedy.

Hawaiian Airlines planes remain grounded until further notice following the strafing of John Rodgers Airport.

Two Japanese fliers captured

U.S. Army intelligence officers said this afternoon that two Japanese aviators were captured and were awaiting questioning by Army officials.

One of the fliers was reportedly captured in the vicinity of Fort Kamehameha and the other at Kahuku.


By the United Press

Washington –
The White House announced tonight it feared there was heavy loss of life in Hawaii.

New York –
NBC tonight reported 350 men killed in a direct hit on Hickam Field, the Army’s giant airfield on Oahu.

New York –
NBC reported from Honolulu tonight that the battleship USS Oklahoma was set afire during the Pearl Harbor attack.

Military censorship on all messages

Hawaii was under strict emergency rule this afternoon, with close military censorship applied to all outgoing messages.

Governor Poindexter had talked with President Roosevelt by radio telephone and had acquainted him with all details of the attack on Oahu by waves of Japanese planes.

At least four attacks were made on Oahu. The first was at 7:55 a.m., the second at 11:29 a.m., the third at 11:59 a.m. and the fourth at 12:41 a.m.

The Governor received instructions from the President but declined to reveal what they were.

Meanwhile, the death and injury toll increased with incidents being reported from widely scattered areas of the city.

While no information was forthcoming from Army or Navy sources, it is known that many servicemen were killed during the attack on Pearl Harbor early this morning.

An entire family of eight or nine persons was reported killed by a bomb at Nuʻuanu and Kuakini Sts.

Blackout for Oahu ordered

A complete blackout on Oahu has been ordered for tonight, T. G. S. Walker, coordinator of the mayor’s disaster committee, announced at 12:30 this afternoon. The order was requested by the Army, he said. He added that all civilians, except those with special permit cards, must stay off the streets at all times.

At 1:50 p.m., Edouard R. L. Doty, territorial director of civilian defense, ordered a complete blackout every night until further notice. The captain of the port announced that all aids to navigation such as lights, buoys, lighthouses, have been extinguished.

It was also announced that no vessel will be permitted to move in the harbor or leave the harbor without special permission from the captain of the port.

Another order said that all licenses of alien-owned small crafts have been revoked. This means that all alien-owned small craft are subject to seizure.

R. L. Doty, civilian defense director, said the civilian population is advised to keep radios on 24 hours a day and all orders would be read over the radio.

He also announced that all movie theaters have been ordered closed until further notice.

All householders are instructed to fill bathtubs and other receptacles with water in the event that the water works are damaged and unable to function.


British officials reserve comment

London, England (UP) –
News of the attack on Pearl Harbor and Army and Navy bases at Manila tonight electrified British officials who reserved comment on the possibility of British assistance, but one said, “This looks like the real thing.”

Churchill examines Britain’s position

London, England (UP) –
Prime Minister Winston Churchill tonight was “examining Britain’s position” in face of the new Japanese outbreak in the Pacific, it was stated authoritatively.

Radio, cable censorship established

Washington (UP) –
President Roosevelt tonight summoned the Cabinet and Congressional leaders.

London paper flays attack

London, England (UP) –
The London Daily Mail reported tonight that:

Not even Hitler has yet achieved the infamy of a stab in the back while his envoys were still ostensibly negotiating terms of an agreement with an intended victim… That degradation has been achieved by Japan alone.

Radio Rome blames Roosevelt

Rome, Italy (UP) –
Radio Rome, broadcasting in English, tonight blamed hostilities in the Far East on President Roosevelt. The radio said:

Roosevelt’s warmongering program has started the war. First hostilities have occurred between Japanese and American forces in the Far East.

Press reaction, however, was reserved.

The first impression after the surprise part was that Italy must wait for the reaction before any clear-cut attitude can be adopted or action taken.

President Harrison believed sunk

Shanghai, China (UP) –
The Japanese are believed to have sunk or seized the U.S. liner President Harrison, according to reports here today.

The Harrison should be off the mouth of the Yangtze en route to pick up U.S. Marines on Dec. 10. It was expected the Japanese would probably intern and disarm 203 remaining U.S. Marines, except those at Tientsin.

The fate of a group of U.S. Navy men aboard the USS Wake was also not known.

Japanese nationals arrested in Panama

Panama City, Panama (UP) –
It was announced officially tonight that the Panamanian government ordered arrest of all Japanese nationals.

Stimson orders Army into uniform

Washington (UP) –
Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson tonight ordered the entire U.S. Army into uniform – 1,600,000 men, including thousands of officers and men on duty in administrative posts who heretofore have been allowed civilian clothes.

Germans report Tokyo war announcement

Berlin, Germany (UP) –
The official DNB News Agency reported from Tokyo today that:

According to the Tokyo radio, Japanese military headquarters announced a state of war exists from Monday at 6:00 a.m. Monday JST (11:30 p.m. CET) between Japan and British and U.S. forces in the Pacific.

Adm. Hart says U.S.-Japan at war

Manila, Philippines (UP) –
Navy Adm. Thomas Hart announced tonight that the United States was at war with Japan and “taking steps accordingly.”

Enemy planes or ships had not yet been sighted. Streetlights were burning in the capital, but the city was quiet. Newspapers had not yet appeared on the streets.

Sleepy-eyed Army and Navy intelligence officers were informed by the United Press of the Japanese attack on Oahu.

At first they were doubtful of the report, generally commenting, “It doesn’t make sense.”

The United Press flash here was apparently ahead of Army and Navy radio.

Adm. Hart and Army Lt. Gen. Douglas McArthur immediately issued full mobilization orders.

A Navy spokesman said enemy planes had not yet been sighted in Philippine waters but declined to say whether U.S. warships were steaming out of Manila Bay. The spokesman merely reiterated Adm. Hart’s announcement of existence of a state of war with Japan.

Apparently, Army men suspected something brewing since during the night numerous units were alerted. Heavy troop-transport activities were noticeable in the vicinity of Manila.

Tōjō reports to Emperor Hirohito

New York (UP) –
A Dōmei News Agency broadcast heard here tonight said Minister of the Navy Adm. Shigetarō Shimada reported to an emergency cabinet meeting that fighting occurred between the United States and the Japanese Navy.

The broadcast also said that after the cabinet meeting, Premier Gen. Hideki Tōjō reported to Emperor Hirohito.

Tokyo radio silent on Japanese attacks

Los Angeles, California (UP) –
A Tokyo radio broadcast tonight (6:20 a.m. JST) did not mention any attack on Hawaii or the Philippines.

Kennedy is acting chief

Lt. Eugene Kennedy of the Police Department was appointed Acting Chief of Police shortly before noon to serve at the police headquarters in the absence from the station of Police Chief W. A. Gabrielson. Mr. Kennedy announced that all leaves and days off for police officers have been cancelled.

Japan consul raided

Washington (UP) –
The Japanese Embassy late today started burning secret documents. There was no police protection in front of the Embassy.

A dramatic raid on the Japanese Consulate this morning by detectives and police caught the staff of the consulate in the act of burning documents and records.

A tipoff from one of the four policemen who had been assigned to guard the Nuʻuanu St. Consulate brought seven men headed by Lt. Benjamin Van Kuren, chief of detectives, and Lt. Yoshio Hasegawa to force their way into the consulate office where a small fire was burning to destroy documents.

Nagao Kita, Consul General, was being interviewed by a Star-Bulletin reporter on the steps behind the consulate office when the car carrying the detectives entered the grounds at 12:20 p.m.

Lt. Hasegawa rushed up the steps, the men following him, past the consul general and into the hallway of the consulate office.

Inside the building, the smell of burning paper was strong and in a moment, the detectives had forced their way into a rear room, completely surprising three consulate staff members who were grouped around a small fire on which were burning records and documents.

Several safes in this room were wide open and apparently the consulate workers were taking out records and burning them as fast as possible.

A police guard stationed at the consulate said it was the smell of burning paper which prompted him to call the detectives.

Two carloads of detectives were dispatched. When the detectives broke into a backroom, they found a smoke-filled room with doors and windows tightly locked. The fire was immediately put out. It was burning on an overturned washtub with buckets of water nearby to extinguish the flames.

Detectives threw water on the burning documents and carefully searched all consulate personnel, including the Consul General. Several were in other rooms.

Throughout the raid, neither the Consul General nor his staff resisted, though one of them cussed, evidently resenting what he believed was the rough intrusion and handling.

Four regular police and provisional guards were sent at 10:30 this morning to guard the consulate, 1748 Nuʻuanu Ave. They patrolled outside the consulate grounds on Nuʻuanu Ave. and Kuakini St., and were also stationed on the grounds.

One of them remarked after the raid that, though he suspected “something” was going on inside the consulate office, he did not have authority to break in.

The raid interrupted an interview in which the Consul General urged the Japanese people in the islands “to remain calm and law-abiding.”

Earlier in the morning, at another interview, he said he had thought the bombing of Honolulu was “maneuvers” by the U.S. forces here. When informed that there were casualties, he remained unconvinced that the bombing by Japanese planes had actually taken place.

Likewise, Otojirō Okuda, Vice Consul, expressed surprise and disbelief when told that “this bombing is serious.”

All Japanese banks were taken over this morning, it was reported at Iolani Palace.

Captain Flagg and Sergeant Quirt (NBCB), 7:30 p.m. EST:

Bible Week (NBCB), 8:00 p.m. EST:

The Chase and Sanborn Hour (NBCR), 8:00 p.m. EST:

Inner Sanctum Mysteries (NBCB), 8:30 p.m. EST:

One Man’s Family (NBCR), 8:30 p.m. EST:

The Jergens Journal (NBCB), 9:00 p.m. EST:

The Manhattan Merry-Go-Round (NBCR), 9:00 p.m. EST:

The Parker Family (NBCB), 9:15 p.m. EST:

Dear John (NBCB), 9:30 p.m. EST:

The American Album of Familiar Music (NBCR), 9:30 p.m. EST:

The Dinah Shore Show (NBCB), 9:45 p.m. EST:

KIRO Seattle news bulletins, 9:56 p.m. EST:

The Goodwill Hour (NBCB), 10:00 p.m. EST:

Hour of Charm (NBCR), 10:00 p.m. EST:

Sherlock Holmes (NBCR), 10:30 p.m. EST:

News (NBCR), 11:00 p.m. EST:

“The American Legion again answers the call” (NBC), 11:15 p.m. EST:

Roundtable discussion (NBCR), 11:30 p.m. EST:

LIFE (December 8, 1941)

Modern industrial Japan needs steel, oil and machine tools

Japanese-made seven-ton trucks carry troops, munitions and supplies in China.

Japanese lathe cutters peel down 14-inch naval shell to exact size.

840-lb Japanese bombs are piled at Osaka for shipment south to the war zones.

Cadets at Japanese Naval Academy practice on these obsolete guns.

Munitions factory workers swing away a finished 840-lb bomb on chain hoist.

Breech ring, looking like a big bolt, is fitted onto a naval gun.

Tokyo railway to Yokohama and Mississippi Bay curves out of Yūrakuchō Station and Tokyo’s central shopping district. This stone heart of city is no pushover for bombing.

Tiny new two-man tankettes roll down broad avenue toward Tokyo’s Meiji Shrine.

Japanese Navy medium bomber (1936 model) flies over mountains toward Burma Road.

Emperor Hirohito on favorite horse, White Snow, wearing Orders of the Chrysanthemum, Rising Sun and Golden Kite, reviews fair 15-ton Japanese-made tanks with 37-mm gun.

An ancient 3-inch anti-aircraft gun passes the war dead at Tokyo’s Yasukuni Shrine.

The troublemaker in the Pacific is not the Japan of lacquered hats on the preceding page, but the modern Japan shown here in stills from Japanese government movies just brought to the United States by photographer Arthur Menken. The tools of the modern Japan are, however, in the hands of soldiers and politicians bred in “heroic” and greedy feudal notions. Under the shadow of this Japan, U.S. Marines and two U.S. gunboats last week left Shanghai, probably for Manila; more Americans sailed from Japan; and the U.S. tightened its defenses of the Philippines, its Tobruk in any Pacific war.

To this Japan, the United States last week announced that it would tolerate no further aggression by Japan, specifically a move across Thailand or China’s Yunnan Province toward the Burma Road. It added:

The policy of this government has been one of infinite patience… The Secretary of State showed even more patience in these negotiations than the President, who has a great store of patience.

The machines on these pages mark Japan’s Achilles heel as well as its strength, for they require steel, oil, tools, things Japan must get from the United States. As Prime Minister Churchill pointed out Nov. 11:

If steel is the basic foundation of modern war, it would be rather dangerous for a power like Japan, whose steel production is only about 7,000,000 tons a year, to provoke a struggle with the United States, whose steel production is now about 90,000,000 tons.

The present U.S. embargo on things like steel and oil is painful for Japan. War and complete embargo would be disastrous, for Japan is desperate and getting weaker every day. It cannot back out of China. It cannot strike at Russia until it is sure of German victory. And it is none too certain of how it will fare in a German victory. It turns a suspicious ear to German attempts to arrange a peace in China so that Japan can fight for Germany. Its only hope, as the Japanese see it, is to concentrate on China and cut it off from democratic aid. If that is suicide, say the Japanese, make the most of it.

1 Like
Bert Silen’s report from Manila (NBCB), Dec. 8, 12:09 a.m. EST:

The Breakfast Club (NBCR), 9:00 a.m. EST:

Music of Reminiscence (NBCB), 10:45 a.m. EST:

Mary Martin (NBCR), 11:00 a.m. EST:

President Roosevelt’s message to Congress
December 8, 1941, 12:30 p.m. EST

CBS broadcast, 12:15 p.m. EST:


Mr. Vice President, Mr. Speaker, members of the Senate and the House of Representatives:

Yesterday, December 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that nation, and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its Government and its Emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States and his colleague delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. And while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or of armed attack.

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time the Japanese Government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. In addition American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday the Japanese Government also launched an attack against Malaya.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

Last night Japanese forces attacked Guam.

Last night Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night the Japanese attacked Wake Island.

And this morning the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

As Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.

But always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces – with the unbounding determination of our people – we will gain the inevitable triumph – so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.

Let’s Sing and Swing (NBCB), 1:15 pm EST:

News (NBCB), 1:45 p.m. EST:

Vincent Lopez and His Orchestra (NBCB), 2:03 p.m. EST:

U.S. State Department (December 8, 1941)


Remarks by the Ambassador of the Soviet Union on the occasion of the presentation of letters of credence to President Roosevelt

Washington, December 8, 1941

Mr. President: I have the honor to present you with the letter of credence accrediting me Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics to you and also with the letter of recall of my predecessor.

I consider it my pleasing duty at the same time to reiterate and to emphasize my predecessors’ expressions of the friendship and high esteem which the peoples of the Soviet Union entertain for the American people and the unswerving desire of my government for the maintenance of the friendliest possible relations and closest cooperation with the Government of the United States of America. I am proud and happy that the honor of being the interpreter of these feelings and desires, belongs to me.

The Soviet Union has, like other countries, in its turn, been subjected to a treacherous attack by Nazi imperialist Germany and has, for over five months, been waging a determined struggle against the aggressor.

The peoples of the Soviet Union are happy in the realization that they are receiving from the American people not only their sympathy in this struggle, but also substantial material support, and it affords me keen pleasure to express to you, Mr. President, and to your people, the warm gratitude of my government and my country, for this generous support.

The fact that this aid is proffered and being increasingly extended testifies to the growing recognition by the American people of the terrible danger to all nations created by the fulfilment by Nazi Germany of the criminal program drawn up in advance by Hitler for the destruction of the political and economic independence of all countries, and the enslavement of their peoples.

The struggle against the aggression of Hitler and his imitators and against his voluntary and involuntary allies – a struggle in which all the liberties, all the spiritual, moral, cultural and political values, gained by humanity in the course of many centuries, are at stake, is becoming more and more the cause of all honest, liberty-loving, peace-loving people. While the heaviest blows and sacrifices in this struggle have fallen to the lot of the Soviet Union, the part played in it by the United States is becoming more and more prominent and active.

The successful outcome of this struggle in the shortest possible time will to a great extent depend on the coordination of the activities of its more energetic and powerful participants, on the timely and rational use of their resources, and last but not least on the maintenance among themselves of the utmost mutual understanding and confidence, which will be necessary not merely during the struggle itself, but also during the subsequent period.

I shall consider the extent to which I may be able to contribute to the creation of these conditions in the relations between our countries as the measure of the success of my mission. I feel confident, Mr. President, that I may rely upon your support and that of your government in the fulfilment of this mission.

My arrival in Washington coincided precisely with the moment in which American territory and American armed forces were subjected to attack from another state – an attack no less unexpected than that to which, five-and-a-half months ago, the Soviet Union was subjected. This event, arising from the present international situation, was brought about by the same forces and the same ideology which let loose sanguinary war in Europe and other continents. I must limit myself, at the present moment, Mr. President, to the assurance of the best wishes and warm sympathy of the people of the Soviet Union towards the American people in these days of their ordeal. I am convinced that the similar trial of the Soviet and American peoples will rivet still more strongly the bonds of friendship between them.

740.00116 European War 1939/465

The Greek Minister to the Secretary of State

Washington, December 8, 1941

Mr. Secretary: Following my communication dated November 28, 1941, I have the honor to bring to your knowledge that information which has recently reached the Royal Hellenic Government confirms that from the Bulgarian point of view certain Greek and Yugoslav territories are now considered as forming an integral part of Bulgarian State having been virtually annexed to it. Thus King Boris in his speech at the opening session of Sobranye on October 28, 1941, expressing his satisfaction that the foreign policy followed by Bulgaria has yielded the best results for her added:

Thanks to our cooperation with Axis the two Provinces of Macedonia and Thrace have now returned within the frontiers of the Bulgarian Motherland. In this area of the European cooperation under the direction of the Axis powers and their two great leaders truth has been crowned with victory.

These statements by the Bulgarian King which in themselves leave no doubt as to the Bulgarian intentions are supplemented by reports telegraphed from Sofia and widely published by the Turkish press without being denied or refuted by the Bulgarian Legation at Ankara. These reports stated that the Bulgarian Government have decided to proceed to the repopulation of the territories recently restored to Bulgaria and that they intend to see to the establishment of Bulgarian populations in these areas. A decision was recently taken by the Bulgarian Cabinet on the matter and a relative decree stipulates that all real property whether urban or rural as well as all movable property belonging either to Bulgarians who emigrated as the result of the last war or to Greeks who left Thrace during the recent military operations there shall be placed at the disposal of Bulgarian nationals who will settle in Thrace. The decree also adds that Bulgarian peasants to be established there shall enjoy several privileges and that their dwelling places and agricultural implements will be granted to them free. The Bulgarian Premier himself, Mr. Filoff, in an interview with the correspondent of the Borser Zeitung stated:

A big plan of colonization of the Aegean Sea provinces is under consideration and that 1,000 Bulgarian families are shortly to be settled there. To these settlers will be granted all useful facilities, immunity from taxes and loans for acquiring agricultural machines. By a successful solution of this problem of colonization the first step towards the assimilation of these Provinces by the Mother Country will be effected.

The above constituting real confessions of the mainly responsible quarters in Bulgaria give a glimpse of the cynical character of the measures taken by the Bulgarian Government. These aim at a forcible Bulgarization of these recently annexed Greek Provinces hitherto inhabited by an unmixed Greek population who are now suffering the most inhuman and exterminating outrages at the hands of the rapacious Bulgarian hordes.

Accept [etc.]



Originally it was written as “a date which will live in world history”, But it was changed at the last second. I think it was a good move.

Also, love the work you did on the picture of the speech Norman! :clap:




Declaring that a state of war exists between the Imperial Government of Japan and the Government and the people of the United States and making provisions to prosecute the same.

Whereas the Imperial Government of Japan has committed unprovoked acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America:

Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial Government of Japan which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial Government of Japan; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.

Speaker of the House of Representatives

Vice President of the United States and the President of the Senate

Approved —
December 8, 1941, 4:10 p.m. EST


The Pittsburgh Press (December 8, 1941)

1,500 die in Hawaii; fleets clash

Tokyo claims sinking of 2 American battleships; Manila bombed
By Joe Alex Morris, United Press staff writer

Screenshot 2021-08-03 061707
The map above indicates where Japan struck at the United States and Britain in blows from the Hawaiian Islands to Malaya. The U.S. Navy is striking back in a major battle west of Hawaii as the British battle Jap troops on the beaches between Singapore and the Thai border.

The United States and Britain smashed back at Japan today on a 6,000-mile Pacific war front that flamed from Hawaii’s coral beaches to the jungle shores of Malaya and Thailand.

The American battle fleet was reported challenging the Japanese striking force which raided Hawaii with heavy loss of life and naval damage. A great naval engagement was rumored in the waters west of America’s Pacific Gibraltar.

The White House announced that 1,500 persons were killed in the Japanese attack on the Hawaiian island of Oahu yesterday.

Germany announced that the drive to capture Moscow had been abandoned “for this winter” because of the severe Russian weather.

Here is the picture of the war in the Pacific:

LONDON: Prime Minister Winston Churchill carries Britain into war against Japan with a formal declaration before Parliament.

TOKYO: Japanese naval command claims sinking of battleships USS Oklahoma and USS West Virginia; damage to four other battleships; damage to four heavy cruisers; heavy destruction of U.S. planes; probable sinking of U.S. aircraft carrier (rumored to be USS Langley); capture of “many” enemy ships; sinking of minesweeper USS Penguin at Guam.

HAWAII: White House reports 3,000 casualties, including 1,500 fatalities, in Japanese air attack; loss of “old” U.S. battleship and destroyer.

WASHINGTON: U.S. battle fleet is carrying out sweeping operations and has destroyed “a number of” Japanese submarines and planes, it is announced. Congress declares war.

THAILAND: Apparently caves in to the Japanese with little or no fight; Tokyo claims Japanese troops moving into the country under “agreement” reached with the Bangkok government; Japanese reported swarming into southern Thailand in preparation for drive on Singapore.

SINGAPORE: British battle Japanese landing forces which have established series of beachheads along eastern coast; Royal Air Force heavily engaged.

MANILA: Waves of Japanese bombers attack key points in Philippines, including U.S. Army base at Fort Stotsenburg, Davao and the vicinity of Baguio. Japanese landings rumored but not confirmed.

CHUNGKING: China moves to declare war on Germany and Italy as well as to formalize the long-existing state of war with Japan.

CHINA: Japanese attack Hong Kong twice by air; take over Shanghai International Settlement; occupy Tientsin British concession and intern 200 U.S. Marines.

PACIFIC ISLES: Japanese attack U.S. islands of Guam and Wake, capture of Wake reported; attack British island of Nauru; Japanese naval squadron reported off Cocos Islands in the Indian Ocean.

AUSTRALIA & DUTCH EAST INDIES: All armed forces on the alert; no Japanese attacks yet reported.

BERLIN & ROME: Indicate Germany and Italy will join their Axis partner in war against the United States but no tangible action yet.

Japanese Imperial forces, said to have suffered severe losses of airplanes and several warships, were in action on these fronts:

  • A major naval battle was reported west of Hawaii, with the U.S. fleet attempting to destroy enemy warships and airplanes that blasted Pearl Harbor Naval Base and Honolulu.

  • A fierce land battle was in progress on the northeast coast of the Malay States where British defense forces attacked. Japanese troops landed on the beaches despite severe air bombing and machine-gun fire.

  • About 30,000 Japanese troops in 60 vessels, escorted by warships, were believed to have landed on the Malay coast.

  • Japanese invasion forces bombed and shelled Bangkok, crashed into Thailand by land and sea, and were reported in a British broadcast to have forced that government to capitulate. The occupation of Thailand would open the way for Japanese drives on Burma and the Burma Road supply route to China and would set up a base for a drive southward against Singapore.

  • Waves of Japanese bombers battered northern, central and southern areas of the Philippine Islands, reportedly causing several hundred casualties.

  • The great British naval base at Singapore was attacked from the air, with 60 persons reported killed and 133 injured.

  • A Japanese landing in North (British) Borneo was reported repulsed with heavy casualties, according to London dispatches, but the same notice heard that the American island of Guam had been attacked from all sides and that aerial bombardment had started several big fires.

Australia and the Dutch East Indies joined in the war on Japan, but there were increasing hints from Berlin that the conflict would become an outright Axis battle against the Allied powers. A Nazi spokesman said that an important statement might be forthcoming later and the Berlin press hinted that Germany would aid Japan. There was still no word of the position of the Soviet Union.

On the Chinese coast, the Japanese attacked Hong Kong by air and by land and conquered the International Settlement at Shanghai after sinking the British gunboat HMS Peterel and seizing the gunboat USS Wake. U.S. Marines at Peking and Tientsin were disarmed and interned.

The Emperor of Japan, “seated on the throne of a line unbroken for ages eternal,” declared war on the United States and Great Britain on the grounds that the Allied powers had threatened the existence of the Japanese Empire and the “new order” in East Asia. On the outcome of this struggle, he said, Japan’s rule would rise or fall.

But even before the declaration of war was known, Japanese forces were attacking in blitz fashion.

The first blow fell on the Hawaiian Islands. Japanese four-motored bombers, dive bombers and torpedo planes flashed across the mountains of Oahu Island and swooped down on U.S. warships in the Pearl Harbor Naval Base, the Gibraltar of the Pacific.

Honolulu, target of Japanese bombers

The picture shows part of Honolulu’s extensive waterfront, near Pearl Harbor, both targets of Japanese air attacks. The White House reported a heavy loss of life in Honolulu.

Honolulu was bombed and furious air attacks were launched on Hickam Field, Ford Island in the center of Pearl Harbor Air Base and nearby military barracks, while torpedo planes with the red symbol of the Rising Sun on their wings slashed repeatedly at warships in the harbor. More than 100 and possibly close to 200 U.S. airplanes were reported destroyed or damaged, but official sources declined to confirm those reports.

A U.S. Army transport carrying lumber was sunk by a Japanese submarine 1,300 miles west of California, two oil tankers were reported afire at Pearl Harbor and fear was felt for three big U.S. liners – the President Pierce (converted into the Army transport USS Gen. Hugh L. Scott), the President Coolidge and the President Harrison. All three were in the war zone in which Japanese warships and submarines were operating and fear was expressed that they had been seized or possibly attacked.

The American fleet, steaming out of Pearl Harbor, was believed to have struck back at the attacking airplanes and the warships on which they were based and some reports, so far unverified, said that a Japanese aircraft carrier, four submarines and at least six bombers had been destroyed.

Heavy gunfire was heard west of Honolulu and both U.S. and Japanese sources reported a major naval battle was believed to be in progress.

In the Philippines, the Japanese Air Fleet struck at Davao, on Mindanao Island, where the greatest Japanese population is centered, and at Baguio, 12 miles north of Manila, on the west central coast of the island of Luzon. Five deaths were listed, but reports that the Japanese population on Mindanao had seized control of the island lacked confirmation.

U.S. defense forces, including airplane squadrons, went into action from bases in the Philippines.

The pattern of the Japanese assault – a blitzkrieg-type series of smashes at rear-line bases over a vast sea area – began to take shape more clearly this morning as British bases nearer to Japan were attacked.

The aerial and naval blows at Oahu Island, the center of U.S. defense in the Hawaiian Islands, had been launched at a distance of about 3,500 miles from Japan and probably 1,800 miles from the nearest Japanese bases in the mandated Marshall Islands. As a result, the assault was regarded to some extent as a suicide raid designed to knock out as much as possible of the main U.S. base and the fleet’s striking power.

Attacks in the Malay States and Thailand, however, were of a sustained nature and carried out by large expeditionary forces assigned to occupy Thailand and attack the British naval base at Singapore, where a strong British fleet, including the 35,000-ton battleship HMS Prince of Wales, arrived last week.

Japanese aerial squadrons raided Singapore and there were some claims that two British cruisers had been knocked out. A British communiqué, however, said only that slight damage was caused. There were a “few” civilian casualties.

On the northeast coast of the Malay States, however, the Japanese landed from transports despite heavy British air attacks. Some of the landing parties were repulsed, but a British communiqué issued in Singapore said that fighting was in progress on the beaches near Kota Bharu, an important railroad town toward which the Japanese were attempting to fight their way. The British said they had sunk some of the Japanese ships and scored a direct hit on a barge filled with Japanese soldiers in the Kelantan River.

Reported by a Dōmei News Agency broadcast from Tokyo, a Japanese communiqué said that Singapore had been “severely” bombed and that the landing operations had been carried out successfully.

Ten Japanese ships in the Gulf of Thailand, off Bangkok, were bombed by the British, but later reports said that Bangkok had been bombed by air and shelled by Japanese ships off the coast.

Still another sector of the widespread battlefront was active along the Chinese coast.

At Hong Kong, Japanese airplanes attacked the main British defense sector while Japanese troops on the Chinese mainland began an assault on the land defense. The aerial bombardment of Hong Kong was described as heavy.

Britain’s defense at Hong Kong had been described as exceptionally good and it was believed that the island could hold out for some time.

Northward at Shanghai, Japanese guns along the Whangpoo River opened fire as Japanese Marines took over the famous waterfront, including all big commercial establishments, in the International Settlement. The British gunboat HMS Peterel went down in flames after her 63-year-old master, LtCdr. Polkinghorn, opened fire with two machine guns on the Japanese. He was reported lost.

At Tientsin, 63 U.S. Marines were said to have been disarmed and interned.

In the Far North, there was no word as to developments around Vladivostok or U.S. bases on the Aleutian Islands, extending westward from Alaska, but it was believed likely that the Japanese would act, now or later, to prevent the United States from using any bases on Soviet soil for attacks on Japan. Vladivostok would be the best base for air raids on Tokyo.

No word had come from the Soviet Union in regard to the new war front in the Pacific, although Japanese newspapers had charged last week that the Russian government had joined the “pro-United States” front and boosted its Siberian frontier army to 840,000 men.

Elsewhere throughout the world, the new war front overshadowed the great conflict in North Africa and in Russia, where the Red Army said it had routed the Germans with thousands of casualties on the Mozhaysk sector before Moscow and were gaining ground in an attempt to entrap enemy forces near Tikhvin, southeast of Leningrad. Axis troops were reported forced back 75 miles west of Rostov.

On the diplomatic front, declarations of war against Japan were issued by Canada, the refugee Dutch government and Costa Rica, as Britain went through the formalities of carrying out Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s pledge to join the United States “within the hour” of war with Japan.

In the Dutch East Indies, the Governor-General proclaimed war on Japan and mobilized all frontier areas while the Dutch Air Fleet joined with the British in fighting Japanese attacks in the Singapore area.

In the Canal Zone, U.S. authorities took urgent precautions against danger to the Panama Canal. All Japanese nationals were being rounded up and it was understood that Italians and Germans would also be arrested.

The fighter planes and anti-aircraft batteries of Pearl Harbor and environs dropped at least six of the Japanese planes. Four Japanese submarines were known to have been sunk.

A Japanese war communiqué heard by NBC described the attack on Hawaii as a “great success.”

Secretary of State Cordell Hull issued a statement which asserted that “Japan has made a treacherous and utterly unprovoked attack upon the United States” at a time when its representatives were discussing peace.

Washington was on a war footing. Throughout the country, Army and Navy personnel were ordered to their posts and aircraft observers were called to duty to man coastal observation points along the Southern California coast.

Japs seize U.S. vessel, sink British gunboat

By Robert P. Martin, United Press staff writer

Shanghai, China –
The British gunboat HMS Peterel sank in the Whangpoo River off the Shanghai waterfront under blasting Japanese fire today and the communications ship USS Wake, its crew overwhelmed as it lay at anchor, was captured.

LtCdr. John Polkinghorn, 63, commander of the Peterel, was believed, with most of his crew, to have gone down with his ship.

The Peterel opened fire, under odds it knew were hopeless, when the Japanese ordered it to surrender.

The Wake had no chance to fire. The Japanese, in a sudden attack as they took over the waterfront of the International Settlement off which the two tiny gunboats were anchored, boarded it and forced its surrender.

May have sunk liner

American service officers here expressed belief that the Japanese had probably sunk or seized the U.S. liner President Harrison, which was believed to have been somewhere off the mouth of the Yangtze River in the Shanghai area, on its way to Ching Wang Tao in the north to pick up 203 Marines, awaiting evacuation Dec. 10.

It was forecast that the Marines would be interred, the first American prisoners of the Pacific War.

Japanese Marines marched out along the International Settlement waterfront, the control of which Japan had long sought, as the Japanese gunboats opened fire on the Peterel.

They strung field telephones along the waterfront as a Japanese destroyer drew up to a dock.

Shanghai banks closed

The American radio station broadcast orders from the U.S. consulate to Americans not to move about the settlement.

The Municipal Council announced that Japanese authorities had asked them to continue their administration for the moment, but to keep banks closed “for a few days.”

Japanese planes flew over Shanghai, dropping leaflets which announced a state of war with the United States and Great Britain. The leaflets said:

Therefore, Japanese Army and Navy detachments as from today have been sent to the International Settlement to suppress hostile activity and maintain peace and order.

They promised that the Japanese would respect life and property, “including enemy nationals.”

Nazis to join Japs in war against U.S., Berlin hints

By Joseph W. Grigg, United Press staff correspondent

Berlin, Germany –
An authorized spokesman said today that German relations with the United States were “no longer of any importance” and the press hinted that Germany might aid Japan under the Axis alliance.

Authorized sources said close contact had been maintained between Berlin and Tokyo for the past few days.

These sources refused any comment whether Germany would intervene under the Tripartite Pact, but said a more explicit statement of German-American relations would possibly be available later today.

Called ‘paradoxical’

Asked whether the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and the United States affected relations between Germany and the United States, the spokesman said:

It is paradoxical and ridiculous to ask such a question.

The official news agency, in a dispatch from Tokyo, quoted Japanese Premier Hideki Tōjō:

I am happy that the alliance with Germany and Japan is growing ever closer.

The newspaper BZ am Mittag was the first to suggest that the Axis agreement might be invoked. It recalled an address by Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop Nov. 26 in which he said Mr. Roosevelt would be guilty in any war between the United States and “Europe or Asia.” It said:

That is still true. The responsibility for this war and all its consequences falls upon Roosevelt. It is true for Europe, it is true for the Far East, it is true for the whole world conflagration.

It said Japan “stands in the strong, insuperable front of young peoples that assures its victory and future.”

Article 3 of the treaty provides that signatories shall:

…assist one another with all political, economic and military means if one of the contracting powers is attacked by a power at present not involved in the European war or in the Japanese-Chinese conflict.

Condemns Roosevelt

The official news agency said:

The war incendiary Roosevelt has finally achieved his goal by also setting the Far East aflame. Next to Churchill, he is the most responsible person who kindled this war.

For years, he has endeavored to hatch a war of Jews and plutocrats against the German Reich borne of the Führer’s revolution, and, conscious of his goal, he worked through his agents and middlemen to extend this battle to other countries and other portions of the earth.

The unholy role of Roosevelt’s confidants has become amply clear from German documentary publications. It was he who backed Poland to challenge the Reich. He gave England and France promises of aid. After he broke his election promises by perjury, he permitted the American people to take over the financial burdens of the English war.

Roosevelt sent his special envoy Donovan [Col. William Donovan] to the capitals of the southeast [the Balkans] at the beginning of this year and talked these countries into their unconsidered attitude. Moved by blind hate against Adolf Hitler, he sent arms and material to British assembling areas and finally gave his fleet shooting orders against German warships.

Now the war which Roosevelt chased so long like one possessed has also flamed up in the Pacific. Dollar imperialism has won over the clear reason on wide circles of North American people.

The newspaper Völkischer Beobachter issued a special edition and carried a similar criticism of Mr. Roosevelt. It said:

This time, the peoples of the earth do not need to wait for history’s verdict in order to know those to blame for the new World War. It is a certainty that without Roosevelt’s intervention, the war in Europe today would have been over a long time ago. Roosevelt attempted to encircle Japan the same as he worked on the encirclement of Germany before 1939. He employed the unworthy weapon of blockade against Japan just as against the young powers of Europe.

The newspaper Zwölf Uhr termed the new war:

…a capital crime of the greatest warmonger of all times who thereby crowns his truly-not-small number of crimes.

It accused Mr. Roosevelt of leading a world imperialistic movement and asserted that Jewry had now declared war against “all the young nations of the globe.”

It said:

The blood of millions sticks to his [Roosevelt’s] fingers.

The war news was reported first by the German radio, which blamed the conflict on:

…war agitation by the American President Roosevelt which had been continuously increasing in past weeks.

Four Philippine towns bombed

Jap planes also attack big Army airfield

Screenshot 2021-08-06 073316
While Manila, the capital, thus far has escaped bombardment, other Philippine cities on the map were all reported bombed by Japanese planes today.

Manila, Philippines (UP) –
Japanese airplanes bombed five widely separated points in the Philippines today.

Naval authorities said they had no confirmation of reports that the Japanese had effected troop landings in the Philippines, including reports of the dropping of parachute troops in Japanese-peopled areas.

Japanese planes attacked Baguio, “winter capital” of the Philippines on Luzon Island, 125 miles north of Manila; Davao, chief Japanese-colonized center, on Mindanao to the south; Tarlac, 70 miles north of Manila; Clark Field, the great Army air base, and Aparri, chief port of northern Luzon.

Army Maj. LeGrande Diller, aide to Lt. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Commander-in-Chief of U.S. forces in the Far East, announced the bombings of Baguio, Davao and Tarlac.

He said 24 Japanese planes bombed Davao at 6:30 a.m. PHT (5:30 p.m. Sunday ET) and others attacked Baguio at 7:00 a.m. PHT (6:00 p.m. Sunday ET).

The Manila correspondent of CBS reported today that two raids by high-flying Japanese planes on Philippine points caused at least 200 casualties. Japanese losses in planes were reported high. The correspondent said Japanese planes also dropped leaflets promising to “liberate” the Filipinos.

Navy officers denied reports that an aircraft carrier had been damaged.

There were other reports that the aircraft tender USS Langley had been damaged.

The Manila Herald, reporting the damaging of an aircraft tender in Malalag Bay, said 13 Japanese planes bombed the area and American planes shot down one of them.

The Manila Bulletin reported the Japanese had bombed Fort Stotsenburg, the second largest fort in the islands, 60 miles north of Manila, at 12:30 p.m. PHT (11:30 p.m. Sunday ET) and that pursuit planes from nearby Clark Field had taken off to engage them. The bulletin reported some barracks were afire at the fort.

A Manila Herald dispatch reported a second Japanese air raid on Davao City.

An NBC broadcaster reported from Manila that several persons were killed in the bombing of Davao and that Clark Field, the biggest Army air base in the Philippines, and Camp Ord, 100 miles north of Manila, had been bombed.


3,000 Hawaiian toll admitted

Battleship, destroyer, many U.S. planes lost

Washington (UP) –
Casualties on the Hawaiian island of Oahu in yesterday’s Japanese air attack will amount to about 3,000, including about 1,500 fatalities, the White House announced today.

The maximum casualties for any one 24-hour period in London in the heavy air raids were about 1,200 – 450 killed and 750 injured. That would indicate that the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which resulted in 1,500 killed was exceptionally intense or else the bombs landed on barracks or some other place where many persons were concentrated.

The White House confirmed the loss in Pearl Harbor of “one old battleship” and a destroyer, which was blown up.

Several other U.S. ships were damaged and a large number of Army and Navy airplanes on Hawaiian fields were put out of commission, the White House disclosed.

The Japanese radio heard in New York claimed today that Japanese naval forces have sunk two U.S. battleships – the 20,000-ton USS Oklahoma and the 32,600-ton USS West Virginia – and an aircraft carrier and damaged four other U.S. battleships, four heavy cruisers and inflicted other widespread losses on U.S. sea forces.

The White House also reported that U.S. operations against Japan were being carried out on a large scale, already resulting in the destruction of “a number of Japanese planes and submarines.”

The White House statement said:

American operations against the Japanese attacking force in the neighborhood of the Hawaiian Islands are still continuing. A number of Japanese planes and submarines have been destroyed.

The damage caused to our forces in Oahu in yesterday’s attack appears more serious than at first believed.

In Pearl Harbor itself, one old battleship has capsized and several other ships have been seriously damaged.

One destroyer was blown up. Several other small ships were seriously hurt. Army and Navy fields were bombed with the resulting destruction of several hangars. A large number of planes were put out of commission.

A number of bombers arrived safely from San Francisco during the engagement – while it was underway. Reinforcements of planes are being rushed and repair work is underway on the ships, planes and ground facilities.

Guam, Wake and Midway Islands and Hong Kong have been attacked. Details of these attacks are lacking.

Two hundred Marines – all that remain in China – have been interned by the Japanese near Tientsin.

The Bill of Rights –
U.S. freedoms 150 years old

First Amendment pledges free speech, worship

The war with Japan today placed greater emphasis on the 150th anniversary of the signing of the Bill of Rights, which is being observed for 12 days beginning today.

Strong public demand caused Congress to submit to the states in 1789 proposals to amend the Constitution. On Dec. 15, 1791, the ratification of the first 10 amendments, commonly known as the “Bill of Rights,” was voted by the last state necessary to meet the requirements for amendment.

During the next two weeks, the Press each day will print an installment of the Bill of Rights “primer” prepared by the Pittsburgh Board of Public Education. Here’s the first installment:

1st Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

These Constitutional rights mean you are free:

To speak whatever you wish, subject only to the limitations of truth, of fairness to others, and of ordinary decency.

To write, print, publish, or circulate whatever you wish, subject to the same limitations.

To worship God according to the dictates of your own heart, without interference by other individuals or by officers of the government.

To assemble to public meeting to discuss peaceably community problems and the public welfare.

To request your government without fear of reprisal to relieve injustice or correct conditions believed unsatisfactory.

Mexican border closed

San Diego, California –
U.S. officers at the Mexican border last night were reported detaining all Japanese attempting to enter or leave the United States, no matter what identification or other papers they possess, according to U.S. Consul Gerald Mokme at Tijuana, Mexico.

Army, relatives jam telegraph as war comes

Some wire Congressman, others try war zones

Americans of all kinds – politically-minded Americans, business-like Americans and alarmed Americans – gave telegraph offices a busy time once war broke out.

The business-like Armed Forces clogged the wires with calls cancelling leaves.

Worried relatives tried to communicate with Hawaii and the Philippines and some, it was reported, even telegraphed relatives in California to leave the coast and come East.

And politically-minded Americans phoned or wired to the nearest Congressman.

The Polish-American Civil League of Allegheny County announced a telegram it sent to Pennsylvania’s two Senators and the County’s four Representatives:

By unanimous vote of our 81st general assembly at the Fort Pitt Hotel on Sunday, we advise the following – American honor demands a declaration of war against the treacherous Japanese. We expect Congress and the Senate to act without a single dissenting vote.

One telegraph operator said:

This is the worst night I’ve had since Hitler invaded Austria.

Frisco calls an emergency

Police on every block in Japantown

San Francisco, California (UP) –
Mayor Angelo J. Rossi last night proclaimed a state of emergency in San Francisco and the Civil Defense Council ordered its members to take all proper steps to protect the lives and property of San Francisco citizens.

The Police Department placed a heavy police guard in San Francisco’s Japanese colony centered on California, Geary and Post Streets near the Fillmore district.

The Police Department said:

Japantown is under strict surveillance. We have patrolmen in every block as a precautionary measure to disperse any crowds and direct traffic. So far there has been no excitement.

Army and Navy observers from stations in Northern California met in the mayor’s office to formulate a far-reaching setup of civilian defense and air-raid warning system at this militarily-strategic harbor city.

New Orleans crowd boos Jap Consulate

New Orleans, Louisiana –
A crowd of approximately 300 booed employees of the Japanese Consulate yesterday, while papers were being burned by consular employees in the backyard.

Two Japanese boys and a colored chauffeur could be seen burning papers in two large wire baskets. A 24-hour police guard earlier was placed around the consulate.


Japs, U.S. both have 12 battleships plying Pacific

Combined fleets of Dutch, British and America superior to foe’s

USS Oklahoma, which was reported set afire by Japanese bombs.

USS West Virginia, reported sunk in radio broadcasts.

Washington (UP) –
Here is a picture of U.S. naval power in the Pacific.

The United States is believed to have at least 12 battleships in its Pacific Fleet. Highest estimates give Japan the same number.

Great Britain has two battleships in Singapore which may operate with the Americans in event of joint U.S.-British action against Japan. Japan, on the other hand, may have already acquired use of the German battleship Tirpitz.

On Oct. 10, Japan had ten battleships built and eight building. Two of these eight are presumed completed and in service. These two – the Nisshin and the Takamatsu – are comparable in battle strength to the newest U.S. battleships – USS Washington and USS North Carolina, all carrying 16-inch guns. The Japanese vessels are reported to be about 40,000 tons apiece, or some 5,000 tons heavier than the USS Washington or USS North Carolina.

Eight aircraft carriers

The other ten battleships of the Japanese fleet are deemed of equal strength to the remaining U.S. battleships.

It is not known exactly how many U.S. ships are in the Pacific, but four battleship divisions (each containing three battleships) are attached to the Pacific Fleet.

The Japanese are credited with eight aircraft carriers built and two building, against a total of seven U.S. carriers built and 11 building. Even the most modern Japanese aircraft carriers are capable of carrying only a fraction as many planes as U.S. carriers.

The five newest Japanese carriers carry 45 planes each, as maximum, while the seven U.S. ships in service carry more than 80 planes each.

Cruisers 46–37

The Japanese are credited with 46 cruisers built and 10 building, whereas the United States has 37 built and 54 building.

The U.S. now has 170 destroyers built as against Japan’s 125, and is now rushing 192 more towards completion. The Japanese are building 73 more. Japan has 71 submarines, with seven known to be building.

Naval experts cautioned that Japan’s figures on naval building are likely to be inexact inasmuch as she has been secretly constructing warships for some time.

British, Dutch to help

America’s naval strength in the Pacific would exceed Japan’s still further with British and Dutch units.

The Navy has a strong striking force in the Fleet Marine Force, composed of two triangular “streamlined divisions” of highly-trained Marines equipped with tanks, planes, armored vehicles, infantry shock troops, and even parachutists. Marine Corps strength was 2,568 officers and 43,180 men.

Trading Act invoked

Washington –
Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr. last night invoked vital provisions of the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 to prevent any commerce or communication with Japan or her allies.

Burch: Jap’s attack follows plan U.S. expected

Narrow, shallow harbor entrance puts fleet in danger
By Wendel Burch, United Press staff writer

The following dispatch by the former UP Bureau manager in Honolulu evaluates the strategic phases of the opening Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Guam.

Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States’ great naval and air base in Honolulu, and adjoining Hickam Field, the United States’ largest bomber base outside the continent, followed a pattern long anticipated by the U.S. High Command.

For years, Army, Navy, and Air Corps officers have organized Hawaii’s defenses against every conceivable form of attack.

The immediate Japanese objective was clearly to knock out vital installations at Pearl Harbor, and ruin Hickam Field’s vast runways and hangars. This would serve first to immobilize the U.S. fleet and its greatest adjunct – the long-range Navy and Army bombers quartered at Pearl Harbor and Hickam. If the bombers are crippled in their operations, the Japanese fleet will have immediately easier going.

Aimed at confusion

Secondly, the Japanese undoubtedly hoped to produce great confusion in Honolulu. The first bomb was possibly a signal to “fifth columnists” to attempt sabotage. There are about 175,000 persons of Japanese ancestry in the Hawaiian Islands’ 410,000 population. Of this number, scarcely a fourth may be aliens and dual citizens, and the vast majority will be utterly loyal to the United States.

The task of “rounding up” known anti-Americans may necessarily produce a great task for the Army and Marine forces. The longer this confusion and internal type of attack can be prolonged, the greater will be Japan’s chances of upsetting U.S. battle plans.

Pearl Harbor, despite its tremendous defenses, has some vulnerable points to bombing attack. The great oil shortage tanks adjoining the main base were probably a prime object of Japanese “suicide bombings.” First reports indicate that some direct hits may have been scored in this area. Construction of underground tanks has been underway on the island of Oahu for months, and it is likely that vital reserves are safe from attacks such as the Japanese have made.

Narrow entrance

The entrance to Pearl Harbor is narrow, and shallow. One ship down cross-wise in that channel may bottle up major ships for hours. News that the fleet has already left the harbor would indicate that the Navy command is taking no chances on such an immediate development.

The drydock facilities at Pearl Harbor, the most important part of the base, adjoin the central harbor. If any direct hit is scored on the main dock or its companion on which construction was started a few years ago, a serious repair problem may be created.

Ford Island, mentioned as one target of the first Japanese bombers, is the home of giant Consolidated PBY two- and four-motored bombers.

Hickam Field immediately adjoins Pearl Harbor to the east. Millions of dollars have been rushed into improvement of this establishment. In size, the field may be compared to LaGuardia Airport in New York City.

Scout, attack and reconnaissance planes are mainly based at Schofield Barracks, the central Army post on a plateau overlooking Pearl Harbor, situated some 25 miles from Honolulu to the northwest.

On the island of Maui, 90 miles from Oahu to the southeast, Hawaii – some 200 miles south of Oahu, and Kauai, 80 miles northwest, additional Army and Navy air bases exist. An often-used anchorage for the main fleet during battle maneuvers has been Lahaina Roads, just off Maui.

FBI is ready

Washington –
The FBI announced last night that it is “completely mobilized and ready” to deal with Japanese espionage and sabotage.

We can do it, Mrs. Roosevelt assures nation

People already prepared, she says in broadcast

Washington –
Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, departing from a prepared manuscript in her weekly radio broadcast last night, declared that, “Whatever is asked of us, I am sure we can accomplish it.”

The text of her extemporaneous statement follows:

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. I am speaking to you tonight at a very serious moment in our history. The Cabinet is convening, and the leaders in Congress are meeting with the President. The State Department and Army and Navy officials have been with the President all afternoon.

‘The people are prepared’

In fact, the Japanese Ambassador was talking to the President at the very time that Japan’s airships were bombing our citizens in Hawaii and the Philippines and sinking one of our transports loaded with lumber on its way to Hawaii. By tomorrow morning, the members of Congress will have a full report and be ready for action. In the meantime, we, the people, are already prepared for action. For months now, the knowledge that something of this kind might happen has been hanging over our heads and yet it seemed impossible to believe, impossible to drop everyday things of life and feel that there was only one thing which was important, and prepare to meet an enemy, no matter where he struck.

‘Ready to face it’

That is all over now and there is no more uncertainty. We know what we have to face and we know that we are ready to face it.

I should like to say just a word to the women in the country tonight. I have a boy at sea on a destroyer. For all I know, he may be on his way to the Pacific. Two of my children are in coast cities on the Pacific. Many of you all over this country have boys in the services who will now be called upon to go into action. You have friends and families in what has suddenly become danger zones. You cannot escape anxiety; you cannot escape a clutch of fear at your heart and yet I hope that the certainty of what we have to meet will make you rise above these fears.

‘We are unconquerable’

We must go about our daily business more determined than ever to do ordinary things as well as we can and when we find a way to do anything more in our communities to help others to build morale to give a feeling of security, we must do it. Whatever is asked of us, I am sure we can accomplish it. We are the free and unconquerable people of the United States of America.

To the young people of the nation, I must speak tonight. You are going to have a great opportunity – there will be high moments in which your strength and your ability will be tested. I have faith in you, just as though I were standing upon a rock and that rock is my faith in my fellow citizens.


100 casualties reported in Jap raid

Manila, Philippines –
Press dispatches reported that 100-200 troops, 60 of them Americans, were killed or injured today when Japanese warplanes raided Iba, on the west coast of the island of Luzon, north of the Olongapo Naval Base.

Haiti declares war on Japan

Port-au-Prince, Haiti –
Haiti declared war on Japan today.

Honduras declares war

Tegucigalpa, Honduras –
The Congress of Honduras, by a unanimous vote, declared war on Japan today and ordered martial law for the duration of the war.

Cuba’s Cabinet votes for war

Havana, Cuba –
The Cuban Cabinet, at a special session today, voted to ask Congress to declare war on Japan. Premier Carlos Saladrigas said the Cabinet would henceforth be “in permanent session.”

Netherlands at war

London, England –
Queen Wilhelmina said today the Kingdom of the Netherlands considers itself at war with Japan and puts all of its military and power resources at disposal of the common war effort.

RAF bombs Jap transports

Singapore –
Royal Air Force planes today carried out intensive bombing attacks on Japanese transports attempting to land troops along the northern Malayan coast.

Hong Kong beats off raiders

Hong Kong –
Two air raids by Japanese planes on Hong Kong were beaten off by anti-aircraft fire today and damage was not important, a British command communiqué said.

U.S. move to evacuate Grew

Washington –
Secretary of State Cordell Hull told his press conference today that the State Department is seeking to repatriate Ambassador Joseph C. Grew and his staff from Tokyo, as well as other American nationals in Japanese territory.

Japs seize U.S. Marines

London, England –
Radio Rome reported today that the Japanese had taken 63 U.S. Marines prisoner in the Tientsin area of China.

British tell Japs to report

London, England –
Japanese nationals in Britain who are more than 16 years old have been asked to report as soon as possible to the nearest police station with their registration certificates so that the certificates can be endorsed, the Home Office announced today.

Navy requests blackout

Los Angeles, California –
Naval authorities early today requested that the Long Beach and San Pedro harbors be blacked out. The Navy asked that all non-essential lights be turned off, including those at vital industries such as oil plants, wherever possible. Autos and trucks were asked to use only dim lights.

Japs seize British concession

London, England –
The British concession at Tientsin, North China, has been occupied by Japanese troops, according to an official German news agency broadcast heard by the United Press listening post.

Japan pledges ‘safety’

London, England –
The Japanese radio said today that Tomkiza Hori, spokesman for the Japanese Information Bureau, had announced every possible precaution would be taken to ensure the safety of U.S. and British nationals in Japan. Hori said Japan’s treatment of enemy nationals would be affected by the treatment accorded Japanese nationals by the United States and Britain.

China to declare war

Chungking, China –
Chinese Foreign Minister Quo Tai-chi today said China has decided to declare war against Germany and Italy as well as Japan, against which the Chungking regime has never made a formal declaration.

Hong Kong blockaded, Japs say

New York –
The Japanese Navy is completely blockading the British Crown colony in Hong Kong, the Japanese Dōmei News Agency said today in a broadcast heard by the United Press.

Japan claim pact with Thailand

New York –
The Japanese official radio claimed today that an “agreement” was reached with Thailand at 12:30 p.m. JST (10:30 p.m. Sunday ET) to allow passage of Japanese troops through that country. The broadcast was heard by the United Press. Japanese headquarters reported that troops started to enter Thailand this afternoon, Radio Tokyo reported.

Air-sea battle reported

New York –
The United Press today heard Radio Vichy broadcast Tokyo reports that a great air-sea battle was in progress off the Philippine coast.

Japs again raid Philippines

London, England –
The German radio quoted Japanese Imperial Headquarters today as reporting that Japanese fighter planes made a strong attack on the “most important points” of the Philippines today, inflicting severe damage. No Japanese planes were damaged in the raids, Tokyo asserted.

Japanese troopships hit

San Francisco, California –
The Singapore radio heard by the United Press here today reported that two American-built Hudson bombers operating off the northern Malayan coast had scored direct hits on two Japanese troopships and another Hudson bomber had scored a direct hit on a barge loaded with Japanese soldiers.

U.S. seizes 736 Japs

Washington –
Attorney General Francis Biddle announced today that FBI agents had seized 736 Japanese nationals in the United States and in the Hawaiian Islands last night.

Mandated islands attacked

New York –
Japanese forces in the Western Pacific have attacked the Australian-mandated Ellice and Ocean Islands, both of which are rich in phosphate deposits, according to a British broadcast heard by NBC. The islands are northeast of Australia.

Rome sees Axis at war with U.S.

New York –
CBS today quoted the Rome radio as saying that Japan’s declaration of war against the United States involves “the existence of a state of war between the two Axis powers and the United States.”

The Manila correspondent of NBC quoted the Tokyo radio as saying Germany will shortly follow Japan in a declaration of war against the United States.

Japs declare defensive zone

Berlin, Germany –
All waters around Japan have been declared a defensive zone by the Japanese Navy, the official German news agency reported from Tokyo today.

Thailand studies Jap ‘proposal’

Bangkok, Thailand –
The Thai Cabinet has been in session since 2:00 a.m. ICT (2:00 p.m. Sunday ET) studying “Japanese proposals;” it is understood the British have presented “a counterproposal.”

First Lady going to coast

Washington –
Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, an assistant director of the Office of Civilian Defense, will leave for the Pacific Coast by airplane tonight to assist emergency civilian-defense work. The extent of her stay will be determined by the necessities of the situation.

Australia enters war

New York –
Premier John Curtin has announced that Australia is at war with Japan, according to an Australian radio broadcast heard by CBS. NBC said Australia’s decision was taken at an extraordinary cabinet meeting in Melbourne.


Senate’s vote unanimous; House ballots 388–1; victory pledged

By Lyle C. Wilson, United Press staff writer


New York –
An NBC correspondent in Manila reported today that:

Manila is now under Japanese air bombardment.

The Japanese attacked Fort William McKinley, just outside Manila, and Nichols Field on the outskirts of the city, he reported. Another attack was attempted against the RCA transmitter, he said.

TELEPHOTO: President Roosevelt delivers war message

President Roosevelt is pictured here as he delivered his momentous message to a joint session of Congress today, sketching briefly the extent of Japanese attacks and asking the House and Senate to declare that a state of war existed. In the background are Vice President Henry A. Wallace (left) and Speaker Sam Rayburn. To the right is the President’s son, Capt. James Roosevelt. (ACME Telephoto)

Washington –
Congress today proclaimed the existence of a state of war between the United States and the Japanese Empire 33 minutes after the dramatic moment when President Roosevelt stood before a joint session to pledge that we will triumph – “so help us God.”

Democracy was proving its right to a place in the sun with a split-second shift-over to all-out war.

The Senate acted first, adopting the resolution by a unanimous roll call vote of 82–0, within 21 minutes after the President had concluded his address to a joint session of both houses.

The final House vote was announced as 388–1. The lone negative vote was cast by Rep. Jeannette Rankin (R-MT), who also voted against entry into World War I.

The resolution now has to be signed by Speaker Sam Rayburn and Vice President Wallace before it is sent to the President at the White House. His signature will place the United States formally at war against the Japanese Empire, already an accomplished fact.

The resolutions were before both Houses within 15 minutes of the time Mr. Roosevelt ended his seven-minute, 500-word extraordinary message.

There was a half-second of uncertainty in the House when Rep. Rankin objected to unanimous consent for immediate consideration of the war resolution. Speaker Sam Rayburn brushed the objection aside.

It was she who in the small hours of April 6, 1917, faltered, wept, and finally voted “No” against a similar resolution aimed at Germany.

When the clerk came to her name on the roll call today, she voted “No” again. A chorus of hisses and boos greeted her vote, the first cast against the war resolution.

Rep. Harold Knutson (R-MN), who also voted against American entry into World War I in 1917, said today this nation “has no choice but to declare war on Japan.”

Knutson told reporters:

I do not see that we have any other notice. They declared war on us.

Miss Rankin and Knutson are the only present members of the House who voted against war in 1917.

Only Miss Rankin and Rep. Clare Hoffman (R-MI) had remained seated when the House gave a standing ovation in response to Roosevelt’s solemn statement:

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese Empire.

In a staccato of short sentences, the President told where the Japanese had hit yesterday throughout the Pacific area and how their representatives here had at the same time been continuing deceptive and false negotiations for maintenance of peace. And he said, simply, that he had ordered “all measures to be taken for our defense.”

The President said grimly:

Always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

Under parliamentary procedure, one chamber must approve the resolution adopted by the other. Since the Senate acted first, its version was substituted by the House for the House resolution which differed in a few minor words.

Emery L. Frazier, legislative clerk of the Senate and a former member of the Kentucky Legislature, took the resolution over to the House after the Senate passed it.

The Senate received the resolution back from the House at 1:37 p.m. EST while Mr. Connally was debating the necessity for strict anti-strike legislation with Senator James E. Murray (D-MT). Mr. Murray asserted that strict legislation was unnecessary.

Just as he finished, Alney E. Chaffee, House Reading Clerk, entered the door and with a stiff bow announced that the House had passed a resolution declaring the “existence of a state of war with Japan.” Mr. Connally said:

There is the answer to the Senator’s convention.

The resolution was laid on the table for a while as Mr. Connally and Mr. Murray continued their debate.

Just before adjourning at 2:05 p.m. until noon tomorrow, the Senate gave consent for Vice President Wallace to sign the historic resolution after the session. He planned to do so in a ceremony in his office after Speaker Rayburn signs for the House.

Chairman Tom Connally (D-TX) of the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee introduced the war resolution in the Senate at 12:50 p.m. He asked for its immediate consideration, but Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg (R-MI) asked him to suspend the request so he could comment upon the resolution. Mr. Vandenberg told the Senate that:

When war comes to us… I stand with the Commander-in-Chief, notwithstanding past differences on foreign policy.

He said that:

…there can be no shadow of doubt as to our answer to Japan.

…and added that:

…you [Japan] have unsheathed the sword and by it you shall die.

When Mr. Vandenberg concluded, the Senate roll call on the Connally resolution was taken.

Democratic Leader John W. McCormack (D-MA) introduced the resolution in the House. He moved immediately for a suspension of the rules and passage of the resolution. Miss Rankin rose and said:

I object.

Speaker Sam Rayburn said:

This is no unanimous-consent request. No objection is in order.

McCormack then yielded himself 20 seconds in which he demanded immediate action on the resolution.

House Republican Leader Joseph W. Martin Jr. (R-MA) then obtained the floor.

Cry ‘vote, vote’

Cries of “vote, vote” went up from the Democratic side.

Mr. Martin said he hoped there would not be a dissenting vote cast on the war resolution. Mr. Martin said:

Our nation is today in the gravest crisis since its establishment as a Republic. All we hold precious and sacred is being challenged by a ruthless, unscrupulous, arrogant foe.

Our ships have been sunk, our planes destroyed, many lives lost, cities and towns under the American flag have been ruthlessly bombed.

We are compelled by this treacherous attack to go to war.

There can be no peace until the enemy is made to pay in full measure for his dastardly crimes.

More cries of “vote, vote” when Mr. Martin concluded.

‘Won’t be long’

Mr. Rayburn said:

It won’t be long. Let us keep order.

The cries concluded, however, when Mr. Martin yielded three minutes to Rep. Hamilton Fish (R-NY), who said the time for action had come. Mr. Fish said:

There can be only one answer to the treacherous attack of the Japanese, and that is war to final victory, cost what it may in blood, treasure, and tears.

He added:

The Japanese have gone stark, raving mad, and have by their unprovoked attack committed military, naval, and national suicide.

I shall at the proper time volunteer my services as an officer in a combat division, as I did in the last war, preferably with colored troops.

There is no sacrifice too great that I will not make in defense of America and to help annihilate these war-mad Japanese devils.

‘Sit down’

Miss Rankin was standing, seeking recognition, when Mr. Fish concluded. Someone called:

Sit down, sister.

Mr. Rayburn ignored her and Mr. McCormack yielded to Rep. Sol Bloom (D-NY) and Rep. Luther A. Johnson (D-TX).

Date to ‘live in infamy’

Mr. Roosevelt promised, in his seven-minute, 500-word address, that we would never forget the treacherous manner of the onslaught and that, before we are through, Japan will be powerless to offend so again. He said:

Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The President, preceded by the escorting Senate-House Committee, went into the House chamber, supported by his son, James, who wore his uniform of a Marine captain. He was greeted by a thundering ovation after he was presented to the assemblage by Speaker Sam Rayburn.

The ovation swelled in volume as the President reached the Speaker’s stand and a rebel yell went up from the Democratic side.

War plea cheered wildly

The chamber was jammed. Members of Congress and spectators listened gravely and quietly as the President began his speech at 12:33 p.m.

But there was wild cheering when the President reached the point in his brief state paper asking for a declaration that a state of war exists.

The President did not mention Germany and Italy – Japan’s Axis partners in Europe.

Await further news

Congressional leaders had awaited the President’s message to decide whether to formulate a declaration of war only against Japan, or against Germany and Italy as well.

The President was apparently awaiting further information as to what Germany and Italy will do.

The President spoke to a tense, hushed joint session of both houses less than two hours after he had announced, through his secretary, 3,000 U.S. casualties in the Japanese assault on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian group. Of those casualties, 1,500 were estimated to have been killed.

Sink Jap subs

U.S. counteraction, the White House announced, has accounted for a “number” of Japanese warplanes and submarines. The Japanese toll of U.S. warships in Pearl Harbor was one unidentified battleship which had capsized and one destroyer, which had exploded. Numerous U.S. planes were destroyed and other warships damaged.

Meanwhile, at a press conference, Secretary of State Hull told reporters that, at the time of his meeting with the Japanese Ambassadors yesterday, he heard rumors of a Japanese attack on Hawaii, but had not obtained confirmation.

He said he did not wait to check the rumors but received the envoys on their own representation that they wished to visit him.

The White House reported that one old battleship capsized in the attack on Pearl Harbor, one destroyer was blown up and “several other American ships were damaged.”

Jap subs sunk

It declared that U.S. countermeasures had accounted for “a number of Japanese planes and submarines.”

The President was particularly gratified this morning over the mounting reaction of the country expressed to the White House in hundreds of telegrams and telephone calls.

Express ‘horror’

Secretary Stephen Early told a press conference that the tremendous volume of messages to the President “all express horror at this attack and pledge full loyalty to the President and the government.”

The messages came from governors, mayors, religious leaders, heads of civic movements, newspaper editors and radio broadcasters, many offering their personal services.

Assemble casualty lists

Even as the U.S. Armed Forces in the mid-Pacific and the Far East defended this country with their lives and blood against the Japanese blitzkrieg, the War and Navy Departments were assembling data for the first casualty lists.

There were already scattered reports throughout the country that relatives of dead or missing men had received private notification of the sacrifice.

Congress, meanwhile, moved on other fronts to speed every facility for the successful prosecution of the war. The House Military Affairs Committee scheduled a meeting for tomorrow to repeal legislation restricting the use of selectees and National Guardsmen to the Western Hemisphere and U.S. possessions.

The action would remove any doubt as to the authority of the President to do away with that prohibition. There had been some belief that he would dispense with it during actual war.

Scores treachery

Symbolic of the unity which had swept a determined nation overnight was the comment of Rep. William G. Stratton (R-IL), who hitherto has opposed President Roosevelt’s foreign policy. He said:

There can be no question as to the stand that will be taken by every true American. This treacherous attack on the United States by Japan will be met and avenged by a united and aroused people. We will not be satisfied merely with victory – Japan must be destroyed as a military power.

To get what he asks for

Congressional leaders said the President would get whatever he asked for today. One high-ranking Democrat said:

It would be difficult to prevent Congress from declaring war today.

Fighting actually began yesterday. By sundown in the Far East, it extended over a sweeping Pacific area of thousands of square miles from the Asian mainland to a point east of Hawaii where a lumber-laden U.S. transport was torpedoed and sunk between those islands and the American continent.

The President had already ordered our Armed Forces to strike back and the war was on – declared or not.

Police shooed crowds away from the immediately vicinity of the White House. But in Lafayette Park, just across Pennsylvania Ave., some hundreds gathered and then sang “America” and “God Bless America” as the conferees streamed out of the mansion. There had been a moment of excitement earlier in the day when crowds assembled around the Japanese Embassy in Massachusetts Ave. where attachés were firing papers in big packages each equipped with a fuse and powder charge. But there was no violence there and none elsewhere in Washington in the first hours of our active participation in World War II.

Fitting neatly into the spectacular pattern of yesterday’s events was Japan’s final diplomatic move here, a request for an appointment with Secretary of State Hull. The hour was fixed at 1:00 p.m., just 25 minutes before the bombers zoomed low over Pearl Harbor. Ambassador Kichisaburō Nomura and special envoy Saburō Kurusu actually reached the State Department more than an hour later and some 40 minutes after bombs fell on Hawaii. They delivered their government’s reply to Hull’s Nov. 26 statement of basic principles for peace in the Pacific, a reply which rejected the principles, accused the United States of seeking to extend the war, and so enraged Mr. Hull that he blasted at Nomura that the note from Tokyo was a concoction of “infamous falsehoods and distortions.”

Discloses documents

The State Department immediately made public the American statement of basic principles, the Japanese reply and Mr. Roosevelt’s Saturday peace proposal directed to Emperor Hirohito. There was speculation here whether the President’s message ever reached the Emperor at all.

Mr. Hull is expected to send to Congress today “a white paper” containing a chronological history of U.S.-Japanese relations which preceded yesterday’s attacks. This is customary procedure preceding a formal declaration of war.

Plainclothesmen were sent to the British Embassy. British Ambassador Lord Halifax cancelled all engagements and was in constant communication with the White House and London.

The President considered declaring martial law in Manila. This would place the Army in supreme control there.

Chinese Ambassador Hu Shih spent 40 minutes with Mr. Roosevelt. He said the Japanese attack was “sheer madness.”

Playwright Robert Sherwood, who has helped the President to prepare some of his most important papers, was being flown here from New York by special plane. With him were Vice President Henry A. Wallace, Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins and Postmaster General Frank Walker.

Not ‘knocked out’

White House conferees, who last night heard the worst straight from the lips of the President, came out acknowledging the force of the Japanese attack, but assuring all comers that we are not being “knocked out” in the Pacific.

Far from it. The U.S. Navy and Air Force are believed to be counterattacking and naval sources said we could carry the war directly to Japan by air.

Those conferees were solemn men as they emerged into night. White House police guards surrounded the mansion. It was no pocket pistol guard, either, but big, brawny bluecoats who had rifles and Thompson submachine guns in the crooks of their arms. This was no night for prowlers at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. or elsewhere in Washington because the Army was on guard too.

Streetlights dimmed at 12:48 a.m. today in a semi-blackout and District of Columbia officials called on all citizens to use nightlights.

Gen. Robert E. Wood, chairman of the America First Committee, climbed out of an airplane on LaGuardia Airport, New York, last night and said:

We will support the war.

The national board of directors of the America First Committee in Chicago simultaneously urged its members to give full support “to the war effort of this country until the conflict with Japan is brought to a successful conclusion.”

Jap Embassy draws crowd

Staff members remain in Washington building

Washington (UP) –
The handsome Japanese Embassy was converted into a dormitory for staff members today while curious crowds stared at the building housing the emissaries of America’s first avowed enemy in 23 years.

Japanese diplomats and newspapermen preferred to remain in the building, despite lack of bedding.

Hiroichi Takagi, the Embassy’s third secretary, said over the telephone that he and his associates considered themselves “out of jobs because we were working for peace and that has ended.”

His first news of the changed situation, he said, was from press-association tickers.

Envoy called tired

Takagi said Ambassador Kichisaburō Nomura appeared to be extremely tired but was otherwise all right. Concern over his health had been expressed by those who thought the action of Japan’s militarists, men he has tried to keep in check, must have been a great shock to him.

The United States sent prompt protection to the Embassy and the State Department said protection would be supplied to all diplomatic personnel of Japan in the United States.

But before the police officers arrived, the Japanese staff, on short-sleeves despite the cold weather, had begun the burning of Embassy papers. The boxes were equipped with fuses and powder which, when a light was applied, quickly reduced the papers to ashes.

Burned on lawn

Grates of the lawn were used for the burning. An Embassy attaché wisecracked to photographers:

There go my love letters.

A crowd gathered and the driveway gates in Massachusetts Ave. were swung shut. There were a few boos for arriving Japanese officials, hastily reporting to the Embassy after hearing the news, but the crowd was orderly.

There is expected to be difficulty in arranging safe conducts for Japanese officials to their homeland.

Under international law, the diplomats are entitled to the full protection of the United States while in this country and by custom, they are accorded safe conduct by all belligerents through whose countries they might pass.

Liner en route

The Japanese passenger liner Tatsuta Maru is reportedly at sea en route to the United States and might be used for the return of Japanese diplomats. But they may not be permitted to leave until satisfactory arrangements are made for the Ambassador Joseph C. Grew and his staff to leave Tokyo.

There will be efforts to arrange transfers of Japanese newspapermen in the United States and American newspapermen in Tokyo.

Japan’s island position may make the matter difficult and a protracted period of negotiations was expected. The exchanges might be made at some neutral ports in the Pacific in another few weeks.

Men ordered back

San Francisco, California –
The 12th Naval District headquarters last night ordered all men attached to ships at Mare Island Navy Yard to report to their posts immediately.


Arnold youth dies in battle

First Pittsburgh District victim of Japs

Pvt. George G. Leslie, 20, USAC, killed yesterday in the Japanese attack on the Hawaiian Islands.

The Pittsburgh District’s first casualty of the war in the Pacific was announced by the War Department today.

The parents of Pvt. George G. Leslie, 20, an enlisted man in the U.S. Army Air Forces, were informed that their son had been killed in the Japanese attack on the Hawaiian Islands.

The following message was sent to Mr. and Mrs. George S. Leslie, of Arnold:

Your son, Pvt. George G. Leslie, died at approximately 10 a.m. HT, Dec. 7, a battle casualty, from gunshot wounds. Any other information will reach you from the War Department.

Pvt. Leslie, who is survived by a brother and two sisters, enlisted in the Air Corps last April and was taking personnel management training in Hawaii. He was a graduate of Arnold High School.

Casualty list

By the United Press

The first U.S. casualties in the Japanese attacks were revealed today in word sent to the parents of the victims by the Navy Department.

An official list of casualties is expected to be issued in Washington later.

The dead:

  • 1st Lt. Hans Christiansen, 21, Woodland, California.
  • 2nd Lt. George A. Whiteman, 21, Sedalia, Missouri.
  • Pvt. George C. Leslie, 20, Arnold, Pennsylvania.
  • Pvt. Robert Niedzwiecki, 22, Grand Rapids, Michigan.
  • Pvt. Dean W. Cebert, 23, Galesburg, Illinois.

LIFE (December 8, 1941)

MacArthur of the Far East

If war should come, he leads the Army that will fight Japan
By Clare Boothe

Today, when the thunderclouds of war are so low and thick over the Pacific that visiting Mr. Kurusu hardly dares sneeze for fear of precipitating the cloudburst, it is difficult to remember that in 1935, a Japanese-American conflict was no more than a gray little puff over Manchukuo. Men who saw it there and predicted its prodigious growth were accused of being alarmists. In that year in Washington, handsome Gen. Douglas MacArthur retired as a top soldier of Uncle Sam’s Army and, according to TIME, “packed his elegant duffel” and sailed for the Philippines. Nobody much cared why.

In 1935, the barometer of U.S. isolationism was rising rapidly toward its all-time 1939 peak. Public opinion on the Philippines – when there was any – was for “pulling out.” The Filipinos were to have “complete independence” in 1946. It was to protect this glorious independence that President Quezon, with the approval of Franklin Roosevelt, borrowed Douglas MacArthur, who thought he knew a way to do it. Advertising the newly-arrived general as “America’s best professional talent,” Quezon promptly dubbed MacArthur “Field Marshal of the Philippines” and assigned to him the task of making those defenseless islands impregnable to attack – by 1946.

Screenshot 2021-10-17 041119
Appointed Field Marshal of the Philippine Army in 1936, his job was to revamp, modernize and enlarge the native army. Here he reviews some Filipino troops in ceremony at Manila.

Some people were quick to suggest that either MacArthur was being sold a bill of goods by a busted government, or that MacArthur would bust Quezon selling him a bill of goods, since, they claimed, not even the U.S. Army and Navy units there, together with the Philippine Army, could hope to defend the Philippines. Left-wingers squawked that MacArthur intended to help his old pal Quezon:

…establish a dictatorship in the Philippines under the protection of American-sponsored soldiers…

Washington society, after its first snickers over MacArthur’s wonderfully high-sounding title of “Field Marshal,” settled comfortably back to forgetting again about the Philippines – and MacArthur. And even when Americans began to think about the Philippines again this year, they didn’t think of MacArthur. For after all he was only in charge of some half-trained Filipinos, and other U.S. generals and admirals were out there commanding U.S. troops.

And then suddenly one day – the day was July 26, 1941 – the President of the United States dropped a bombshell in the Pacific by appointing Douglas MacArthur to be Commanding General of all the U.S. Armed Forces in the Far East, called USAFFE. MacArthur quit being a Field Marshal and took rank as Lieutenant General USA – next in rank only to Chief of Staff George Marshall in Washington. At the same time, President Roosevelt (1) summoned the Army of the Philippine Commonwealth to the U.S. colors and (2) rushed out to MacArthur one of the biggest forces of bombers and super-bombers the U.S. has so far been able to assemble anywhere outside the hemisphere.

With his new staff, MacArthur (seated) posed for this picture after President Roosevelt made him Far East commander last July. He felt like “an old dog in a new uniform.” At left of MacArthur is Gen. R. K. Sutherland, his able chief of staff.

When President Roosevelt chose Douglas MacArthur to be head fighting man in the Far East, he wrote a new chapter head in the history of World War II. Reading the news in the Netherlands Indies, Dutch Chief of Staff Hein ter Poorten must have sighed in sudden relief. In Singapore, weary old Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, Air Marshal and Military Commander of Great Britain’s Far Eastern Forces, no doubt snored peacefully for the first night in a long year. In Chungking, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek may have murmured, after four long years of war:

America wakes at last!

For the Allied powers sensed that in Tokyo this chapter head would cause many a fan-tooth naval jaw to drop and many a military bandy leg to buckle. The warlords of Tokyo knew that MacArthur was not only one of America’s ablest World War I field soldiers, he was also a man who, both before and since 1918, had thoroughly understood the vital importance of the Philippines to Asia and America.

In MacArthur’s luxurious penthouse on top of the Manila Hotel, in the early summer of 1939, an officer then in the U.S. Philippine Department and the Field Marshal were having a long and painful heart-to-heart talk. As author of the ambitious Ten-Year Military Plan, as perhaps the only American military proponent of the theory that the Philippines could hold their own in any immediate scramble for them, MacArthur sensed that in the telescopic eyes of history, he was already “on the spot.” Pacing in his accustomed leonine style among the tropical potted palms that line like sentinels the penthouse parapets, he faced the unhappy facts: The original brave impetus of the inauguration of the Philippine Commonwealth that had first inspired President Quezon in 1935 to arm his borning nation was rapidly being lost. The $8,000,000-a-year military budget promised him for the building of an army had been steadily whittled. There was political sniping at him from socialistic groups within the country. There was overt pressure to liquidate him by pork-barrel Filipino politicos who wanted more and more money for “public works.” There was pressure from Tokyo to dismiss him. Tokyo constantly reassured the Quezon administration of “friendly intentions,” which were in jeopardy only because of “that leading Japanophobe,” Field Marshal MacArthur. Above all, there was the apathy of Washington and the American public. All these were conspiring to sabotage Gen. MacArthur’s plans.

According to the Philippine Department officer’s report, Field Marshal MacArthur burst into language as colorful as the sunset over Mariveles Mountain. He damned military myopia at home and abroad, and flatly predicted that, if it were not remedied, the Philippines must drop like an overripe plum into the Japanese basket.

The officer asked the Field Marshal:

Well, what do you care?

…thinking, perhaps with a touch of envy, that this 59-year-old retired general had already enjoyed all the honors and excitements that can ever come a soldier’s way:

Personally, you’ve done the best you could.

MacArthur, with a wife and characteristically dramatic sweep of the arm that embraced not only Manila Bay and its Gibraltar, fortified Corregidor, but the wide China Sea and the entire Malay Archipelago beyond, is supposed to have replied:

Personally – I must not fail! Too much of the world’s future depends upon success here. These islands may not be the door to the control of the Pacific, they may not be even the lock to the door. But they are surely the key to the lock that opens the door – for America. I dare not allow that key to be lost!

MacArthur’s language is sometimes rhetorical but his behavior is usually realistic. From the day he landed in the islands to organize their defense, he had in fact proceeded as though he had seen in a crystal ball the Japanese landing at Hainan. The problem that faced him was technically complex: it was to build in a peaceful agricultural nation of 16,000,000 people an effective modern military machine, to create, literally from scratch, a respectable army, well-clothed, provisioned, equipped and housed, as well as a much bigger potential civilian army which could be called swiftly into being at the threat of attack on the Islands. MacArthur worked persistently toward this goal. And last July, it was a pleasant surprise to the American people to learn that by the spring of 1942, the Philippine government would be able to contribute to the U.S. 125,000 well-trained and fairly well-equipped Filipino soldiers. He had, in addition, founded at Baguio a military academy modeled in miniature on his beloved West Point. He had also informed the nucleus of an air force, turning out 150 Filipino pilots trained by the same rigid methods in force at Randolph or Kelly Field.

Trained in U.S. methods, like the use of pontoon bridges (above), Philippine Army has approximately 1,600 regulars, 125,000 reserves.

American games, like basketball and this intercompany bowling tournament, are played by the Filipino Army which has been Americanized under Field Marshal MacArthur.

In the days of appeasement, all of this received scant recognition. Some Americans living in Manila were even wont to refer derogatorily to MacArthur as “the Napoleon of Luzon.” To many of Manila’s Pacific Appeasers, sitting on fan-cooled porches of the Polo Club and Army and Navy Club, perspiring gently over their iced gimlets, the Field Marshal and his sweating “little Native Army” may well have seemed opéra bouffe. But MacArthur knew that the Filipino is one of the toughest soldiers on earth. At the turn of the century, it took 100,000 American troops two years to quell the badly-equipped, poorly-organized Filipino insurgents. And if his equipment was pitiful, the fault was certainly not his. At home, the U.S. Army itself didn’t have the stuff.

By creating his “little Native Army,” the Field Marshal had rendered an outstanding service to the Philippines and to the USA. MacArthur induced in the Filipinos an active desire to defend the Philippines – which for years it hardly seemed likely an isolationist USA would even in a pinch do for them. He infected them with his own courage and vaulting optimism and won their hard loyalty, and by so doing helped to keep them from sinking, in apathy or terror, into the arms of Japanese diplomats. The President’s appointment was not only a recognition of heretofore publicly unrecognized services to American prestige in the Orient. It was also a notification to the world that in this area of Axis marauding, the U.S. meant business.

‘He’s a hell-to-breakfast baby’

In days of “international amity,” democratic peoples tend to accord professional soldiers the same degree of social respect extended to local fire chiefs. The People’s Army runs down, and the people run down their army. But when the winds of war begin to blow, the people look about them to see who and where their fighting men are. They ask of one another urgently:

Say, have we got any good generals?

MacArthur’s record might be summarized by the remark of an AEF private made in 1918:

He’s a hell-to-breakfast baby, long and lean, who can spit nickels and chase Germans as well as any doughboy in the Rainbow.

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At West Point in 1903, he graduated with highest scholastic rating attained in 25 years. He was also on the baseball team.

MacArthur graduated as second lieutenant of engineers at the head of the West Point Class of 1903, in which stiff competition had been provided by Ulysses Grant III, grandson of the Civil War general. He piled up the highest scholastic record made at the Point in 25 years and, as a plebe, in spite of the race with Grant for top honors, found time to break another West Point record by getting “engaged” to eight girls at one, seven having been the previous cadet record. MacArthur denies this story, saying he was at noontime aware of having been so “heavily engaged by the enemy.”

As youngest Superintendent of West Point in the Academy’s history, MacArthur was visited by Edward, Prince of Wales, in 1920.

After a spectacular performance as commander of the Rainbow Division in France, in 1919 he was appointed Superintendent of West Point, the youngest man ever to hold that position. In 1925, he became the youngest active major general in the Army, and when, in 1930, Hoover made him Chief of Staff, he was still a military prodigy: youngest Chief of Staff the country had ever had, the only one to be reappointed for an additional year, and thus the one who held that top-flight Army job longest. Coincidentally, at the age of 50, he was the youngest living U.S. four-star general, a rank therefore held only by Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Pershing, Bliss, March and Summerall.

Like George Washington, who wrote to his mother:

I heard the bullets whistle, and believe me there is something charming in the sound.

…MacArthur is a lover of the art of war. This was perhaps childhood condition. He says his earliest recollection is the sound of Army bugles. He was born Jan. 26, 1880 on his father’s post at Little Rock Barracks, Arkansas, and he claims to remember his mother and a company sergeant protecting him, at the age of 4, from Indians with bows and arrows raiding his father’s Army barracks in New Mexico. As a young boy, MacArthur gobbled up with his breakfast porridge much melodramatic lore of the Civil War, as well as many a sound professional lecture on Civil War tactics and strategy. His father, Gen. Arthur MacArthur, was a Wisconsinite of Scotch ancestry, who in 1861 had joined the 24th Wisconsin Infantry in the Army of the Union as a lieutenant, emerged with four wounds as a colonel (“The Boy Colonel of the West”) and, by that time himself in love with the art of war, decided to remain in the Army. MacArthur Sr. saw action in the Philippines during 1898-1901: in 1900, he was made commander of the Philippine Division.

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His father, Gen. Arthur MacArthur, resembled Theodore Roosevelt in looks. Like his son, he headed U.S. Army in the Philippines.

Long before Douglas MacArthur ever dreamed of being a general, much less a field marshal, Father MacArthur was minding his Ps and Qs – Philippines and Quezon – in the Pacific. It was to Gen. Arthur MacArthur that a young Filipino insurgent major surrendered his sword in 1901. Thirty-five years later, this same Filipino, Manuel Quezon, now 1st President of the Philippines, gave the general’s son the gold baton of a Philippine field marshal.

His father’s death was stranger than fiction

In 1900, Gen. Arthur MacArthur was appointed Military Governor of the Philippines. Almost before the guns stopped firing on the Insurrectos, Arthur MacArthur had begun installing a system of education, law and justice for the Islands. He was perhaps entirely responsible for the fact that Filipinos enjoy that basic right of all free men: the writ of habeas corpus. He also advocated (40 years ago) military training for the Filipinos. The organization of the famous Philippine Scouts of today – the fightingest men in the Pacific – was founded by him.

The circumstances of Lt. Gen. Arthur MacArthur’s death in 1912 outdo in drama anything that even his son has achieved. Against doctor’s orders, he had insisted on attending in Milwaukee the 50th Annual Reunion of his regiment of the Grand Army of the Republic. There, in the banquet hall, he was called upon to make a speech, and minted the platform to deliver what he began prophetically by saying was to be his last tribute to his old comrades in arms. As he reached his fiery peroration, his voice suddenly faltered, he swayed – and he dropped dead. There was a shocked silence in the hall. Then his old adjutant, who stood beside him, took the tattered and blood-stained flag of the regiment, cast it over the dead general – and, piling drama on drama, himself fell lifeless over his beloved chief’s body.

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His mother, shown with a photograph of her son, died in 1935 at the age of 82, after medicine flown to Manila failed to save her life.

In the years between his own first service in the Philippines in 1903, and the days of America’s entrance into the World War, the rise of Douglas MacArthur up the military ladder was steady if not spectacular. In 1914, Douglas MacArthur was with Gen. Funston in Veracruz. Disguised as a “Mexican bum,” he reconnoitered voluntarily behind the Mexican lines to locate three available locomotives for his general. He located them. But what he remembers with most pleasure about this incident was that his “liaison” behind the enemy lines was a helpful young German Legation official named Franz von Papen.

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During the Mexican campaign, MacArthur (arrow) was a captain. Disguised as a “bum,” he captured locomotives behind the lines.

In World War, he fought alongside French (above), in 1918 became the commander of 42nd (“Rainbow”) Division which he named.

MacArthur has been called “the D’Artagnan of the AEF,” “the Beau Brummel of the Army,” “the Disraeli of Chiefs of Staff,” “the Buck Private’s Gary Cooper.” One World War reporter in a flight of patriotic fancy wrote:

You could tell he was a soldier, even in a fur coat or a bathing suit.

Currently MacArthur, dressed in a bathing suit and standing by the blue-tiled swimming pool of the Manila Hotel, might not look obstreperously “military.” White-skinned and lean, his shoulders are narrow and sloping. His nervous hands are small. His hair, once black and thick, is now black and thin, and combed from left ear to right, across the top of a narrow forehead. His face is intellectual, aesthetic, rather than martial. But whether MacArthur in bathing trunks looks like a movie fan’s idea of a warrior is not important. In sharkskin or shorts, khaki or cutaway, MacArthur has a soldier’s courage. It has been written into the record in the form of two World War wound stripes, 13 decorations for gallantry under fire, and seven citations.

His penthouse apartment on top of Manila Hotel overlooks poll in which he swims. His living room is lined with books and autographed photographs of famous soldiers.

While the doughboys were singing in the bloody trenches,

The General got the Croix de Guerre, parley-voo
The General got the Croix de Guerre,
The so-and-so was never there, Hinky-dinky-parley-voo.

…the men of the 42nd Division knew that their Gen. MacArthur was very much there. Wearing an overseas cap instead of the safer (and regulation) steel helmet, “the Fiery Arkansan” was reckless to the point of accompanying his troops on raids into enemy trenches. On one such occasion, he escorted an unwilling German officer back across no man’s land with the aid of nothing more than a riding crop.

His immediate commander, Gen. Menoher, wrote Gen. Pershing:

The contributions made to our military establishment by this General Officer have already had far-reaching effects. He has stood for the actual physical command of large bodies of troops in battle – not for a day but for day’s duration, and I believe has actually commanded larger bodies of troops on the battle line than any other officer in our Army, with, in each instance, conspicuous success.

His eloquence astounds listeners

MacArthur’s gift of words, his flair of dramatizing incidents, as well as his sound military understanding, stood the young officer in good stead as Press Relations Officer on the General Staff in 1915. After World War I, his instinctive preference for ten-dollar words delivered in a million-dollar manner developed rapidly into a penchant for oratory and he speedily became the most effective and spectacular speaker and writer the Army had. Rumor in the Philippines has it that his reports from 1936-41 to the War Department made such good reading by contrast with duller reports that in simple gratitude for a few literate hours he got command of the USAFFE. His knowledge of military history is profound and his memory of that prodigious sort that gives a man’s subordinates the creeps, so accurately can he quote, days later, a report, a record, a book, a conversation. In conversation, the general is positively pyrotechnic. Changing at will from a mellifluous melodramatic whisper to a fiery snort, from brutal fact to flight of sheer rodomontade, he uses phrases like “We must foil the enemy,” “We stand on the eve of a great battle,” “We must not spill our precious blood on foreign soil in vain, in vain!” Intelligent listeners, however, rarely fail to perceive that beneath this baroque façade of rhetoric, MacArthur’s ideas generally make shattering sense. His eloquence – and his wisdom – reached a peak during the years from 1930 to 1935 when he was Chief of Staff. Winston Churchill’s compilation of his own unheeded warnings to the Empire, While England Slept, could be, if not matched in literary style, surely surpassed in military value by a compilation of MacArthur’s warnings to the Senate, the Congress, the public, while America was not only sleeping, but snoring.

He returned to Philippines for the second time in 1925 when, like his father, he was the commander of Philippine Division.

As Army Chief of Staff from 1930 to 1935, MacArthur saw much of Roosevelt and Secretary of War Dern (above). “It is undefended riches which provoke war,” he warned.

In 1930, everywhere in the Western world, even in Germany, military ardor was at a low ebb. Nevertheless from 1930-35, as U.S. Chief of Staff, he repeatedly and eloquently warned private Senate or Congressional committees, the President, the State Department and the public, that American defenses had fallen into an abysmal state of obsolescence and disrepair, and that projected economies would deliver them a death blow. Long before Göring or Goebbels had become words with which to frighten naughty children, at West Point graduation exercises, MacArthur was bitterly counseling against “retrenchment which cripples national defense and ceases to be economy.” He said that unless:

…an effort is made to curb or combat the unabashed and unsound propaganda of the peace cranks… a score of nations will soon be ready for the sack of America.

He visited Europe in 1931 as Chief of the U.S. General Staff. Here he is shown while visiting the Tomb of the Polish Unknown Soldier.

He was kissed by Maginot, builder of line, in French ceremony (1931).

MacArthur foresaw not only the inevitability of war, he also foresaw the kind of highly mechanized war it would be, and projected in exact specification after specification the sort of equipment and training a nation would need to win such a war. With Cassandra-like insistency, he warned Congress that the next war would be mobile warfare. He pled unceasingly for a giant air force, for tanks, trucks and motorized columns.

With national pacifism rampant, the typical reaction to MacArthur’s preparedness campaign was that of a wag who suggested that his eagerness to motorize the Army was due to the well-known fact that the general, from his cadet days, has always hated to ride a horse. MacArthur, however, backed by President Roosevelt, managed to do some Army modernizing. He fought for and achieved the General Headquarters Air Force.

The Bonus Army collides with MacArthur

MacArthur has always been too colorful and controversial a figure not to have acquired some enemies. He has been accused of being a swaggerer, swashbuckler and a backslapper; dictatorial, self-opinionated, austere, obstinate and aggressive. He has been criticized for his long matinee-idol cigarette holders (which in later years he has abandoned for Corona Coronas), for his sartorial effects when in mufti and the plum-colored ties he wears when in khaki (he promoted the introduction of the open-jacket and soft collar into the Army), for the consciously rakish tilt at which he wears his heavily-brassed hat. The late Floyd Gibbons wrote that it was:

…just the tilt which permitted his personality to emerge, without violating Army regulations.

Even in the muck and grime of the French front, MacArthur always managed to look as though he were on dress parade, often wearing Errol Flynnish black turtleneck sweaters which did not show trench mud. One colleague remembers that in France, when he climbed over a barbed-wire fence in a raid and returned with a rent in the seat of his britches, even the tear seemed either slyly or luckily contrived to expose one thigh and half a rump, rather than the whole of man’s most ridiculous aspect. MacArthur’s detractors also like to dwell upon the only incident in his whole career which seems to reflect discredit upon him: “the only time,” according to a brother West Pointer, “Doug ever took his finger off his number.” This was the inglorious “Victory of Anacostia Flats” in 1932 when, on horseback at the head of his troops, Four-Star General MacArthur drove the ragged Bonus Army out of Washington.

After “Victory of Anacostia Flats” when he evicted the Bonus Army from Washington in 1932, he drank coffee with tired troops.

The true story of the eviction of the Bonus Marchers has never been written. MacArthur could, if he would, write it but neither at that time, nor since, has he ever publicly sought to defend himself, or “pass the buck” to Hoover. A true record would show that at no time did Hoover consult MacArthur about the eviction, nor was there any military precedent by which MacArthur could “advise” Hoover. It was at the urgent direct request of the “City Fathers,” the District of Columbia Commissioners, to President Hoover – and over the previous advice of Gen. MacArthur, who had strongly urged against the use of force – that the President was obliged to call out the troops. The Bonus Marchers, claimed the City Fathers, had not only become a public nuisance, but their ranks were being daily swelled by organized communist groups of demonstrators and street brawlers, and they had gotten entirely out of the hands of Glassford’s local police force. When Secretary of War Hurley told Gen. MacArthur that, following the demand of the City Fathers to restore public order, a telephone call had come from the White House, he coupled this brief information with a military order to “act at once to clear them out.” MacArthur did not pause to weigh any political scruples he may have had, nor even to point out that a soldier is supposed to have none. That the ensuing action was accomplished without a shot fired by MacArthur’s troops, although there were two dead, 55 injured, is something MacArthur is still proud of.

During the actual eviction, although it had been prearranged with MacArthur that he and Walter W. Waters, the Bonus Army leader, would keep in touch, so “no one would be hurt,” Waters had been “shoved out,” evicted himself – by the communist elements in his own “army.” MacArthur says no orders existed, or were given, to burn the Bonus Marchers’ shacks, and in his army, he says coldly:

Nobody acts without orders.

He lays this to the organized demonstrators in the Bonus Army… Having lost contact with Waters, MacArthur did not see him again until two years later when his orderly announced to the Chief of Staff:

There’s a bum outside, but he says he’s an old soldier.

MacArthur, whose standing order was never to close his door to any old soldier, said:

Show him in.

Waters entered, down-and-out and hungry. MacArthur found a job for him.

Most criticism of MacArthur boils down to the accusation that he is “ambitious.” Those who envy him have accused him of political wire-pulling and putting pressure on friends in high places. One friend of MacArthur in a “high place” was certainly Newton D. Baker, to whom MacArthur undoubtedly owes more than to any other man – except his father. But the only “pressure” MacArthur used on Newton Baker was the impact which his brilliance and organizational ability made on the World War Secretary.

Reaching France ‘fastest with the moistest’

When Baker made Maj. MacArthur a colonel, and entrusted to him, as Chief of Staff, the formation of the famous 42nd, or Rainbow, Division, he was not deceived in the young officer’s ability. The word Rainbow was of MacArthur’s own coining: as a description of a division drawn from every state in the country, it instantly caught the popular imagination. Formed at Camp Mills, Long Island, in August 1917, the Rainbow arrived in France in October 1917, one of the first American divisions to land on French soil. But anxious though MacArthur was to get there first – and despite the fact that he was being raced by Gen. Edward’s New England 26th Division – MacArthur refused to embark until his division was completely equipped for a long, hard winter in the trenches. In fact, so well was he equipped that he had to cough up equipment to the not-nearly-so-well-turned-out 26th Division.

Another “friend in a high place” was MacArthur’s belligerently Republican multimillionaire father-in-law, Edward T. Stotesbury. In 1922, while MacArthur was Superintendent of West Point, he met and married that old tycoon’s only stepdaughter, socialite Louise Cromwell, sister of politico-playboy James (“Doris Duke”) Cromwell. Seven years of being married into the upper reaches of the social register may well have given MacArthur some of the social ease more often found among European soldiers than American ones. But it is hard to prove that the Stotesbury influence helped rather than hurt his career. And the fact remains that it was a good year after Louise Cromwell divorced him amicably in 1929 in Reno that Herbert Hoover made him Chief of Staff. And the Stotesburian era was an echo from the economic grave when Franklin Roosevelt reappointed him for an additional year in 1934. He has been accused of trying to wangle his own reappointment for a second tour. It was precedent-busting Franklin Roosevelt himself who wanted to keep MacArthur. Apparently, even in those days, President Roosevelt did not entirely believe in the Dämmerung of World War heroes. After MacArthur’s retirement as Chief of Staff to what, so far as the U.S. was concerned, looked like military obscurity, made doubly obscure by his leaving for the Philippines, Roosevelt still continued to muse nostalgically over his departed soldier. The President was quoted as having said:

I must always find a way to keep MacArthur close to me. If we ever have another AEF, he’s the man to take it over…


‘The Knights of MacArthur’s Round Table’

Today at the general’s headquarters, in the steamy tropical heat, hardly stirred by lazy propeller-bladed fans, the lights burn long and late. And when they are turned out, the general carried away a fat briefcase of “homework,” the contents of which he digests while pacing up and down in his bedroom and bathroom, much to the annoyance of tenants on the floor beneath. In his headquarters, surrounded by his new and locally-created staff of nine, called by Filipino wits the Knights of MacArthur’s Round Table, he works feverishly over plans for hospitalization, supplies, barracks, transportation, depots, for the combined Filipino and American forces. It is no secret that U.S. white troops have been quadrupled since the MacArthur appointment; that tanks by the dozens have rolled off ships and clanged up Manila boulevards on many a moonless midnight in the last rainy season; that at least nine Flying Fortresses have zoomed to roost at Clark Field, and that a great bomber command is being built up at Philippine airfields. The general’s long-cherished plans for the defense of the islands are daily being implemented. There are constant conferences with Four-Star Adm. Hart, with American military missions en route to Chungking and Moscow, with bomber-commuting Brooke-Popham from Singapore, and with President Quezon and High Commissioner Sayre, ironing out difficulties that arise between civilian and military needs and interests. And there are maneuvers at strategic “invasion points” on Luzon, at Forts Stotsenburg and McKinley. Gen. MacArthur has already begun his long-planned “war games” in the Philippines.

Strategy of the Pacific was recently discussed in Manila by Quezon (left), MacArthur (in the background) and Air Chief Marshal Brooke-Popham, British C-in-C at Singapore.

MacArthur lives in a big, showy, air-conditioned apartment in top of the five-story Manila Hotel. For an aspiring politician, it would be a fine place to throw parties for visiting firemen and local bigwigs, but the general, when he entertains, entertains unobtrusively and choosily. Only good friends, Filipino and American, know his great living room, lined with rich books and personally-inscribed photographs of most of the famous soldiers of his times, in wide, rich silver frames, or have dined at his great mahogany table, heavy with old-fashioned silverware. An omnivorous reader, his other pleasure is attending the Manila movies with his wife.

Jean Faircloth MacArthur is the general’s second wife. They were married in 1937.

Arthur MacArthur, the general’s only son, is 3 and is going to be a soldier too.

The second Mrs. MacArthur, the former Jean Faircloth of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, whom he met in Manila in 1935, is a small, attractive woman many years his junior. To the casual observer, the MacArthurs’ married manners are a trifle Victorian. She calls him, not “Douglas,” but always, with soft Dixie infliction, “General.” He calls her, with kingly courtesy, “Ma’am.” They have a sturdy, handsome 3-year-old son, named after his grandfather, Arthur MacArthur, whose Chinese amah has strangely bequeathed him a British accent. But the general says, whether little MacArthur says “bawth” or “bath,” he’s still going to be an American soldier.

One wonders if MacArthur, the crystal gazer, can look into his own future as clearly as he has his son’s – and his country’s. At 61, he is leaner in fiber and tougher in spirit than most Army men ten years his junior, and he could spot the average politician 15 or 20. Come peace, he may well be forced into that innocuous desuetude democracies reserve for their professional soldiers. But come war…?

Today, Gen. MacArthur at his headquarters of the Army of the Far East stands on the ramparts of an old Spanish fort looking out over Manila Bay where 43 years ago Dewey said so quietly:

You may fire when ready, Gridley.

That shell raised the American flag over an outpost 6,000 miles from American shores. It still waves there. But for how long? Will the Japanese try to land at the strategic spots on Luzon, Subic, Lingayen, Batangas Bay, or will their Navy try to force that tight little rock of Corregidor in the harbor? Will this island of Luzon then become a great theater of war, and Gen. MacArthur the outstanding khaki-clad figure in it? Or will peace descend upon the Pacific while the U.S. plunges into the war across the Atlantic? But come war and greater renown, or come peace and o security, leaving the general on this last rung of the military ladder he has climbed swiftly, but not unlaboriously, the world knows it can truly be said of him what an old sergeant said to a recruit he was instructing when he heard of MacArthur’s retirement from the U.S. Army in 1937:

Son, there goes a soldier.

Meanwhile, the American flag, a pretty object, still snaps in the wind over the barbed-wire-fenced headquarters of the USAFFE.

Fort Drum at the narrow entrance to Manila Bay has a cage mast similar to a battleship’s, which is equipped with searchlights and fire-control platform for its 14-in. guns.

On Corregidor Filipinos man a 12-in. gun with range of 16 miles. Another 12-incher is visible in the background. Island fortress has underground food, water and shell stores.

The Pittsburgh Press (December 8, 1941)


Clapper: Japan doomed

By Raymond Clapper

Washington –
Americans can be proud today. We can be proud that we tried to the bitter end to avoid war.

In the face of advancing savagery, the government of the United States continued to labor for peace. We tried to throw our moral weight against aggression and for the protection of all nations and for equal opportunity. We can be proud that we continued to do this until Japan struck.

Twelve hours before Japanese planes appeared over Honolulu, President Roosevelt appealed personally to the Emperor of Japan to join him in a peaceful adjustment. Even as the news of the attack was flashed to Washington, Secretary Hull was talking with the two Japanese representatives in his office. We were shot at while still in the act of seeking peace.

A strong nation can take pride in that, and in the record of patience and fair dealing. We can be proud of President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull, and of their cool and steady loyalty to those basic principles that must, after the last drop of blood has been spilled, rise again to guide nations. Our efforts were made, and that no American gun fired before we were attacked. Only today have we put on the uniform of war.

Japan’s attack united U.S.

Japan has made our decision for us. This nation hates war so deeply, is so convinced of its futility as a method of adjusting differences, that we could not take the initiative. Within the last few days, I have heard diplomats, who have participated in some of the Far Eastern discussions, express doubt that the United States would go to war even if Thailand were attacked by Japan. It would have been easy for Japan to avoid war with the United States.

But now all of our doubts, all of our reluctances, all of our hesitations have been swept away for us. Practically every leading isolationist has already been heard from. Their answer to the attack on Honolulu is that we must fight. Wheeler and Taft and McNary, leader of the Senate Republicans, have taken their stand with the government. Japan has united this country for war. Congress will very soon register the unity of this nation.

This is suicide for Japan. A desperate fourth-rate nation, the spoiled little gangster of the Orient will have to be exterminated as a power. Japan has asked for it and now she will get it.

Victory must bring new era

Japan could have joined the United States and Great Britain as one of three controlling sea powers of the globe. Her geography and economic situation made that her logical course. Japan can live only by sea trade. But she has chosen to war with the two other sea powers. She preferred to take her chances with armed force just as Germany has done.

Japan chose to live by the sword and she will die by the sword. Japan will be blasted, bombed, burned, starved. Her people will suffer ghastly tortures. A nation which had possibilities of becoming one of the rulers of the world will be reduced to a pitiful huddling people on a poor little group of islands.

The modern world can no longer tolerate the anarchy of conquest by force. The two nations most addicted to this barbarism are Germany and Japan. They must be disarmed. Force must be hereafter kept in the hands of nations that will use it to bring about a peaceful world.

We will come out of this war with fighting strength the like of which has never been seen. We will have plenty of it for our protection. I hope we will use it also in cooperation with other nations so that no power can again commit such an assault against the peace as Japan has just been guilty of.

This war must be fought until Japanese military strength is exterminated.

But more than that must come out of it. Our victory must be used to bring about a new era of benevolent force which will secure for all men and women and their children a new kind of peace in which the human race can progress toward that happier life which science and industry have made possible.

America can open that door.

Los Angeles mans anti-aircraft guns

Los Angeles, California (UP) –
All aircraft observation posts and anti-aircraft guns were ordered immediately manned by observers in an order issued last night by Brig. Gen. William O. Ryan, commanding general of the 4th Interceptor Command, which has jurisdiction over the southwestern portion of the United States.

The statement said:

To chief observers of all observation posts AWS:
You are directed to activate your observation posts immediately and to see that the posts are fully manned at all times.

Commanding General
4th Interceptor Command

Declarations of war

By United Press

Declarations of war since Japan’s attack on the United States:

  • United States on Japan.
  • Japan on the United States and Great Britain.
  • Great Britain on Japan.
  • Nicaragua on Japan.
  • Canada on Japan.
  • The Netherlands on Japan.
  • Honduras on Japan.
  • Costa Rica on Japan.
  • Manchukuo on the United States.
  • Free France on Japan.
  • Haiti on Japan.
  • Belgian government-in-exile on Japan.

Imminent declarations:

  • South Africa on Japan.
  • Australia on Japan.
  • Chungking on Japan and the Axis.
  • Cuba on Japan.

This war different; not started in April

Active entrance in World War II marks the first time since the War of 1812 with Britain that the United States has begun a war in any month other than April.

Starting dates for the six previous wars were:

  • Revolution – April 19, 1775
  • War of 1812 – June 18, 1812
  • War with Mexico – April 15, 1846
  • Civil War – April 15, 1861
  • War with Spain – April 21, 1898
  • World War I – April 6, 1917

Isolationists change views as Japs attack

Wheeler: Bombs mean war and we’ll have to see it through
By John R. Beal, United Press staff writer

Washington –
Isolationist sentiment in Congress disappeared today almost without a trace.

The men who have fought President Roosevelt’s foreign policy joined his supporters in calling for war in answer to Japan’s attack.

Senator Burton K. Wheeler (D-MT), spearhead of Congressional opposition to President Roosevelt, said the Japanese bombs dropped at Pearl Harbor “mean war and we’ll have to see it through.”

Senator Gerald P. Nye (R-ND) said in a speech at Pittsburgh that:

If the facts are presented, there is only one thing for Congress to do – declare war.

Mr. Nye, however, was critical of administration conduct of the negotiations with Japan, accusing the government of “doing its utmost to provoke a quarrel” with her.

Party lines erased

But most members of the non-interventionist bloc put aside recriminations as out of place now that attack has come to the United States. One after another, wherever the news reached them, those who have been associated with opposition to the government’s program of aid “short of war” urged that the nation use its resources to the utmost to defend itself.

Party lines were declared erased for the duration of the war. Senate Republican Leader Charles L. McNary of Oregon said as he left last night’s White House conference that:

The Republicans will go along on whatever is done.

House Republican Leader Joseph W. Martin Jr. (MA) added that the minority members of the House:

…naturally resent the cowardly attack by Japan and will support the President in his effort to maintain the integrity of the United States.

Attack aids unity

The consensus was that the method of Japan’s attack amounted to invasion and could not have brought greater instant unity to the nation than if it had been calculated for this purpose.

This is how some of the outstanding Congressional foreign policy opponents reacted to the Japanese bombings:

Chairman David I. Walsh (D-MA) of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee said:

The unexpected and unprovoked attacks upon United States territory and ships and the formal declaration of war by Japan leave Congress no choice but to take speedy and decisive measures to defend our country. We must promptly meet the challenge with all our resources and all our courage, and place our faith in God to protect us in this hour of national peril.

Rep. Hamilton Fish (R-NY), one of the bitterest of the President’s opponents, said he intended to appeal in the House for complete support from all factions.

Senator Robert A. Taft (R-OH) said:

Undivided and unlimited prosecution of the war must show that no one can safely attack the American people.

Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg (R-MI) called for “a victorious war with every resource at our command.”


After America was at war –
America Firsters jeer President as Nye and others conceal awful truth

Army colonel ejected as he tried to tell of Jap attack
By Adam Smyser

The Japanese attack edged dramatically into a three-hour meeting of the America First Committee yesterday, but even when the strained session ended, the audience was still applauding declarations for peace.

The America Firsters hardened to hecklers by this time – even booed a colonel in the U.S. Army (wearing civilian clothes) out of their meeting when he tried to break the news of the Japanese attack, and it was a full hour later that they finally heard the news in a brief note read by Senator Gerald P. Nye, one of the isolationist leaders.

The weird meeting started in the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Memorial Hall at 3 p.m. ET, just early enough for the audience of 2,800 not to have heard radio flashes of the attacks on Hawaii.

But the full retinue of speakers knew the truth – newsmen had rushed up to them with press-association and radio flashes and had quizzed them for reactions that were guarded and cautious.

Senator Nye said:

If Japan attacked, there is nothing left for Congress to do but declare war.

…adding that:

It wouldn’t change my non-interventionist opinions materially on the European war.

When the meeting started, the audience was still unaware that the United States had been attacked.

American flags waved from all corners of the hall. “NO WAR” said a sign on the speaker’s podium. And on the wall over the heads of the speakers, in strong red letters, was Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.

With no hint of the startling news, the meeting proceeded on its strained way.

Through choral selections by the Bellevue Methodist Church choir; an invocation by Rev. John McKavney of St. John The Evangelist Church; an appeal by Attorney John B. Gordon, Pittsburgh America First chairman, not to be afraid to stand for peace:

This is America. All shades of opinion are entitled to be heard.

Irene Castle McLaughlin, dancing widow of dancing Vernon Castle, knew the startling news when she took the stand for her first America First talk, but she didn’t mention it.

While she spoke – telling of her husband who was killed in World War I and of a son she doesn’t want to sacrifice in another war – a U.S. colonel, Enrique Urrutia Jr., and his wife walked into the meeting.

Col. Urrutia, executive officer of the Pittsburgh military reserve area, had heard of the Japanese attack before he started out on a Sunday stroll. He sat inquiringly through the talk of Mrs. McLaughlin and through the opening remarks of the next speaker, ex-State Senator C. Hale Sipe, D-Freeport.

When Mr. Sipe wound up a denunciation of Stalin and Harry Hopkins with the dramatically intoned statement that “the chief warmonger in the United States is the President of the United States,” the audience broke into wild applause and Col. Urrutia exploded.

He bounced up from his seat:

Mr. Speaker, please, can I ask a question? I wonder if the audience knows that Japan has attacked us and that Manila and Pearl Harbor have been bombed by the Japanese.

The boos and jeers that America First is accustomed to give to those who interrupt drowned out most of his words.

The crowd shouted:

Get out, you don’t belong here.

Police and ushers hustled down the aisle to the colonel, who was not in uniform.

He told them he was an Army colonel. They told him to get out. Outside, he showed them his credentials and they changed their attitude. He left anyway, after explaining that his wife and he merely had been on their daily walk and dropped in on the meeting out of curiosity.

Before he left, the colonel exploded once more:

This is a meeting of traitors.

But that had happened in the lobby and the audience for the most part was still ignorant of the amazing news the speakers kept to themselves.

Ex-Senator Sipe went on with his talk, still blasting the interventionist leaders. He called Wendell Willkie “the mouthpiece of Roosevelt” and Secretary of War Henry Stimson, he said, “sleeps at cabinet meetings.”

America First passed its collection baskets, asking for a dollar from each person. Frank T. Stockdale, treasurer of the Pittsburgh chapter of America First, said:

If it had not been for the America First Committee, we would be in the war at this time.

When Senator Nye, the featured speaker, finally got a chance to talk, the meeting was almost two hours old. It was 4:50 p.m. (and for two hours previously, the speakers knew that America had been attacked).

Wild cheering greeted his announcement that:

Never, never, never again must America let herself be made such a monkey of as she was 25 years ago.

Newsmen who knew what had happened kept asking themselves what he would say of the Japanese attack. The answer seemed like “nothing.”

The isolationist Senator hit at the church for denouncing war six years ago and condoning it now. He called The Chicago Tribune’s story of a five-million-man AEF an “accurate revelation.”

He said:

Crush Hitler if you will, but what will you have destroyed? You will have destroyed a result, not a cause. We went forth and crucified Kaiserism and got Hitlerism.

He lampooned the national debt, said America was fighting Britain’s war, quoted figures to show Britain had suffered fewer casualties than any of its important allies and hit at the American draft.

Finally, at 5:20 p.m., a reporter walked to the stage with a note for the Senator. It told of the Japanese declaration of war.

The Senator looked at it, took off his glasses, nodded his head, and kept on with his peace speech. He seemed frustrated.

He laughed at the U.S. destroyer-base deal, talked about Canadian hog prices and said:

We are scared to death that if the British Navy falls, we are done for. The only navy on earth that we have ever had to prepare against is that same British Navy. May God forbid the day that ever finds us placing dependence on any other nation than our own.

Then he veered toward Japan.

He talked of British propaganda in the last war. The English propagandists concluded, he said, that:

Perhaps the only way we can get the United States on our side in the next war is to make certain that Japan is against Britain.

He told the audience:

You have seen a studied effort to pick war with Japan.

He paused, and then picked up the note.

Mr. Nye said:

I have the worst news that I have had in 20 years to report this afternoon. The Japanese Imperial Government at 4:00 p.m. announced a state of war between it and the United States and Britain.

The audience was stunned.

Only one voice was heard:

Throw the President out!

The Senator said:

I am going to withhold any comment until I can find out what this is all about.

He switched to a talk on the USS Greer torpedoing, which he said was provoked by the United States. He said President Roosevelt had misled the American people into believing it was unprovoked.

He shouted:

I don’t know what I may be privileged to say to do tomorrow. But today I can say it and I am going to say it – THAT IS CHEATING!

The audience broke into applause and it cheered again as he said that:

Christianity and intervention are as completely opposite as anything under God.

Crowds buzzed up to talk to the Senator after the closing services. A newspaperman cornered him first:

Do you think Britain will help us now, Senator?

Senator Nye said:

Yes. The same way she helped Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Said the smiling friends:

That was a wonderful talk, Senator.

Will there be printed copies of it available?

I want to congratulate you, Senator.

It looked as though it was going to take the Monday newspapers to prove the jolting truth – America was at war.


Nye says Roosevelt ‘cheats’ U.S.

Five hours after Japan declared war upon the United States, U.S. Senator Gerald P. Nye (R-ND), chief senatorial isolationist, told a Pittsburgh audience President Roosevelt’s address on the Greer incident was “cheating.”

The utterance was made last night before more than 600 persons in the First Baptist Church, Bellefield Ave., after he had been introduced by its pastor, Rev. Dr. Bernard C. Clausen.

‘Why, he’s pro-Nazi’

In closing his talk, however, Senator Nye left off from his blasting of Roosevelt and the policies which the speaker said had led us to war by saying that if the facts are as presented, there is but one thing for Congress to do: Declare war against Japan.

Not once was there a protesting note struck while Senator Nye spoke. Afterward, when he had retired to Rev. Dr. Clausen’s study preparatory to leaving for Washington with his wife by train, many of those leaving the church were outspoken in their comment.

One woman was heard to exclaim:

Why, he’s pro-Nazi.

Another remarked:

He should be ashamed of himself, in times like these.

Senator Nye said:

The President told you the Greer was attacked. He said the Greer was on the way to Iceland with mail for our sons. That was cheating. Write to your Senator and have him send you a copy of this letter, of Adm. Stark, which shows the Greer, informed by a British airplane, hunted down the submarine until it fired twice blindly.

‘Never such betrayal’

I feel I have the right to say this without injuring my country. This country has been doing the utmost to provoke a quarrel with Japan. Negotiations for peace? At every turn our negotiators denied the Japanese representatives a chance to “save their face.” They wouldn’t give them a chance to agree with the U.S.

If we were bluffing, then our hands have been called. Now we have war there and it will be only a backdoor to war elsewhere. There never has been such betrayal; there never has been such cheating to accomplish what has been accomplished in the last two years.

Senator Nye mentioned how, years ago, a young Under Secretary of the Navy, referred to war with Japan as preposterous. Senator Nye quoted the writer as saying:

Unthought of; both sides would drop from exhaustion and it would be folly.

Then he said:

That writer was Franklin Roosevelt.

Jap attacks rile isolationist Senator

Passing through Pittsburgh today on the way to Washington, Senator Bennett Champ Clark (D-MO) was so riled by the Japanese attacks that he could not eat his breakfast.

The Missouri Senator’s previous appearance in Pittsburgh was as a speaker at a rally of the America First Committee broken up by a heckler who insisted on questioning the isolationist.

With Senator Clark today were Senator Clyde M. Reed (R-KS) and Rep. Clinton P. Anderson (D-NM). They arrived at County Airport and after a brief stopover, flew to Washington.

Planes guard Canal

Panama City, Panama –
Dozens of deadly P-40 pursuit planes droned back and forth across the Isthmus of Panama today, protecting the Panama Canal from attack. Coastal batteries are ready to go into action at a moment’s notice.


America First asks support of war


Chicago, Illinois –
The national board of directors of the America First Committee today urged its members to give full support “to the war effort of this country until the conflict with Japan is brought to a successful conclusion.”

The America First statement was issued by Clay Judson, a national director, after it had been approved by all other executive heads of the committee.

The statement:

Today the military forces of Japan have without warning attacked this nation and the Japanese government has formally declared war upon us. This must be followed by a similar declaration on the part of the United States and by all-out hostility.

The America First Committee urges all those who have subscribed to its principles to give their support to the war effort of this country until the conflict with Japan is brought to a successful conclusion.

In this war, the America First Committee pledges its aid to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States.