America at war! (1941–) – Part 4

British nearing key Italian city of Cesena

Heaviest fighting on American front
By Eleanor Packard, United Press staff writer

1,700 U.S. heavies hit three Reich cities

Kimmel and Short testify in probes

Racial equality policy urged by Judaism

Rehabilitation plan given by Rosenwald


Envoy to answer ‘Luce talk’ speech

Mrs. J. Borden Harriman, U.S. Ambassador to Norway who fled from that country just ahead of the invading Germans in 1940, will take issue with Congresswoman Clare Boothe Luce in an address tonight before the central committee of the Independents for Roosevelt, of which J. S. Crutchfield is chairman.

Mrs. Harriman will discuss “Why All This Luce Talk?” at 8:15 p.m. ET on the club floor of the William Penn Hotel.

The former envoy, chairman of the Free World Association, will “take Mrs. Luce to task for her misstatements concerning the President’s leadership in foreign affairs and national preparedness before Pearl Harbor.”

The meeting will be open to the public.


Two glamor girls in Forum debate

Agree on objective, at odds on candidate

New York (UP) –
Politics’ two glamor girls – Helen Gahagan Douglas, Democratic candidate for Representative from California, and Rep. Clare Boothe Luce (R-CT), appearing on the same speaker’s platform for the first time – agreed that world peace is 1944’s major objective, but disagreed on the presidential candidate best able to achieve it.

Speaking at the closing session of The New York Herald-Tribune Forum last night on a program at which Democrats and Republicans discussed the issues of a national election in war time, Mrs. Douglas, wife of screen actor Melvyn Douglas, talked on “The Campaign Issue,” followed by Mrs. Luce’s discussion of “Waging the Peace.”

Asserting that the “indispensable” issue of the election campaign is a philosophy – and not a man – Mrs. Douglas maintained that President Roosevelt, for seven years before the war broke, fought against isolationism.

Mrs. Luce, speaking after Mrs. Douglas, asserted that an international police force, plainly “recognized as the teeth” in any peace plan today as it was in Henry the Fourth’s day, poses the unanswered question, “who puts the bit on whom?”

Mrs. Ogden Reid, vice president of the Herald-Tribune and chairman of the forum, in a closing statement expressed regret that President Roosevelt did not appear to make the traditional final address.

She said:

Last Friday, he sent a telegram saying he would be unable to speak.


Gracie Allen Reporting

By Gracie Allen

Hollywood, California –
Lots of people are saying this political campaign isn’t being handled right, and I, for one, certainly agree with them.

For instance, I haven’t seen a single news photo of a candidate holding a baby. Goodness knows, it would be especially helpful this year, what with so many of the mothers working in war plants.

And why doesn’t one of the candidates take advantage of the cigarette shortage? Many a long face would brighten up with a cigarette in it. If they can get votes by promising “a chicken in every pot,” they should be able to start a landslide by promising “a cigarette in every pan.”

Perkins: AFL, CIO twitted by Lewis’ aide for still backing WLB

District 50 head asks why unions don’t forsake board after inaction on pay demands
By Fred W. Perkins, Pittsburgh Press staff writer


Roosevelt includes Boston in plans for stumping tour

Speeches now scheduled for three cities; quick trip to Midwest expected

Washington (UP) –
The White House today added Boston to the growing list of cities where President Roosevelt will make campaign speeches, in line with his apparent decision that the time has come to take a few direct potshots at Governor Thomas E. Dewey.

Presidential Secretary Stephen T. Early confirmed to reporters that Mr. Roosevelt will speak in Boston. He did not give the date of the appearance but reports from that city indicated it would be on Nov. 4.

Confirmation of the Boston speech brought to three the number of formal talks now on the President’s schedule. He speaks in New York Saturday night, after a day-long tour of the city. On Oct. 27, he is to address a mass meeting at Philadelphia’s Shibe Park. Furthermore, high Democratic officials expect him to make a brief stab into the Midwest, perhaps speaking in Ohio and Illinois.

Democrats irritated

Mr. Roosevelt and his campaign advisers are obviously irritated by Mr. Dewey’s use of statements by administration figures for his attacks against the New Deal. On two occasions, the White House has released compilations of “facts” making the point that the statements had been lifted from context and their meaning twisted.

The President’s speech before the Foreign Policy Association in New York Saturday is expected to be a scholarly discussion of international policy, perhaps replying to Mr. Dewey’s attack last night against the administration’s conduct of foreign affairs.

Fighting speech expected

But when he speaks at Shibe Park in Philadelphia a week from next Friday night, Mr. Roosevelt is expected to take off the gloves and follow the lugging style of his Sept. 23 speech to the AFL Teamster Union here. At stake will be Pennsylvania’s important 35 electoral votes.

Mr. Roosevelt will also be going after New York’s vital 47 electoral votes in his Saturday trip. His tour of the city before the foreign policy speech will include a stop at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn for a rally on behalf of Senator Robert F. Wagner.


GOP candidate hits ‘New Deal cynicism’

En route to Fresno, California (UP) –
Ohio Governor John W. Bricker winds up his five-day campaign for California’s 25 electoral votes tonight at Fresno where he delivers his 19th speech since entering the state.

The GOP vice-presidential nominee carries his drive into Nevada tomorrow with speeches at Reno, Sparks and Lovelock.

Bricker opened his final day in California with a speech at Bakersfield today. He also made rear-platform talks at Tulare and Selma.

He told a Los Angeles audience last night that Senator Harry S. Truman, his Democratic opponent for the Vice Presidency, bespoke “New Deal cynicism” when he admitted he had Pendergast machine support. He also said that Mr. Truman, in his speech two days prior in the same auditorium, “insulted” industry, labor and armed service personnel when he “accredited” the Roosevelt administration with “the miracle of war production – indeed for winning the war itself.”

Mr. Bricker asserted:

I want to say to you, right at the outset that these historic results have been achieved not because of the New Deal, but often in spite of the New Deal.

Citing the fact that Mr. Truman could become President, Governor Bricker condemned the Missourian for his statement that “a statesman is only a dead politician” and Mr. Truman’s disclaimer that he wanted to be “a statesman.”

The time has come to eliminate such cynicism from our political life and restore the Presidency of the United States to its rightful place of dignity and honesty.

Following his three Nevada speeches tomorrow, Governor Bricker will campaign in Utah Friday.

Dewey’s ‘straddling’ of issues attacked

En route to Seattle, Washington (UP) –
Senator Harry S. Truman completes the West Coast leg of his campaign trip today in Washington, which is acutely conscious of post-war reconversion problems.

Mr. Truman, Democratic nominee for the Vice Presidency, will appear at a Democratic rally tonight in Seattle to deliver a radio address pointed at those problems. He also expects to reiterate the administration view toward the giant Grand Coulee and Bonneville power projects which have been closely linked to industrial expansion in the Northwest.

The nominee told a Democratic rally at Portland, Oregon, last night that the projects were partly responsible for the tremendous wartime expansion of aluminum production and that they had been “bitterly opposed” by Republicans in Congress.

Mr. Truman also charged that the Republican platform and presidential candidate “straddle every issue” and asserted again that the nation needed experienced leadership to win the war and the peace.

He said:

The same old gang that tried to turn the clock back in 1920 is standing at the door waiting for a chance to come in and turn the clock back.

Mr. Truman asserted that Governor Thomas E. Dewey had embraced New Deal reforms on a tour of the West Coast but had gone to Charleston, West Virginia, and told “the Old Guard he didn’t mean it at all.”

Moving into Washington today, Mr. Truman was accompanied by Senator Mon C. Wallgren, Democratic gubernatorial nominee for that state, on a motor trip to Seattle. They planned stops at Centralia, Olympia and Tacoma.


Senators shun Teamster probe

Washington (UP) –
The Senate Campaign Expenditures Committed voted 4–1 yesterday to forego a formal investigation of the “Battle of the Statler,” deciding that nothing could be gained by delving further into the brawl between two naval officers and members of the AFL Teamsters Union.

The decision was announced by Chairman Theodore F. Green (D-RI) after a closed meeting at which members considered material uncovered by its own investigators and affidavits filed by President Daniel J. Tobin of the Teamsters and by Thomas C. Bradley, attorney for the naval officers.

Mr. Green said the affidavits were “conflicting,” that he did not know which side to believe, and that “it would be difficult to believe both.”

The lone dissenting vote was cast by Senator Homer Ferguson (R-MI), who told reporters he thought all the known facts should be given to the public.

The only detailed version has been given by the naval officers – LtCdr. James Suddeth, 33, and Lt. Randolph Dickins Jr., 23 – who contend it all started after President Roosevelt’s opening campaign address to the Teamsters dinner when union members collared them in a corridor and demanded to know how they would vote.

Mr. Green said the decision closes the matter as far as the committee is concerned and that, if any further action is taken, it can be done by the “public authority that has the duty to take such action.” He did not elaborate.

Committee members, he said, had “various reasons” for opposing an investigation.

He said:

Some believed the committee had no jurisdiction. Others said the facts developed showed as important as the public attention that had been brought to it.

Wolfert: Atlantic Wall delays stopped Allied drive at German border

British, Americans were forced to bypass key ports in order to pursue enemy
By Ira Wolfert

De Gaulle regime to be recognized

Allies doubt fighting ability of Hitler’s People’s Army


The truth about the Commies –
Communists scornful of free elections and American democracy

But they suddenly fall in love with U.S. institutions to reelect Roosevelt
By Frederick Woltman, Scripps-Howard staff writer

EDITOR’S NOTE: This is the third in a series of articles describing how American Communists, by utilizing their technique of infiltration, have burrowed into American unions, kidnaped the American Labor Party in New York, dominated the CIO Political Action Committee and made strong inroads into the New Deal administration.

Washington –
Scorn of free elections, contempt for American democracy and a cynical tolerance for Fascism, when expedient, have marked the serpentine history of the Communists whose American führer, Earl Browder, is throwing his party behind Sidney Hillman’s CIO Political Action Committee and the fourth-term campaign.

For the purpose of reelecting President Roosevelt, the Browderites have suddenly fallen in love with America’s institutions – or so they say. It wasn’t always so.

Last May 20, Browder, whose four-year federal prison sentence had been commuted by President Roosevelt after 14 months, predicted that Mr. Roosevelt’s retirement at the end of three terms “would be a disaster for our country.”

Constitution too rigid

He deplored “our rigid Constitution” which requires elections “at set intervals.” A presidential election this year, he warned, “would put a dangerous strain on the national unity.” Nevertheless, he manfully surrendered to the fact of free elections and pitched in.

In 1936, however, with the New Deal at its zenith, he yearned not in Roosevelt but for revolution. Then he urged that:

For the workers to win a real democracy for themselves they must organize the dictatorship of the proletariat against the capitalists. Just as the capitalists enjoy democracy among themselves by suppressing the toilers, so can the latter enjoy democracy only by suppressing the capitalist class.

In “this land of bourgeois democracy,” said Browder then, the “ruling class” has “openly declared” it will “abolish all civil liberties and establish a Fascist dictatorship.” He added: “Under the Roosevelt administration, big strides in this direction were taken.”

USSR true ‘democracy’

To Browder then there was no difference between “the cold mask of Hoover… and the professional smile of Roosevelt.”

The Browder party’s three-time presidential candidate, William Z. Foster, let the cat out of the bag less than a year ago. In the Nov. 9, 1943 Daily Worker (Earl Browder, editor), Foster revealed the Communists’ true opinion of America. He said:

The USSR… has always been a democracy, the most advanced one anywhere. The Socialist democracy of the Soviet Union operates upon an altogether higher plane than that of any capitalist country.

Now the Browder brigade is claiming the respectful attention of America’s voters on the grounds the Communists have always been in the forefront of the resistance to fascism.

They hide the fact that in Europe, while the Fascists were pushing into power, the Communists haggled over questions of party regularity while, at the same time, resisting cooperation with sincerely pro-democratic and anti-Fascist parties, lest their own pristine red garments be soiled.

Condoned Italian split

In Italy, as Mussolini neared premiership, the fourth Moscow Congress of the Communist International in December 1922 spoke approvingly of the split which divided the Italian Communist from the democratic parties and helped bewilder the Italian people:

The split… was an absolute necessity… we do not regret the split… because the young, weak Communist Party of Italy has, nevertheless, saved the honor of the revolutionary class.

Their honor untarnished, Mussolini marched to power.

In Germany, with the experience of Italy behind them, the Communists showed even less concern over the threat of Hitler and the rising Nazi Party. They regarded the anti-Nazi Social Democrats as the greater menace.

Aided Hitler’s rise

“The task of the Communist Party of Germany,” the Comintern ordered on Dec. 1, 1932 (less than 60 days before Hitler took power), “remains as before – to direct the chief blow, at the present stage, against Social Democracy.”

At the same time, in his book, Toward Soviet America, William Z. Foster expressed the current Communist denial of any difference between Hitlerism and Democracy: “The Reichstag is only a democratic sham to hide the almost naked Fascist dictatorship.”

He added:

All the capitalist “democracies,” the United States included, are only the dictatorships of the bourgeoisie, marked with hypocritical democratic pretenses.

Policies changed suddenly

After the Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis became a threat to Russia in 1936, the Communist parties began to talk about “preserving the democracies.” No one screamed louder for their country to stand up against Germany than the French Communists.

They supported the general mobilization as war threatened and among those called up was Maurice Thorez, general-secretary of the Communist Party and the Earl Browder of France. Appearing in uniform before the Chamber of Deputies, he backed France’s first war moves.

Thereafter, Russia’s non-aggression pact with Germany became public. The Communists everywhere turned anti-war. Thorez deserted. His party demanded that France accept Hitler’s terms.

Thorez fled to Moscow. Last month, Gen. Charles de Gaulle refused him readmittance to French soil.

Editorial: A mad-dog nation

Editorial: An easy way


Editorial: Dewey hits where it hurts

Edson: Foreign policy head has role in Mukden story

By Peter Edson

Ferguson: Post-war problems

By Mrs. Walter Ferguson


Background of news –
12 states control election

By Bertram Benedict

The 12 most populous states in the union, one-fourth of the entire number, together have more than enough votes in the Electoral College to elect a President:

New York 47
Pennsylvania 35
Illinois 28
California 25
Ohio 25
Texas 23
Michigan 19
Massachusetts 16
New Jersey 16
Missouri 15
North Carolina 14
Indiana 13
Necessary to elect 266

The combined vote of these 12 states is 52 percent of the electoral vote, but the 12 have 58 percent of the population (1940 census). The discrepancy arises because the electoral system is a weighted against the larger states. The electoral vote of each state is equal to the number of its Senators and Representatives in Congress, and each state, small or large, has two Senators.

Thus in 1944, Nevada, with a population of only 110,247 in 1940, has three electoral votes. Colorado, with 10 times Nevada’s population (1,123,296), has six electoral votes, only twice as many.

All on same side only once

Although these 12 most populous states could by themselves decide a presidential election, it is highly improbable that they ever will. For one thing, two of them – North Carolina and Texas – are in the Deep South and vote Democratic even in Republican years, except when the Democratic nominee was Al Smith. Other Southern states always will go the same way as North Carolina and Texas.

In fact, since the turn of the century, these 12 most populous states were all in the same column in only one presidential election – that of 1936, when 46 of the 48 states voted for President Roosevelt, and some wag called it more of a census than an election. In 1916, Woodrow Wilson was reelected although he carried only five of these 12 states.

Missouri, North Carolina and Texas were on the losing side in the election of 1900, North Carolina and Texas in the elections of 1904, 1908, 1920 and 1924.

In 1912, when the third-party candidacy of Theodore Roosevelt resulted in a landslide for Woodrow Wilson, California (11 of its 13 votes), Michigan and Pennsylvania voted for Roosevelt.

In 1916, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania voted for Hughes.

In 1928, Massachusetts was for Smith. In 1932, Pennsylvania stuck by Hoover. In 1940, Indiana and Michigan were among the 10 states for Willkie.

Of the dozen states with the largest electoral votes, Ohio has gone the same way as the country as a whole in every presidential election since 1892, Missouri in every one since 1900.

10 sure Democratic states

In presidential elections, the Democratic Party has the advantage of being able to count upon all the 10 states in the Deep South (omitting Kentucky, Oklahoma and Tennessee). In 1944, these 10 have a total of 113 electoral votes, more than 40 percent of the number necessary to elect. In recent elections, the Republicans had no bloc of states on which they could similarly rely without fail. Now, however, political reports indicate that the GOP may be able to rely for some time to come upon a bloc of seven states in the Midwest – Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin with a total of 55 electoral votes.

Simms: Ship losses of Japs called catastrophic

Enemy soon must gamble everything
By William Philip Simms, Scripps-Howard foreign editor