America at war! (1941–) – Part 3

High sources say –
Threat of strike gives Hitler lift to prolong war

Result will be ultimate casualties totaling hundreds of thousands; railroad situation cited

Spare stamp No. 2 –
Second bonus in pork given

‘Gift’ period will last until Jan. 15

Marine Corps command taken by Vandegrift

Retiring leader Holcomb promoted to rank of full general

On New Britain –
Marines count 1,000 dead Japs

Record raid rips Madang; Rabaul also hit
By Don Caswell, United Press staff writer

New tax form to give victims heebie-jeebies

‘Incomprehensible return’ must be battled by 50 million
By Phelps Adams, North American Newspaper Alliance

War economies of Nazis, Japs face big tests

Both countries, however, may be able to boost production

U.S. to acquire Pacific Islands now Japanese

That was decision at Cairo and Tehran, service journal says


Germans hope U.S. election will aid them

Want to hold until after voting, then obtain compromise peace
By Richard Mowrer

Cairo, Egypt – (Jan. 1)
Germany’s political and military leaders, with few exceptions, are convinced that Germany must hold at any price until after the American presidential elections in November 1944, according to neutral sources recently in contact with Germany.

The Germans’ reasoning is said to be as follows:

The reelection of President Roosevelt depends on the successful opening of a second front and victory for the Allies before the November elections. If victory is not achieved by autumn, Mr. Roosevelt will not be reelected.

Nazi hopes

American opinion, disgusted by Allied failure to beat Germany, by then will compel the withdrawal of the American war effort from Europe to concentrate it on the war in the Pacific and will elect to the presidency somebody who will concentrate entirely on winning the war against Japan.

Germany thereupon will approach the new American government and make a deal which Britain, no longer supported by Americans arms in Europe, will have to accept.

Want compromise

If the German Army puts up stiff resistance on the second front and inflicts severe casualties on the Americans, the public outcry in the United States will be such that the presidential elections will be strongly influenced.

Such at least, appears to be the line of thought of German higher-ups who, although knowing they cannot win, hope to avoid total defeat by making German resistance drag on.


‘Let’s win the war in ’44,’ new slogan for AFL

Washington (UP) – (Jan. 1)
The American Federation of Labor said tonight it has chosen “Let’s win the war in ‘44” as labor’s slogan, its objective and its highest resolve for the coming year.

In a New Year’s Day message, the AFL said U.S. workers are ready to work and sacrifice as never before to help the fighting forces in the great tasks that lie ahead.

The message warned, however, that victory will not end labor’s responsibilities to the cause of freedom.

It said:

We will not consider this war win until we have capped our military victories with equal triumphs for our chief post-war objectives.

These are:

  • The establishment of lasting peace under world democracy.
  • The provision of jobs for all in peacetime America.

No-strike order brings truce in steel pay fight

Murray’s warning to men to stay on job will mean temporary peace, but there’s long road ahead to adjustment
By William Forrester

Hero of Guadalcanal adds to laurels in New Britain

District Marine plays major role in Cape Gloucester fight

1944 allotment of meat to be same as last year’s

Civilian supplies will consist of more pork, same quantity of veal and lamb but less beef

$10 million spent hourly by U.S. in 1943

Expenses exceed those of first 150 years of government

1943 rise adds $6 billion to stock values

Prices react after climbing to best levels since 1940
By Elmer C. Walzer, United Press financial editor

U.S. produces 87,000 planes

Allied output is at least double that of Axis
By Wayne W. Parrish, American Aviation Magazine editor and publisher




1st – Embattled New Year finds Americans, British and French vs. Germans and Italians in Tunisia; Russians vs. Germans in Red Army’s winter offensive; U.S. Marines vs. Japs on Guadalcanal; Australians and Americans vs. Japs in Buna area of New Guinea; U.S. airmen bombing Japs in Aleutians and at Lae, Munda and Rabaul in South Pacific; RAF and U.S. 8th Air Forces bombing Axis Europe; point rationing and food ceiling prices well underway at home; plane production past the 5,000-a-month mark; and more than 1,000,000 U.S. fighting men overseas.

2nd – Russians take Velikiye Luki. Allies win in Buna, New Guinea.

3rd – Germans shoot all men in Lublin, Poland, deport women and children.

4th – More than 1,700 Pittsburgh concerns asked by the County War Transportation Committee to stagger working hours for 30,000 employees.

7th – Pleasure driving banned in East. Congress convenes.

11th – Roosevelt asks $109-billion budget: $100 billion is for war.

12th – U.S. troops establish base at Amchitka, in Aleutians. Prentiss Brown named new OPA administrator. Pittsburgh draft boards reclassify childless husbands.

13th – Loss of five Sullivan brothers in Pacific battle announced.

17th – Roosevelt meets Churchill at Casablanca.

18th – Leningrad breaks 16-month siege. Motorman dies, 34 hurt in trolley crash near Brookside Farms.

20th – Roosevelt orders striking coalminers back to work.

21st – Chile breaks relations with Axis. Dutch Princess Juliana gives birth to daughter in Ottawa. Marines turn Guadalcanal over to Army.

22nd – British take Tripoli.

25th – Bride murdered in Lower 13 on train in Oregon, cook confesses.

26th – The Rt. Rev. Alexander Mann, bishop of Pittsburgh Episcopal Diocese, resigns.

31st – Russians retake Maykop, Caucasus oil center. German Field Marshal Paulus surrenders in Stalingrad.


2nd – Politician Edward Flynn declines nomination as Minister to Australia after Senate protest.

5th – Gen. Frank Andrews appointed new U.S. commander in Europe. Eisenhower named commander of all forces in North Africa.

7th – Errol Flynn acquitted.

8th – Shoe rationing begins.

9th – Russians take Kursk.

10th – Workweek of 48 hours ordered in labor shortage areas.

13th – Russians win Rostov.

14th – Alvin J. Williams appointed manager of the Pittsburgh OPA office. Army announces plans to house students in Pitt’s Cathedral of Learning.

18th – Mme. Chiang Kai-shek addresses Congress.

19th – U.S. 6th Army formed in Australia under Lt. Gen. Krueger.

20th – Steel official Stanton Hertz and his 13-year-old daughter Alice, died in fire at Squirrel Hill home.

21st – U.S. submarine Argonaut, world’s largest, lost.

22nd – More than 250,000 register in county for Ration Book No. 2.

24th – Triangle fire claims four lives as rooming house burns.

25th – William H. Davis, 48, named city’s fire chief.

26th – Yanks take Kasserine Pass in Tunisia.


1st – Nearly 3,400,000 Europeans executed or dead in Nazi prisons to end of 1942. Public schoolchildren get holiday as 1,100 service workers stage one-way strike in protest over wages.

2nd – MacArthur’s airmen sink 12 Jap warships, 12 transports in Bismarck Sea battle.

3rd – Pileup in London air-raid shelter kills 178.

4th – Gandhi ends 21-day fast. City holds first “after-dark” air-raid drill under new Army three-alarm plan.

8th – Giraud releases political and military prisoners in North Africa.

10th – Sliced bread comes back.

13th – J. P. Morgan Jr. dies.

15th – House kills $25,000 salary limitation ordered by President.

16th – Pittsburgh leads nation in Red Cross drive as campaign goes over quota.

18th – East’s gas rations cut.

19th – Lt. Gen. George Patton takes command of U.S. forces in Tunisia.

20th – Henry H. Arnold, Air Forces chief, becomes a four-star general.

21st – Butter frozen for week in advance of rationing.

22nd – State Supreme Court holds soldier’s “half-pay” law unconstitutional.

24th – Twelve employees of the Irwin Works, Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation, testify that “fake” chemical analysis was used in manufacture of steel for government. Rev. Thomas Bryson, founder of St. Bernard’s Catholic Church, Mt. Lebanon, dies.

28th – Navy bombers hit Nauru.

29th – Meat-fats rationing begins. Pianist Rachmaninoff dies.

30th – Mareth Line falls.

31st – McNutt orders induction of men in non-essential jobs.


6th – Doolittle’s airmen make first raid on Italy from North Africa.

7th – New Army order limits running for office by servicemen.

7th – Edgar Thomson Steel Works in Braddock hit by strike of 26,000 employees.

8th – British and U.S. troops meet on Gafsa-Gabes road in Tunisia.

9th – Wages, prices, jobs frozen.

13th – Second War Loan Drive begins.

18th – Tom Harmon safe after plane crash.

21st – “Employment Stabilization Plan” goes into effect here, all jobs “frozen.”

22nd – Japs announce executions of U.S. fliers who raided Tokyo.

23rd – Curfew banning bright lights for minor girls ordered.

27th – 20,000 Western Pennsylvania miners strike.

28th – Coal strike spreads; 33,000 idle.

29th – Stilwell, Chennault in Washington from China-Burma-India Theater. President Roosevelt orders miners back to work.


2nd – President seizes coal mines, puts Ickes in control.

3rd – Lewis announces two-week truce in coal strike.

5th – Lt. Gen. Frank M. Andrews killed in Iceland air crash.

6th – Lt. Gen. Jacob L. Devers appointed new European Theater chief.

7th – Tunis, Bizerte fall.

11th – Churchill in Washington for fifth war conference with Roosevelt. Axis forces surrender on Cape Bon, ending Tunisian war. U.S. troops land on Attu. Pittsburgh garbage collections halted by strike.

12th – John B. Townley, Pittsburgh Press veteran political writer, dies.

16th – RAF bombers blast Möhne, Sorpe and Eder Dams in Ruhr.

17th – Lewis spurns WLB as new coal strike is averted by extension of truce to May 31.

19th – Oil magnate Joseph Trees dies.

21st – Joseph E. Davies in Moscow with secret letter to Stalin. Yacht Club, floating nightclub, sinks in Monongahela.

22nd – Moscow dissolves Communist International.

26th – House, Senate agree on pay-as-you-go, 20% withholding tax.

27th – “City of Pittsburgh” cited by Ration Board for Mayor Scully’s use of ration book for farm trip.

28th – Federal grand jury indicts Carnegie-Illinois Steel Corporation.


1st – Soft coal miners stop work as negotiations fail. Henry Ford returns to presidency of company after 24 years, succeeding late Edsel Ford.

2nd – Strike of drivers leaves half families of city without home delivery milk service.

3rd – Ration Board lifts gas ration books of Mayor Scully. Giraud, de Gaulle form new French Committee of National Liberation.

4th – Lewis calls off coal strike.

5th – Zoot-suiters clash with servicemen on Pacific Coast.

6th – Max Stephan, convicted of treason, sentenced to die.

11th – Pantelleria surrenders.

12th – Anti-strike bill goes to White House.

13th – Italian islands (Lampedusa e Linosa) fall to Allies.

14th – Two killed, 68 hurt in bus-trolley crash in East End.

20th – Coal talks collapse, miners begin striking again.

21st – Fifteen dead, 500 injured in Detroit race riot.

25th – Congress overrides presidential veto of anti-strike bill.

26th – Congress votes to ban food subsidies.

27th – Soft coal miners vote to return to work after Lewis orders four-month truce.

28th – Heat wave claims two lives in Pittsburgh.

30th – U.S. forces land on Rendova in Central Solomons.


1st – Pay-as-you-go income tax deductions begin. Donald Nelson, at Homestead, pleads for extra steel production.

2nd – Yankees advance on New Georgia.

4th – U.S. 8th Air Force ends first year over Europe; 11,423 tons dropped on 102 enemy targets.

5th – U.S. warships beat Japs in Kula Gulf battle. Nazis open tardy summer offensive in Russia.

6th – Coal miners end two-week strike.

7th – Jack Dempsey divorced. Giraud in Washington. Pickets rove captive mine area ignoring back-to-work pleas.

8th – PRR wreck at Leetsdale injures 37. Sir Harry Oakes murdered in Nassau, Bahamas.

9th – Federal jury ordered to probe mine strikes. Americans attack Munda from two sides on land, and from sea.

10th – Allies invade Sicily.

12th – British take Syracuse.

13th – U.S. war expenditures at $265 million daily.

15th – Mubo, New Guinea, falls.

16th – Bombs blast Naples.

17th – AMG set up to govern Sicily.

18th – Third of Sicily in Allied hands.

19th – Americans bomb Rome.

20th – Hitler, Mussolini meet. U.S. airmen bomb Paramushiru, in Kurils.

21st – Col. Richard K. Mellon named director of Selective Service in Pennsylvania.

22nd – Italian mainland shelled.

23rd – Palermo, Sicily, falls.

25th – Mussolini out. Badoglio forms new government for Italian King.

26th – Federal grand jury indicts 30 in mine strike.

27th – Liberators bomb Wake Island.

28th – Coffee rationing ends. Butter up 2 more points to 12 a pound.

31st – Giraud wins French military leadership; de Gaulle political chief.


1st – U.S. planes bomb Ploești oil fields in Romania.

2nd – Army flier beats sound, zooming 780 miles per hour.

4th – Russians take Orel.

5th – Catania (Sicily), Belgorod (Russia), Munda (Solomons) fall. State Supreme Court Justice William Parker dies in Oil City.

8th – Normandie refloated.

10th – Churchill in Québec for war conference with Roosevelt.

13th – Rome bombed again.

15th – Kiska retaken; Japs fled.

16th – Vella Lavella taken by Americans in Solomons.

17th – Capture of Messina by U.S. troops ends 38-day Sicily campaign.

18th – Allies rip Germany with 24-hour raid, using 3,000 planes.

21st – Nazis clash with Danes in Denmark uprising.

23rd – “Gertie from Berlin,” Nazi propaganda broadcaster, revealed as former Pittsburgher. Russians take Kharkov. Berlin hit by 2,000-ton raid.

24th – Roosevelt, Churchill make Declaration of Québec.

25th – Mountbatten made Allied commander in Southeast Asia.

27th – Mrs. Roosevelt tours Pacific.

28th – Bulgaria’s King Boris dies.

30th – Red Army takes Taganrog.

31st – Allied bombers blast Jap planes, ships at Wewak, New Guinea.


1st – U.S. Navy task force blasts Japs’ Marcus Island.

2nd – Russians take Sumy.

3rd – Italy invaded by British 8th Army as Fortresses bomb Brenner Pass area.

4th – Japs abandon Santa Isabel base in Central Solomons.

5th – Allies land east of Lae, New Guinea, in encircling move.

7th – Hull rejects Argentina’s request for Lend-Lease arms.

8th – Italy surrenders. Russians take Stalino. Third U.S. War Loan Drive opens.

9th – American-British 5th Army lands at Salerno, Italy.

10th – Nazis occupy Rome; King Victor Emmanuel and Badoglio flee.

11th – Greater part of Italian fleet escapes to Malta. Salerno taken.

12th – Germans reveal Mussolini freed by parachutists. Hollywood stars parade in Pittsburgh; stage show in bond drive. Churchill Mehard, former city solicitor, dies in Arizona.

13th – Salamaua, New Guinea, falls.

15th – Allies retreat under Nazi attacks at Salerno.

16th – Yugoslav guerrillas seize coastal towns from Nazis.

17th – 8th, 5th Armies meet in Italy. Russians take Bryansk. MacArthur takes Lae in New Guinea.

18th – Gulf of Naples isles taken by Americans.

19th – Navy raids Tarawa, Nauru.

20th – Nazis ousted from Sardinia; French patriots fight Germans in Corsica.

24th – Russians reach Dnieper.

25th – Red Army takes Smolensk. Stettinius succeeds Sumner Welles, ousted Under Secretary of State.

28th – British 8th Army takes Foggia with key airfields. Bond drive tops quota in county.

30th – Nazis flee Naples.


1st – Allies take Naples.

2nd – Finschhafen, New Guinea, taken by Australians and Americans.

3rd – Eisenhower, Badoglio confer at Malta. County Detective Lorch killed trying to arrest paroled convict.

4th – Germans attack British on Cos, in Dodecanese Islands.

5th – Mrs. Nancy Holt of Waynesburg found guilty of the poison slaying of her husband.

6th – U.S. task force blasts Japs on Wake Island.

7th – German timebomb exploded in Naples post office, killing 100. Two women, farmhand found slain on Mercer farm of Everett Wilson.

9th – William Morell arrested in Mercer killings.

10th – Walter Monaghan, city detective inspector, kills Lorch slayer in roaming house gun battle.

11th – Yankees win World Series, defeating Cardinals 4–1. Judge H. Walton Mitchell of Orphans Court dies. Samuel Harden Church dies following operation.

12th – Judge Andrew T. Park dies. Portugal grants Azores bases to Britain.

13th – Italy declares war on Germany.

14th – Sixty Fortresses lost in raid on Schweinfurt, Germany.

15th – Judge Ralph H. Smith dies.

18th – Hull in Moscow for three-power talks with Eden, Molotov.

20th – Brown resigns as OPA administrator; Bowles succeeds him.

21st – Maestro Ben Bernie dies.

22nd – WPB bans making of bloomers.

23rd – Russians take Melitopol. David Lloyd George, 80, marries secretary, 55.

25th – Russians take Dnepropetrovsk.

28th – Americans, New Zealanders land on Treasury Islands in Solomons.

29th – U.S. paratroopers land on Choiseul in Solomons.

31st – Plane output at record high: 8,362 in October.


1st – U.S. forces invade Bougainville. Lewis’ coal miners go on strike again.

4th – Isernia, key mountain point, falls in Italy.

5th – Miners return to pits with pay increases.

6th – Russians take Kiev. Vatican bombed by unidentified plane.

10th – Republican Governor John Bricker of Ohio tosses hat in 1944 ring.

11th – De Marigny acquitted of Oakes murder charge at Nassau.

12th – Germans attack Leros in Dodecanese. Violence flares in Lebanon.

15th – Pennsylvania liquor rationing starts.

16th – Pittsburgh United War Fund drive exceeds goal.

20th – Cranemen strike at Mesta Machine as Navy officials visit plant.

21st – Americans invade Gilbert Islands. Marines enter deadly battle to take Tarawa.

22nd – Roosevelt, Churchill, Chiang Kai-shek meet at Cairo, Egypt. British lose Samos, third Aegean island.

23rd – Berlin blasted in record 2,300-ton RAF raid.

24th – U.S. forces win Gilbert Islands. Berlin bombed again.

26th – Russians take Gomel. U.S. planes bomb Formosa.

27th – Walkout closes 30 city laundries. Chinese tighten trap on 100,000 Japs in “rice bowl.”

28th – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet at Tehran, Iran.


2nd – Berlin bombed heavily.

4th – Roosevelt, Churchill and Turkey’s Inönü meet at Cairo.

6th – American-British armies reach Moro River in Italy.

7th – America marks second anniversary of Pearl Harbor with launching of 52,000-ton battleship Wisconsin, completion of 150,000th warplane.

8th – May Beegle, impresario, dies. Health officials fight flu outbreak.

9th – German counteroffensive hits Russians west of Kiev.

10th – Allied forces cross Moro River in Italy. Yanks bomb Bulgaria.

13th – Roosevelt visits Sicily; Marvin McIntyre, close friends and secretary of President, dies.

15th – Rail strike in U.S. threatened by unions. U.S. reveals surprise Nazi air attack on Bari, Italy, that destroyed 17 ships, inflicted 1,000 casualties. Americans invade New Britain.

17th – RAF renews raids on Berlin.

19th – Three German Army officers and a Russian traitor are hanged in Kharkov after first war criminal trial. Jury clears Morrel of Mercer murder charges.

20th – Russians regain initiative.

21st – U.S. rail strike threat grows.

23rd – War Labor Board rejects steel back pay plan. Roosevelt strives to end rail strike threat.

24th – Dr. Carl Voss, dean of Pittsburgh ministers, dies. Roosevelt announces Eisenhower will lead forces for invasion of Europe.

27th – Steel strike leaves 145,000 idle. Sinking of Nazi battleship Scharnhorst revealed.

28th – Army takes over railroads. Steel workers ordered back to work. Nazis admit evacuation of Ortona, Italy.

29th – Unions call off rail strike. Three Nazi destroyers sunk by Allies.

30th – Reds push Nazis back farther near borders of Poland and Romania.

31st – French invasion coast softened in mighty air raid. Nazis in panicky retreat before advancing Russians.

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Time goes bye, bye

By Maxine Garrison

Murder at sea –
Survivors of ship sunk by Jap raider sail 3,125 miles to safety in 32 days

Tiny, battered compass aids victims
By Lawrence Perry, North American Newspaper Alliance

Poll: Foreign plank unity favored by GOP voters

Leaders will have support in concentrating on domestic issues
By George Gallup, Director, American Institute of Public Opinion

The recent praise given Cordell Hull by Senator Brewster (R-ME) for his “efforts to stop partisan politics at the water’s edge” reflects the sentiments of a great majority of the rank-and-file Republican voters.

Any attempts by Republican presidential candidates to attack the administration’s foreign policy likely would evoke little favorable response today even from voters of their own party.

For a majority of Republican voters are willing to see the GOP take the unprecedented step of adopting a platform on foreign policy identical with that of the Democrats.

Sentiment tested

Sentiment of voters who say they will vote Republican this year was tested in a nationwide survey on the following issue:

Interviewing Date 11/25-30/43
Survey #307-K
Question #12a

Asked of Republicans: Do you think that both the Republicans and the Democrats should take exactly the same stand for an active part in world affairs in their party platforms in 1944?

Yes 58%
No 21%
Undecided 21%

The fact that so many Republican voters favor the identical platform idea is good indication that GOP leaders have plenty of rank-and-file support for their strategy of removing foreign policy from the 1944 campaign and concentrating on domestic issues.

Many dissatisfied

There is growing dissension among the people over home-front issues, with Republicans benefiting from dissatisfaction over New Deal handling of domestic affairs.

Additional evidence of the actual unity of the people on foreign policy is shown in Republican attitudes toward continuing Mr. Hull as Secretary of State even in the event of a Republican victory.

Interviewers questioned Republican voters from coast to coast on the idea of having the two parties agree beforehand to retain Mr. Hull in office after the next election.

The vote of Republicans with opinions on the subject turned out to be better than 2 to 1 in favor of this proposal.

Interviewing Date 11/25-30/43
Survey #307-T
Question #12a

Asked of Republicans: Would you approve or disapprove if both the Republican and Democratic parties agreed to name Cordell Hull Secretary of State again after the next election?

Approve 52%
Disapprove 22%
Undecided 26%

When Democrats were interviewed on the same issue, those with opinions voted in favor of the idea 7 to 1.

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By Maj. Alexander P. de Seversky, noted aviation writer