America at war! (1941--) -- Part 2

Pinpoint shellfire rescues Yank officers near Munda

U.S. artillery relieves American command post attacked by 100 fanatical Jap raiders
By George Jones, United Press staff writer

Yanks prepare to invade Kiska

U.S. raiders set off big explosion on board

Millett: Girls out of uniform are frustrated young women

Doing something real in military service is proud way to bridge war years
By Ruth Millett

Both parties are agreed on Good Neighbor Policy

New Deal’s stand on relations with Latin America untouched in welter of debate, criticism
By William H. Lander, United Press staff writer

Mild protests greet plans to equalize gas rations

Oil industry, railroads and U.S. agencies combine efforts to solve transportation problem

Operator of Paris Underground relates experiences as American in Nazi prison

Collaborates with authors of exciting book
By Joan Younger, United Press staff writer

Battlefront seems ‘quiet’

War reporter prefers ‘restful’ oversees
By Harriet Van Horne


Never-to-be-forgotten exits and entrances

By Florence Fisher Parry

Lately in the motion pictures that I have seen, particularly those which deal with the war, I have found myself annoyed over the long-draw-out death sequences. There always seems to be a buddy dying. Am I alone in feeling that this inevitable sequence in all our war films is being unduly featured? One more Thomas Mitchell death and I, for one, am done for. Why motion picture directors invariably indulge this passion for long-drawn-out deaths, I am at a loss to understand, unless it springs from their own exaggerated memories of deaths that they, themselves, have seen enacted, in the past, upon the stage and screen and which they feel impelled to excel in their own direction.

Yes, this must be the reason. Looking back upon my own memories of the movies and theater, I find that remembered death scenes loom large. No wonder, then, they provide a field day to playwrights and directors and actors, all of whom seem drawn to death as to a magnet. Looking back upon the great performances in the theater and indeed upon the screen, I find that the most profound impressions I have treasured have been derived from some remembered death scene.

The earliest memory I have of the theater is of attending a performance of Uncle Tom’s Cabin and seeing little Eva literally borne aloft from her little cot by two determined angels. And close upon the heels of that profound memory is that of the death of the first Hamlet I ever saw – Creston Clarke in the old Walnut St. Theater in Philadelphia.

And still another, the hazy but haunting memory of Sarah Bernhardt, as the frail L’Algion, expiring dramatically, her wooden led extended grotesquely at a painful angle.

But of all the deaths that I have ever seen in theater or movie, the death of Greta Garbo as Camille affected me most profoundly. I must count it the most inspired piece of acting I can recall ever having seen. Usually, I have no patience with the kind of acting that must be “lived” in order to take shape, but this must stand as the one exception. I have never considered Greta Garbo an actress, but she has the strange power of evoking a mood which, if captured by the camera, stands as a true record of inspiration.

Others recalled

I remember, too, the remarkable death scene in A Farewell to Arms which Helen Hayes enacted. And the death of Victor Varconi in a silent picture years ago called The Divine Lady in which he enacted Lord Nelson. The death scene was profoundly effective, I remember.

The best deaths that are recorded on the screen are the quick, brutal deaths which so often occur in gangster pictures. But for the most part, screen deaths are phony, corny, and an affront to our natural reticences.

My mind crowds with remembered exits and entrances, and my memories travel like a shuttle-board, back and forth through the years from my childhood to the present time, as actors and actresses make their memorable entrances and exits upon the stage.

Magnificent exits

Shall I ever forget the magnificent exit of Tallulah Bankhead in The Little Foxes when at the head of the stairs, she gathers herself together before entering the bedroom that holds her murdered husband?

Shall I ever forget the magnificent entrance of Ina Claire in the picture version of The Royal Family, one of the most queenly entrances I have ever seen?

Shall I ever forget the dancing, wraith-like figure of Maude Adams as she came forth from the forest near Thrums, singing, in The Little Minister?

Shall I ever forget the death in that exquisite play Behold the Bridegroom, with Judith Anderson translucent and otherworld? Shall I ever forget the entrance of Marie Dressler in the old waterfront saloon in Anna Christie? Shall I ever forget the final exit of Ethel Barrymore in The Second Mrs. Tanqueray? Or of her brother, John, as he appeared, a young god from hell, against the backdrop in The Jest?

Shall I ever forget the entrance of Frank Keenan in The Girl of the Golden West standing there under the loft where the body of Blanche Bates’ lover lay leaking blood upon the sheriff’s white linen handkerchief? Shall I ever forget the entrance of Katharine Hepburn, frail and haunted, after her husband is drowned in The Lake? Shall I ever forget the exit of Charlie Chaplin as he walked out to meet the horizon in his last good picture, Modern Times?

Entrances, too

Then there was Frank Morgan’s gorgeous entrance as the King in The Firebrand. There was Jeanne Eagels’ entrance in the last act of Rain and the blare of the phonograph inside her room. There was Eva le Gallienne in The Swan.

Do you remember Alla Nazimova’s last exit in Hedda Gabler? There was Geraldine Farrar’s entrance in Madame Butterfly and her death in La Tosca. There was, long ago, that extraordinary entrance of Frank Craven in a play called Bought and Paid For. He walks into a strange room and he breaks a costly vase, and he offers to pay for it. I can search the annals of the theater and find no more perfect scene.

Do you remember the death of John Barrymore in Dinner at Eight? Do you remember the entrance of Lorette Taylor in Peg O’ My Heart? Of Philip Merivale in Death Takes a Holiday? Do you remember the exit of Katharine Cornell in Saint John or the entrance of Lynn Fontanne in Elizabeth, the Queen?

But I could go on and on. Oh, the procession, the indelible procession of entrances and exits that moves across the curtain of one’s memory.

Entrances and exits – exits and death. No tapestry is embroidered as richly as that upon which the actors and actresses wove their immortal names, in death scenes and entrances touched with enchantment.

When did he marry? I missed it on that story

1 Like

Völkischer Beobachter (July 26, 1943)

Vernichtung oder Fronarbeit für das Judentum –

Die Bomben der Luftgangster dementieren die Lügen der USA.-Agitation

Im Osten 125 Sowjetpanzer vernichtet –
Britischer Terrorangriff auf Hamburg

dnb. Aus dem Führer-Hauptquartier, 25. Juli –
Das Oberkommando der Wehrmacht gibt bekannt:

Am Kubanbrückenkopf und an der Miusfront scheiterten mehrere örtliche Angriffe des Feindes, die zum Teil im Gegenstoß abgewehrt wurden. Am mittleren Donez ließ die Angriffstätigkeit der Sowjets merklich nach. Starke sowjetische Infanterie- und Panzerkräfte versuchten wiederum vergeblich den Durchbruch im Raum von Bjelgorod. Im Kampfgebiet von Orel hielten die wechselvollen Kämpfe an. Die Sowjets wurden an mehreren Stellen in erfolgreichem Gegenangriff zurückgeworfen, örtliche Einbrüche wurden abgeriegelt. Südlich des Ladogasees brachen auch gestern wieder sämtliche mit stärkeren Kräften geführte Angriffe unter besonders hohen Verlusten des Feindes zusammen.

Die Sowjets verloren in den Kämpfen des gestrigen Tages 125 Panzer. Bei den letzten Kämpfen an der Miusfront zeichnete sich die rheinisch-westfälische 16. Panzergrenadierdivision besonders aus.

Auf Sizilien fanden gestern nur örtlich begrenzte Kampfhandlungen statt, ohne daß der Feind Erfolge erzielen konnte. Jagd- und Zerstörerverbände der Luftwaffe griffen in die Erdkämpfe ein. Flakartillerie schoß in der Straße von Messina ein feindliches Schnellboot in Brand.

Vor der niederländischen Küste kam es in der vergangenen Nacht erneut zu mehreren Gefechten zwischen den Sicherungsstreitkräften eines deutschen Geleits und britischen Schnellbooten. Ein Schnellboot wurde versenkt, fünf andere in Brand geschossen und mehrere beschädigt. Ein eigenes Fahrzeug ging verloren. Teile der Besatzung konnten gerettet werden.

In den Gewässern des Hohen Nordens schlugen deutsche Jäger in den heutigen Vormittagsstunden einen Angriff feindlicher Fliegerkräfte auf ein eigenes Geleit ab. Von den angreifenden 35 feindlichen Flugzeugen wurden 17, darunter 11 Bomber, abgeschossen. Durch starke Angriffe nordamerikanischer Bomber auf norwegisches Gebiet hatte die Bevölkerung erhebliche Verluste an Toten und Verwundeten. Besonders in Drontheim wurden starke Gebäudeschäden in Wohngebieten verursacht.

Ein starker Verband britischer Bomber führte in der vergangenen Nacht einen Terrorangriff gegen die Stadt Hamburg, durch den schwere Verluste unter der Bevölkerung und starke Zerstörungen an Wohnvierteln, Kulturstätten und öffentlichen Gebäuden entstanden. Luftverteidigungskräfte schossen im nordwestdeutschen Küstengebiet und im norwegischen Raum nach bisherigen Feststellungen 17 der angreifenden Bomber ab. Bei den schon gestern gemeldeten erfolglosen Angriffsversuchen feindlicher Fliegerkräfte auf Kreta wurden insgesamt 21 feindliche Flugzeuge über der Insel abgeschossen.

Der große Magen der USA. schluckt alles –
Kapitaleintreibung und Ausverkauf in England

Roosevelts westafrikanischer ‚Generalgouverneur‘ –
Französisch-Nordafrika als Raubgut der USA.

Eigener Bericht des „Völkischen Beobachters“

La Stampa (July 26, 1943)

La dura lotta in Sicilia

L’urto nemico, contenuto nei settori orientale e centrale del fronte, si è ripetuto intenso sull’ala settentrionale del nostro schieramento – Un piroscafo colpito ad Augusta – 14 aerei abbattuti

Il Quartier Generale delle Forze Armate ha diramato nel pomeriggio di ieri il seguente Bollettino N. 1156:

In Sicilia si è anche ieri duramente combattuto. L’urto nemico, contenuto nei settori orientale e centrale del fronte, si è ripetuto particolarmente intense sull’ala settentrionale del nostro schieramento.

Nostri bombardieri colpivano un piroscafo di medio tonnellaggio nel porto di Augusta. Cacciatori e minori unità navali germaniche abbattevano negli ultimi due giorni undici velivoli, un altro apparecchio veniva distrutto dalla nostra caccia sulle coste calabre.

Livorno è stata bombardata da formazioni aeree: danni non gravi, vittime in corso di accertamento. Due velivoli precipitavano colpiti dal tiro delle artiglierie della difesa.

A seguito delle incursioni aeree dei giorni scorsi, sono state accertate le seguenti perdite tra la popolazione civile: a Bologna, 97 morti e 270 feriti; ad Aquino (Frosinone), 4 morti e 10 feriti per scoppio ritardato di bombe; a Capo Rizzuto un morto e 2 feriti; a Livorno 17 feriti, di cui due gravi.

U.S. Navy Department (July 26, 1943)

Communiqué No. 450

North Pacific.
On July 24, formations of Army Warhawk (Curtiss P‑40) fighters car­ried out ten bombing and strafing attacks against Japanese positions on Kiska. Numerous hits were scored on the runway and among gun emplacements. One U.S. plane failed to return.

La Stampa (July 26, 1943)

Grandi manifestazioni del popolo romano al Re, a Badoglio, all’Esercito

Roma, 26 luglio (Stefani) –
Non appena il popolo romano è venuto a conoscenza della notizia trasmessa per radio che Sua Maestà il Re aveva assunto il comando delle Forze Armate ed aveva nominate Capo del Governo il Maresciallo Badoglio, si è riversato per le strade manifestando tutta la sua soddisfazione ed il suo entusiasmo.

Man mano le strade dell’Urbe, malgrado la tarda ora e l’oscuramento, hanno assunto un aspetto di grande esultanza patriottica. Al grido di Viva l’Italia! Viva il Re! Viva Badoglio! Viva l’Esercito! ed al canto dell’Inno di Mameli, si sono formati imponenti cortei cin cartelli improvvisati e bandiere tricolori che si sono diretti verso il Quirinale.

Al loro arrivo i manifestanti hanno trovato la piazza già gremita di folla acclamante alla Maestà del Re ed a Casa Savoia.

Mentre gran parte della folla sostava ancora ad acclamare il Sovrano, altri cortei si formavano e si dirigevano verso il Ministero della Guerra dove altissime acclamazioni all’Italia ed alle Forze Armate si sono levate.

In altri punti della città, e particolarmente davanti alle sedi dei giornali si svolgevano analogie manifestazioni patriottiche al grido di Viva l’Italia!

Una grandiosa manifestazione ha avuto luogo a Piazza Venezia dove, invaso il cortile del palazzo, ha dimostrato la propria esultanza e la sua indefettibile passione per le sorti della Patria.

Dilagando per il Corso, una enorme fiumana di popolo proveniente da Piazza Venezia, si è portata a Piazza Colonna, dove ha espresso ancora una volta il suo inequivocabile patriottismo al canto dell’Inno di Mameli, della Canzone del Piave e dei vecchi inni del Risorgimento italiano.

Dovunque il popolo dell’Urbe ha riconfermato la sua profonda fiducia negli immortali destini della Patria sotto l’augusta guida del suo Sovrano e affidati alle sue valorose Forze Armate.

Milano, 26 luglio (Stefani) –
Malgrado l’ora avanzata, la notizia che Sua Maestà il re ha assunto il comando di tutte le Forze Armate ed ha nominato Capo del governo il Maresciallo d’Italia Pietro Badoglio, si è diffusa rapidamente in tutta la città suscitando fervide manifestazioni di patriottismo tra grandi acclamazioni al Re Imperatore, all’Italia ed al Maresciallo Badoglio.

Bologna, 26 luglio (Stefani) –
Nonostante l’ora tarda in cui è state conosciuta, la notizia del cambiamento del Governo ha suscitato il più vivo entusiasmo patriottico. Si sono subito formati cortei che con alla testa grandi bandiere tricolori hanno percorso le vie centrali della città e si sono poi spinti fino alla periferia. Nei rioni popolari al grido fi Viva l’Italia! Viva il Re! Viva Badoglio!

U.S. State Department (July 26, 1943)

President Roosevelt to the British Prime Minister

Washington, July 26, 1943.


By coincidence I was again at Shangri La this afternoon when the news from Rome came, but this time it seems to be true. If any overtures come we must be certain of the use of all Italian territory and transportation against the Germans in the North and against the whole Balkan peninsula, as well as use of airfields of all kinds. It is my thought that we should come as close as possible to unconditional surrender followed by good treatment of the Italian populace. But I think also that the head devil should be surrendered together with his chief partners in crime. In no event should our officers in the field fix on any general terms without your approval and mine. Let me have your thoughts.


The British Prime Minister to President Roosevelt

London, July 26, 1943.


Your 324. I send you my thoughts in the form in which I submitted them to the war cabinet obtaining their full approval.

I don’t think myself that we should be too particular in dealing with any Non Fascist Government even if it is not all we should like. Now Mussolini is gone I would deal with any Non Fascist Italian Government which can deliver the goods. The goods are set out in my memo herewith. My colleagues also agreed with this.

Thoughts on the Fall of Mussolini by the Prime Minister and Minister of Defence

  • It seems highly probable that the fall of Mussolini will involve the overthrow of the Fascist Regime and that the new government of the King and Badoglio will seek to negotiate a separate arrangement with the Allies for an armistice. Should this prove to be the case it will be necessary for us to make up our minds first of all upon what we want and secondly upon the measures and conditions required to gain it for us.

  • At this moment above all others our thoughts must be concentrated upon the supreme aim namely the destruction of Hitler, Hitlerism and next [Nazi] Germany. Every military advantage arising out of the surrender of Italy (should that occur) must be sought for this purpose.

  • The first of these is in the President’s words “The control of all Italian territory and transportation against the Germans in the north and against the whole Balkan peninsula as well as the use of airfields of all kinds.” This must include the surrender to our Garrisons of Sardina, the Dodecanese and Corfu as well as of all the naval and air bases in the Italian mainland as soon as they can be taken over.

  • Secondly and of equal importance the immediate surrender to the Allies of the Italian fleet or at least its effective demobilization and paralysis and the disarmament of the Italian air and ground forces to whatever extent we find needful and useful. The surrender of the fleet will liberate powerful British naval forces for service in the Indian Ocean against Japan and will be most agreeable to the United States.

  • Also of equal consequence the immediate withdrawal from or surrender of all Italian forces in Corsica, the Riviera including Toulon and the Balkan Peninsula to wit, in Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece.

  • Another objective of the highest importance about which there will be passionate feeling in this country is the immediate liberation of all British prisoners of war in Italian hands and the prevention which can in the first instance only be by the Italians of their being transported northwards to Germany. I regard it as a matter of honour and humanity to get our own flesh and blood back as soon as possible and spare them the measureless horrors of incarceration in Germany during the final stages of the war.

  • The fate of the German troops in Italy and particularly of those south of Home will probably lead to fighting between the Germans and the Italian army and population. We should demand their surrender and that any Italian Government with whom we can reach a settlement shall do their utmost to procure this. It may be however that the German divisions will cut their way northward in spite of anything that the Italian armed forces are capable of doing. We should provoke this conflict as much as possible and should not hesitate to send troops and air support to assist the Italians in procuring the surrender of the Germans south of Rome.

  • When we see how this process goes we can take a further view about the action to be taken north of Rome. We should however try to get possession of points on both the west coast and east coast railways of Italy as far north as we dare. And this is a time to dare.

  • In our struggle with Hitler and the German army we cannot afford to deny ourselves any assistance that will kill Germans. The fury of the Italian population will now be turned against the German intruders who have as they will feel brought these miseries upon Italy and then come so scantily and grudgingly to her aid. We should stimulate this process in order that the new liberated Anti-Fascist Italy shall afford us at the earliest moment a safe and friendly area on which we can base the whole forward air attack upon south and central Germany.

  • This air attack is a new advantage of the first order as it brings the whole of the Mediterranean Air Forces into action from a direction which turns the entire line of air defences in the west and which furthermore exposes all those centers of war production which have been increasingly developed to escape air attack from Great Britain. It will become urgent in the highest degree to get agents, commandos and supplies by sea across the Adriatic into Greece, Albania and Yugoslavia. It must be remembered that there are 15 German divisions in the Balkan Peninsula of which 10 are mobile. Nevertheless once we have control of the Italian Peninsula and of the Adriatic and the Italian armies in the Balkans withdraw or lay down their arms it is by no means unlikely that the Hun will be forced to withdraw northwards to the line of the Save and Danube thus liberating Greece and other tortured countries.

  • We cannot yet measure the effects of Mussolini’s fall and of Italian capitulation upon Bulgaria, Roumania and Hungary. They may be profound. In connection with this situation the collapse of Italy should fix the moment for putting the strongest pressure on Turkey to act in accordance with the spirit of the alliance and in this Britain and the United States acting jointly or severally should if possible be joined or at least supported by Russia.

  • The surrender of, to quote the President, “the head devil together with his partners in crime” must be considered an eminent object and one for which we should strive by all means in our power short of wrecking the immense prospects which have been outlined in earlier paragraphs. It may be however that these criminals will flee into Germany or escape into Switzerland. On the other hand they may surrender themselves or be surrendered by the Italian Government. Should they fall into our hands we ought now to decide in consultation with the United States and after agreement with them with the USSR what treatment should be meted out to them. One may prefer prompt execution without trial except for identification purposes. Others may prefer that they be kept in confinement until the end of the war in Europe and their fate decided together with that of other war criminals. Personally I am fairly indifferent on this matter provided always that no solid military advantages are sacrificed for the sake of immediate vengeance.

740.0011 European War 1939/30341: Telegram

The Ambassador in the United Kingdom to the Secretary of State

London, July 26, 1943 — 6 p.m.
[Received July 26 — 1:15 p.m.]


Personal for the President and the Secretary.

This afternoon in talking with Eden I found there were two opinions in the Foreign Office in relation to the Italian situation.

  1. That the change-over was due to a last desperate attempt to strengthen the war effort.

  2. The dominant opinion and that held by Mr. Eden which he described as “A mixture of the policies adopted by Prince Max von Baden and Pétain on their way to quitting”. He felt that neither Mussolini nor General Badoglio could make the Italians fight.

He said one thing which I believe is important. That Russia in some way should be brought into our councils in considering the Italian situation. He felt that the Russian manifesto to Germany might have been in part influenced by their not having been included as signatories to the Anglo-American proclamation to the Italian people. He did not mean by this that he thought they should have been included as a practical matter but only that they were sensitive to exclusion.

When the tide turns and the Russian armies are able to advance we might well want to influence their terms of capitulation and occupancy in Allied and enemy territory.


The Pittsburgh Press (July 26, 1943)

Italy under martial law

Badoglio, new Rome ruler, is reported seeking deal with Allies
By Harrison Salisbury, United Press staff writer

London, England –
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, new Premier of Italy, proclaimed countrywide martial law today and unconfirmed reports circulated that ousted Premier Benito Mussolini had fled into exile or had been arrested by the army as a “war criminal” to be turned over to the Allies.

An authoritative source said that Britain was ready to talk peace terms with the new Italian regime, but there was still deep mystery around. Badoglio’s intentions regarding a separate peace as well as around the fate of the fallen Duce.

Rumors circulating in Stockholm, however, suggested that the new Italian Premier might desire to make a deal with the United Nations and turn Mussolini over to them for trial – if he could get out from under German domination. The rumors lacked any official support.

It appeared likely that the true position of the new Italian government would emerge only after considerable delay, although an expected speech by Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the nest sitting of the House of Commons may clarify the outlook.

The outstanding question regarding Italy concerned the position of German Armed Forces in that country and of Italian troops in the Nazi-occupied Balkans. It was estimated that the Germans from 7-9 divisions (possibly 130,000 men) in Italy and Sicily and there has been much speculation that the Nazis would eventually seek to set up a defense line protecting the northern industrial area of Italy above the Po River.

Although Marshal Badoglio was known to have opposed the Nazis as well as the Fascists in the pasts, there was no concrete evidence that he would try to oust the Germans and seek peace with the Allies. The nearest the Rome radio came to hinting at an anti-German stand was the discontinuance of daily lessons in the German language and failure to broadcast any foreign news, omitting even the daily Nazi war communiqué.

Marshal Badoglio emphasized that the Fascist organization was being liquidated as such by removing Blackshirt guards at the Swiss border and replacing them with regular military police, but he gave no hint as to the whereabouts of Mussolini, who has frequently been reported thin and gaunt recently as a result of illness.

Stockholm newspapers, usually a center for Axis propaganda feelers, also appeared to be without information of a definite nature, but did produce the usual rumors and speculation. One such rumor was that Mussolini had fled to Switzerland or Germany. No source was indicated.

Another conflicting rumor in Stockholm was that Badoglio had arrested Mussolini and other high Fascists and that he would later seek to use them in negotiations with the Allies, possibly offering to turn the Fascists over to the United Nations for trial on “war guilt” charges.

Madrid reports said that Mussolini and other Fascist leaders are under police protection at a villa believed to be in the Rome area.

There was also speculation that Mussolini might have sought to save himself by some negotiations through the Vatican, where his son-ion-law, Count Galeazzo Ciano, has been ambassador and where the Ciano family was expected to take refuge.

The Nazi broadcasts took the position that Mussolini was ill and that the government would fight on with Germany. This position was taken by Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels after considerable delay. The Japanese broadcasts even delayed 16 hours in announcing Mussolini’s resignation.

Badoglio quickly established a drastic military regime in all of Italy.

He ordered a dusk-to-dawn curfew and banned all public meetings in what may have been a move to prevent a civil war between ousted Fascists and supporters of the new Royalist regime.

If the Badoglio government does ask for terms, an authoritative British diplomatic commentator said, Britain will be prepared to deal with him “provided that it is evident he exercises full authority in Italy.”

The only “terms” acceptable to the Allies, as specified by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, will be “unconditional surrender.” Both the United States and Britain had refused even to discuss a separate peace for Italy so long as Mussolini remained at the helm.

The British Cabinet will soon meet to examine the implications of Mussolini’s deposal and decide its attitude toward the new government, the commentator said. The government was said to be watching closely to see whether the Badoglio regime will overthrow the Fascist system or merely substitute a new figurehead for Mussolini.

Unofficial observers said it was well within possibility that the Italians have already indirect contacts with the Allies. Reports circulated that Italian delegates attended the Roosevelt-Churchill Casablanca Conference last winter and only the past fortnight, similar delegates were said to have been in Algiers. None of these reports was confirmed.

With Mussolini out of the way, the Allies were expected to intensify their military and propaganda campaign to knock Italy out of the war and leave Germany alone to face the onrushing Russians from the East and the Allies from the West “before the leaves of autumn fall.”

Germany was also believed to determine the path to be chosen by the Badoglio government. Swedish newspapers quoted the Rome radio as saying that Marshal Albert Kesselring, German commander in Italy, and Hans-Georg Viktor von Mackensen, German Ambassador to Rome, had conferred with Badoglio.

There had been no authentic reports of widespread disorders in Italy preceding Mussolini’s ouster last night, but major trouble is expected when army Royalists take over power from the Fascist hierarchy.

Nearly 300,000 Fascist Blackshirt troops are believed stationed in Italy.

Marshal Badoglio announced the appointment of Raffaele Guariglia, Ambassador to Turkey, as Foreign Minister, an additional portfolio taken over by Mussolini last spring following the removal of his son-in-law, Count Galeazzo Ciano.

Guariglia was reported by Radio Rome to be en route to the Italian capital by plane from Ankara, where he easily could have arranged informal third-party contacts with Allied nations, possibly to extend peace feelers.

The Fascist rule of Mussolini, who gave Italy her greatest modern empire and then lost it all in a mad gamble for additional lands, ended last night with his “resignation,” 20 years and nine months, lacking four days, from the time of his famous “Blackshirt” March on Rome that made him Premier and dictator.

Rigid censorship cloaked any repercussions within Italy from Mussolini’s deposal, but earlier reports from neutral capitals had told of increasing strikes and unrest in his homeland as the Allies turned the full weight of their aerial assault against Italy, rolled across Sicily and threatened the mainland with invasion.

The British and American governments remained silent officially on the sudden shift in the Italian government.

Prime Minister Churchill worked at his desk until the early hours of morning awaiting developments and discussing implications. Cabinet members hurried to Whitehall.

Perhaps significantly, President Roosevelt and Mr. Churchill had told the Italian people in a joint statement only 10 days ago that the deposal of Mussolini was one of the cardinal conditions to a possible peace with Italy.

But Mussolini’s removal alone will not satisfy the allies, sources here emphasized, and the government-controlled BBC told the Italian people:

Now Mussolini has gone. But those to whom he handed over the Italian people, the Germans, are still in Italy… Peace and liberty will not come to the Italian people before the last German soldier has been chased from Italian soil.

Marshal Badoglio’s proclamation of martial law and establishment of a curfew was announced in a manifesto issued through commanders of army corps and territorial defense forces and broadcast by Radio Rome.

Military in charge

The manifesto provided that:

  1. The commander in each province will take over all armed forces including police, militia, citizens’ armed groups, and similar organizations.

  2. All powers for maintaining public order have passed to the military.

  3. The militia will be incorporated in the army.

  4. All public places, such as movie theaters and the like, will be closed.

  5. Meetings of more than three persons anywhere or at any time are prohibited.

  6. Sales of arms and ammunition are banned.

  7. Use of autos, boats or planes except in public or military service with special permit is banned.

  8. All bill-posting except that of Catholic Churches is prohibited, as is signaling of all kinds.

  9. All permits for carrying arms are revoked.

  10. All citizens must carry identification documents.

  11. Only one edition daily of newspapers will be permitted.

The manifesto ordered all troops and other forces to carry out the provisions of the manifesto even if it became necessary to use arms. All arrested will be given a military trial, the Italian broadcast said.

Only priests, doctors, midwives and nurses carrying out their duties were specifically exempted from the terms of the curfew.

People urged

Marshal Badoglio, in his new capacity as chief of government over 40 million Italians, also issued a proclamation – the second since he took office last night – calling on the Italian people to resume their “posts of work and responsibility.”

He said:

This is not a moment to abandon ourselves to demonstrations which will not be tolerated. The present grave hour imposes upon everyone seriousness, patriotism and acts of devotion to the supreme interests of the nation.

Assemblies are prohibited and public forces have been ordered to disperse them ruthlessly.

The drastic measures invoked by Badoglio enhanced the impression that Mussolini’s disposal may have been more of a “palace revolution” than first was indicated.

They also indicated that Italy may have been on the verge of complete internal collapse.

Mussolini’s deposal was revealed in a series of proclamations broadcast by the Rome radio last night.

The first announced that King Victor Emmanuel had accepted Mussolini’s resignation as chief of government, Prime Minister and Secretary of State and had appointed Badoglio, Italy’s greatest soldier, to the three posts.

Proclamation by King

Next came a proclamation from the King, countersigned by Marshal Badoglio, in which the monarch assumed command of the nation’s armed forces and called on the Italian people “in the solemn hour which has occurred in the destinies of our country” to take up again their “post of duty and of fighting.”

The King said:

No deviation must be tolerated. No recrimination must be allowed. Every Italian must stand firm in the face of the grave danger which has beset the sacred soil of the fatherland.

Badoglio, in proclaiming that he was taking over the military government of the country with “full powers,” said:

The war continues. Italy, hard hit in her invaded provinces, in her destroyed cities, loyally keeps her given word, jealous custodian of her military traditions. All must group themselves around His Majesty, the King Emperor, living image of the fatherland and an example for all.

Thus ends Duce’s career

Thus ended the career of Mussolini, who literally rose from the gutter to make Italy a leader among the world powers and then plunged her into her darkest hour by entering the war on the side of his country’s World War I enemy Germany.

His deposal was made all the more complete by the selection of Badoglio, who in 1922 asked the King to permit him to throw Mussolini and his “Blackshirt upstarts” into the sea with a single company of police. Instead, the King turned over the government to Mussolini.

Badoglio, despite his open dislike for Fascism, responded to a call from Mussolini when Italy’s Ethiopian campaign speared on the point of failure, rallied the flagging armies and completed the conquest.

Made army’s scapegoat

He was made chief of the Italian General Staff and retained the post until 1940, when he was made scapegoat for the dismal Italian showing in Greece and Africa and replaced. He has since lived in retirement.

It was noteworthy that the King and Badoglio in their proclamations gave only the date July 25, 1943, and not the usual “year twenty-one of the Fascist era.” Likewise, Rome radio followed the proclamations only with the royal march, omitting for the first time since the advent of Mussolini the Fascist anthem, “Giovinezza.”

Though there was no sign that Italy would withdraw from the war immediately, it was noted that the King in his proclamation calling on the people to do their duty, made no reference to continuing the war.

Devotion to duty stressed

Marshal Badoglio said the war “would continue,” but laid much greater emphasis on devotion to duty, possibly in an attempt to persuade the Italian people to end their strikes and internal dissension.

The authoritative British Press Association commented that Italy’s days as an Axis partner were numbered.

It was virtually impossible to overestimated the repercussion of Mussolini’s ouster, particularly throughout the Balkans.

The encouragement given the guerilla forces in Yugoslavia and Greece is bound to be tremendous and even more serious, from Berlin’s viewpoint, will be the tendency of Romania and Hungary to refuse further demands from Germany for troop levies and to increase their peace feelers through Turkey.

May be aid to Russia

Germany has been dependent upon the Italians and other satellites for the bulk of troops defending Southeastern Europe. If suddenly required to take over responsibility for the defense of the Balkans as well as northern Italy, there is no question but what Germany would be forced to withdraw major forces from Russia.

An American source said the crisis in Italian affairs may have stemmed directly from the meeting a week ago today of Hitler and Mussolini at Verona, in northern Italy. He believed that Mussolini may have entered a final plea for reinforcements to defend Italy, only to be refused because of the Russian offensive on the Eastern Front.

When Mussolini reported this to King Victor Emmanuel, it was said, the King called for and received his resignation.

Another major factor in Mussolini’s ouster may have been his illness. The former Duce has been in poor health for the past five years and has appeared in public less and less frequently. Recent photographs disclosed that he has lost almost entirely his former prominent paunch.

Duce’s ouster hailed as sign Axis is doomed

Nation’s leaders agreed that total collapse of Italy is near
By the United Press

Persons in all walks of life today hailed the ouster of Benito Mussolini as the beginning of the end for Italy and a definite sign that the Axis structure is crumbling.

Comment included:

Former President Herbert Hoover:

The downfall of one of the world’s greatest persecutors… will give heart to every persecuted man and woman in the Axis-occupied world and it is the handwriting on the wall for his colleagues.

Vice President Henry A. Wallace:

Surely it won’t be long now as far as Italy is concerned.

Mayor F. H. La Guardia of New York:

I anticipate the complete capitulation of Italy within the next few days. He [Mussolini] will go down in history as the betrayer of Italy.

Prime Minister John Curtin of Australia:

The repercussions on occupied countries cannot be overstated. Hitler sees in the fate of his ally the handwriting on the wall for himself.

Foreign Minister Ezequiel Padilla of Mexico:

The machinery of the Axis is breaking up.

Count Carlo Sforza, former Foreign Minister of Italy:

If the Fascist machine and the party’s Blackshirted army go on, the world may be entitled to wonder whether the change in Italy is not an indirect service rendered to Hitler in order to allow him to organize his defense in the Alps, while hoping that the United Nations will accept being cheated by a simulated anti-Fascist regime.

If Badoglio advises the immediate dissolution of the National Fascist Party and of the criminal armed gang called the Blackshirted Army and if he frees at once the heroic political prisoners… In that case, it may happen that a new beginning of confidence will be shown in the new government.

Attorney General Francis Biddle:

It looks like the first evidence of the internal breaking up of Italy.

War Manpower Commissioner Paul V. McNutt:

The action would indicate the end of the Fascist regime.

Rep. Sol Bloom (D-NY):

The people respect Badoglio as the only man who had the nerve to tell Mussolini to his face what he thought of him and his regime.

Carol II, exiled King of Romania:

It is widely known that King Victor Emmanuel has been against the war from the very start.

Rep. Vito Marcantonio (ALP-NY):

This is the beginning of the end. Neither the people of the United Nations, nor Americans, will accept any compromise short of unconditional surrender, and that means no dictator and no king.

Ferdinand Pecora, New York State Supreme Court Justice:

Italy will not be in the war for more than a month more.

Man who escaped Rome says –
Downfall of Mussolini is biggest break of war

Badoglio, known enemy of Fascism, will find way to sever ties with Axis, Packard believes
By Reynolds Packard, United Press staff writer

This dispatch was written by the former manager of the Rome Bureau of the United Press who was interned when the United States declared war on Italy and subsequently released under the exchange agreement. He is an authority on Italian affairs.

Allied HQ, North Africa –
The fall of Mussolini is the most momentous development in the war to date and the first question that follows is: Will Marshal Pietro Badoglio find a way to break with Germany?

That Marshal Badoglio will look for a way is obvious to one who knows Italy. How else could the advent of a known enemy of Mussolini and of Fascism at Italy’s helm be regarded?

I am sure the Italian people know Marshal Badoglio didn’t take over just to follow Mussolini’s policies. And they also must know that Mussolini didn’t desert until the raid on Rome and the defeat in Sicily made him sense inevitable disaster.

The development created great excitement here. Mussolini’s resignation was expected, of course, but not so soon. The next thing that must be ascertained before Marshal Badoglio’s course can be judged is Germany’s reaction.

Hitler’s men in Italy seem to have only one of two possible steps:

  1. They must pull out entirely, giving up Italy to her own future, or

  2. They must cease the role of a Gestapo over Italy and take open steps to make the Italians stay in the war.

When I left Italy more than a year ago, it was estimated Germany had seven divisions in Italy. Lately, they have sent in more, possibly preparing for just such a thing as has happened. I have reason to believe there may be 20 Nazi divisions there now. The Gestapo already controls the Italian secret police.

Thus, Marshal Badoglio’s job of telling Hitler that Italy no longer wants his war is magnified. How the Marshal, who saved Mussolini in Ethiopia and was later discarded by the Fascists, can get the job done is the question. Naturally, it might be asked whether Hitler engineered the deal. That isn’t likely unless Hitler has found Italy is impossible to defend and consented only to neutralize the country and use it as a buffer between Sicily and the German defenses.

Marshal Badoglio’s immediate statement that the “war continues” seems – and I was in Ethiopia with him and know his character – aimed at preventing the Axis from moving in at once. With a few weeks’ delay, he might be able to work things out.

When Marshal Badoglio retired in disgust and anger at what he regarded as the criminal Greek offensive in 1940, he was looked upon by Italians as a symbol of opposition to Mussolini. Why a revolt didn’t develop then is a major Italian mystery.

Two other points come up in the situation:

  1. Did Mussolini save his own skin by making a deal for his resignation?
  2. What is the position of King Victor Emmanuel and the royal House of Savoy?

As to the first, the most probable answer is that he did.

Mussolini has always been a master bargainer and a diplomatic dealer. While I was interned, there were constant rumors in Italy that Mussolini would try to engineer his escape through Vatican City in case of defeat. This was bolstered by the fact that he had made his pampered son-in-law, Count Ciano, Italian Ambassador to the holy See, sand skullduggery was suspected.

Great effect on Europe

The little King and other members of royalty, to my mind, have played along with Fascism. The Prince of Piedmont, for example, commanded Italian forces that marched into France. But for some years, the King’s present feeling toward Fascism has been a matter of speculation.

The fall of Mussolini is bound to have a great effect upon the other states of Europe which have watched him strut about and bluff them for years. And inside Italy, it will change the life of every Italian, allowing him to live a little more like a human.