America at war! (1941– ) (Part 1)

Roosevelt gives pledge of total war against Axis

U.S. will win war and peace, President says, at the same time warning that both coasts are in immediate danger of raids
By Lyle C. Wilson, United Press staff writer

Washington –
President Roosevelt’s analysis of the pattern of world conflict placed the United States today in a state of informal war with Germany and Italy.

Although formally engaged in war against only Japan, the President promised to fight the Axis “with everything we’ve got.”

Foreign dispatches hinted that a German declaration of war against the United States was forthcoming. Mr. Roosevelt warned of the real and immediate danger of a sneak punch – like that which rocked Pearl Harbor – on both our coasts, Atlantic or Pacific.

Other advices here suggested that Adolf Hitler might prefer for the time being to avoid actual war with the United States.

But in a war report to the nation that made previous fireside chats seem of small consequence in comparison, Mr. Roosevelt last night blunted no words in saying that we are in a fight for our collective lives – and that we will win the war, and the peace to follow.

The President’s warning that “Germany and Italy… consider themselves at war with the United States at this moment” brought from Congressmen the comment that it was a “realistic recognition” of facts.

Speaker Sam Rayburn sounded the tenor of general Congressional comment with:

Of course, we all think that Germany and Italy are going to follow the Japanese as brothers in this Axis agreement.

Mr. Rayburn has said that Congress would declare war on Germany and Italy as quickly as it did against Japan if those two countries decided to attack the United States.

Of what has happened in the Pacific, Mr. Roosevelt said:

So far, the news is all bad. Casualty lists will be large.

Acknowledging a “serious setback in Hawaii” and that the country must be prepared to hear that Midway, Wake and Guam Islands have been captured, he declared there was no impregnable defense against blows without warning and urged the public, the press and the radio to wait for the facts.

The President continued:

Most earnestly, I urge my fellow countrymen to reject all rumors. These ugly little hints of complete disaster fly thick and fast in wartime.

Aimed at spreading fear

He said the enemy spread many a rumor to create fear and confusion among the public and to goad the government to denials and admissions of information eagerly sought in Axis capitals.

Mr. Roosevelt said he did not yet know the “exact damage” at Pearl Harbor but that:

Admittedly, the damage is serious.

He dismissed as “fantastic” claims that Japan had gained naval control of the Pacific.

Mr. Roosevelt denounced Hitler, Mussolini and the Japanese warlords. He left no doubt that the war – the all-out, total world war – is on, with Great Britain and her Dominions, the Soviet Union, the United States and associated powers on one side, and the Axis on the other – all of the Axis.

‘Resourceful gangsters’

Mr. Roosevelt said:

Remember always that Germany and Italy, regardless of any formal declaration of war, consider themselves at war with the United States at this moment just as much as they consider themselves at war with Britain and Russia. And Germany puts all the other republics of the Americas into the category of enemies.

Powerful and resourceful gangsters have banded together to make war upon the whole human race. Their challenge has now been flung at the United States.

We must be set to face a long war. The attack on Pearl Harbor can be repeated at any one of many points in both oceans and along both our coastlines against all the rest of the hemisphere.

‘Not immune from attack’

…our ocean-girt hemisphere is not immune from severe attack…

Your government knows that for weeks Germany has been telling Japan that if Japan did not attack the United States, Japan would not share in dividing the spoils with Germany when peace came. She was promised by Germany that if she came in, she would receive the complete and perpetual control of the whole of the Pacific area – and that means not only the Far East, not only all of the islands in the Pacific, but also a stranglehold on the west coast of North, Central, and South America.

We also know that Germany and Japan are conducting their military and naval operations in accordance with a joint plan. That plan considers all peoples and nations which are not helping the Axis powers as common enemies of each and every one of the Axis powers.

‘Final and complete victory’

That is their simple and obvious grand strategy.

So, Mr. Roosevelt said he had accepted the challenge and that we would accept no result except victory, final and complete. We are in the war, he explained, not for conquest or for vengeance, but for a world in which our children will be safe. He said we expected to eliminate the danger from Japan but that Hitler and Mussolini must go too.

He compared the actions of Japan in Asia and of Hitler and Mussolini in Europe and Africa for 10 years past and said:

It is all of one pattern.

Without warning – without warning – without warning.

10-year history cited

Again, and again, Mr. Roosevelt repeated that phrase as he cited surprise attacks by the Axis powers on peaceful nations – Manchukuo, Ethiopia, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Greece, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union and finally, last weekend, Malaya, Thailand and the United States. His quick recapitulation covered 10 explosive years, 1931-41.

Mr. Roosevelt said of the Japanese attack in the Pacific:

We may acknowledge that our enemies have performed a brilliant feat of deception, perfectly timed and executed with great skill. It was a thoroughly dishonorable deed, but we must face the fact that modern warfare as conducted in the Nazi manner is a dirty business. We don’t like it – we didn’t want to get in it – but we are in it, and we’re going to fight it with everything we’ve got.

‘We’re in it all the way’

We are now in this war. We are all in it – all the way. Every single man, woman, and child is a partner in the most tremendous undertaking of our American history. We must share together the bad news and the good news, the defeats and the victories – the changing fortunes of war.

He promised to give the facts to the public as fast as they became available, provided first that a complete check be made on their accuracy and, second, that release of the information would not prove valuable to the enemy.

‘A trick of propaganda’

Many rumors and reports which we now hear originate with enemy sources. For instance, today the Japanese are claiming that as a result of their one action against Hawaii, they have gained naval supremacy in the Pacific. This is an old trick of propaganda which has been used innumerable times by the Nazis. The purposes of such fantastic claims are, of course, to spread fear and confusion among us, and to goad us into revealing military information which our enemies are desperately anxious to obtain.

Explaining that we will continue to supply other armies, navies and air forces fighting the Axis, Mr. Roosevelt said he had adopted two broad production principles:

  1. A seven-day work week in war industry and in the production of essential raw materials.

  2. Expansion of production capacity by building new plants, expanding old plants and using many small plants.

Enough food ‘at present’

He promised that the road to victory in the war and the peace to follow was one of hard, grueling, day and night work. But he found comfort in confidence that the nation was united at last, that the:

…obstacles and difficulties, divisions and disputes, indifference and callousness are now all past – and, I am sure, forgotten.

There is enough food “at present,” he assured the nation, to provide amply here and to leave much left over for export to less-favored partners in the anti-Axis drive.

No sacrifice would be felt or resented, Mr. Roosevelt was sure, by men privileged to serve in the Army, by citizens burdened with mounting taxes, or by those who must forego extra profits or curtail their manner of living. But he warned that there was a bitter shortage of metal and that half of the vital metals used for civilian consumption this year would have to be diverted to the war effort from now on.

Terrible lesson learned

But it was guns-and-butter for us in contrast to the guns-before-butter that Nazi Germany, fascist Italy and militaristic Japan have had to endure.

In 10 years of observing and patiently and peacefully opposing aggression, Mr. Roosevelt said he had learned a terrible lesson, the worst part of it, perhaps, in the past three days since war flamed in the Pacific. He promised that we shall not forget that there can be no security in a gangster-ruled word, that there is no impregnable defense against blows without warning, that our own hemisphere, our own coastal cities and towns are now in jeopardy and, finally:

…that modern warfare as conducted in the Nazi manner is a dirty business.

Congressional comment backs President’s speech

Washington (UP) –
Speaker Sam Rayburn (D-TX) said today that President Roosevelt’s statement last night that Germany and Italy consider themselves at war with the United States was “a very frank, lucid statement.”

Mr. Rayburn said:

Of course, we all think that Germany and Italy are going to follow the Japanese as brothers in this Axis agreement. The President in his address took the American people into his confidence and let them know that we have a big and hard job before us.

Senator Styles Bridges (R-NH) said the speech was a “clear analysis” of the situation, carrying a warning that the nation “must be prepared for any emergency in the Atlantic.” Mr. Bridges said he would not be surprised by a German declaration of war against the United States.

Senate Democratic Leader Alben W. Barkley of Kentucky said the speech was “a very frank and able presentation.” Chairman Tom Connally (D-TX) of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee called the address:

…brave and vigorous, voicing the determination of the nation and all our people to prosecute the war with every ounce of our strength.

Other comments:

Senator Claude Pepper (D-FL):

The President assured the country that we are going to not only win the war, but the peace.

Senator Walter F. George (D-GA):

The President has spoken for the country. He must have had strong reasons for all of the statements he made.

Senator Lister Hill (D-AL):

Mr. Roosevelt gave the nation every bit of information he would have been entitled to give.

House Republican Leader Joseph W. Martin of Massachusetts:

The President’s call for all-out effort for complete production from the vast American production machine is particularly deserving of a cordial, cooperative response.

Rep. Hamilton Fish (R-NY), agreeing that Germany and Italy consider themselves at war with the United States, said:

What I am interested in is whether we’re going to have a war resolution against them.

Chairman Sol Bloom (D-NY) of the House Foreign Relations Committee:

There can be no shadow of a doubt as to what the nation’s response will be to the speech.

French impressed by U.S. war unity

By Paul Ghali

Vichy, France –
President Roosevelt’s broadcast to the American people Tuesday night was only heard here at 5 a.m. today, which means that few reactions are as yet available in Vichy. The full text of his speech is known only to a few officials whose lips are diplomatically sealed.

The President has, however, impressed his few French listeners with the fact that the war against the Axis is an “American national war” and that he had complete national unity behind him.

Vichy circles have undoubtedly been struck by the Japanese successes in the first few days of the war which give definite proof that the attacks were well-prepared. This feeling was emphasized by the reports that the British battleships Prince of Wales and Repulse had been sunk.

President Roosevelt’s decision to round up German and Italian nationals in the United States will, it is believed here, have quick repercussions among the Americans still in occupied France. According to a U.S. Embassy source, these Americans number approximately 700. Whether the Germans will apply an eye-for-an-eye policy, or whether only the most prominent Americans will be interned remains to be seen.

What will happen when Germany sides with Japan is in the laps of the gods. Japanese correspondents in Vichy are insistent that this eventuality may crop up in the next 24 hours and that a common German-Italian declaration is in the air, although nobody knows whether it will be a formal declaration of war or only declarations of sympathy for Japan.

Rome expects Axis to act in unity

New York (UP) –
The Rome radio, commenting on President Roosevelt’s speech last night, said today that it was “of such a manner that the functioning of the Three-Power Pact may be expected,” according to NBC’s listening post.

The Three-Power Pact is the Berlin-Rome military alliance under which Germany and Italy are pledged to go to the aid of Japan in the event she was “attacked” in the Pacific. The Rome broadcast was a further forecast of German and Italian declarations of war against the United States.


Federal agents take 2,303 Axis aliens into custody

Majority to be placed in concentration camps supervised by Army, Attorney General says

Washington (UP) –
Attorney General Francis Biddle announced today that 2,303 Axis nationals have been taken into custody by the federal government. He said the majority would soon be placed in concentration camps supervised by the Army.

At the same time, Mr. Biddle disclosed that naturalization applications of German and Italian immigrants filed during the past two years would be held up for the duration of the war.

He told a press conference that the Axis nationals seized had been rounded up during a three-hour period in the Hawaiian Islands by military intelligence agents, and within two hours in continental United States by the FBI.

Mr. Biddle said those in custody included 1,291 Japanese, 865 Germans and 146 Italians.

Only a fraction

The aliens seized represent only a small fraction of the 1,100,000 Axis nationals living in United States territory.

Mr. Biddle said hearings would be held on the cases of some aliens whose seizures as “dangerous” persons may be reconsidered. The hearings will be conducted informally by a board of review similar to those set up to hear the cases of conscientious objectors under the Selective Service Act.

The hearings, he said, will start shortly and the Justice Department hopes to be able to use, in many instances, the personnel of various conscientious objectors’ review boards.

Grave responsibility

The boards, according to Mr. Biddle, will report their findings to him, and the final decisions as to the disposition of the cases will be left to him. He described as “very grave” the responsibility falling upon all concerned in those cases.

Mr. Biddle reiterated that all Japanese, Italian and German aliens not now in custody would be regarded as “peaceful and law-abiding” so long as they obeyed the regulations promulgated under a presidential proclamation issued yesterday.

Mr. Biddle said that several of the aliens now in federal custody undoubtedly would be granted their freedom, while others would be given:

…permanent paroles as a study of the English system showed this to be the best manner of handling them.

The parolees will be under the jurisdiction of the Justice Department’s Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Local organizations

The review boards, he said, will be organized locally and will consist:

…of eminent citizens not in the government.

The Attorney General said that the concentration camps so far planned are located at the forts in Montana, North Dakota and New Mexico, where Axis seamen had previously been sent. He said that everything possible:

…would be done to treat those seized fairly, as we have many of our own citizens in their countries.

He also announced the selection of Leo T. Crowley, chairman of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., as head of a new division of the Justice Department which will deal with patents and other property of Axis nationals. He said this division would have functions comparable to the alien property custodian during World War I.

Mr. Crowley, whose appointment was approved by President Roosevelt, will also serve as Mr. Biddle’s alternate on the Economic Defense Board.

Hits ‘rough handling’

Mr. Biddle repeated that apprehension and detention of Axis nationals was a “job to be handled by the FBI alone” and he criticized the “rough handling of Japanese” reported in Seattle. He added:

They were very foolish to do it.

He said there was:

…absolutely no evidence of fifth column activity or sabotage, but we have already posted extra guards in all vital plants. We are taking no chances.

According to regulations promulgated under the President’s proclamations, “enemy aliens” – Japanese, Italians and Germans – are forbidden from affiliating with any organization, group or assembly designated by Mr. Biddle.

Travel restricted

Their travel is restricted, and they are subject to seizure if they are found in areas designated as forbidden zones by the Justice or War Departments.

Mr. Biddle asked state and local authorities to prevent molestation or persecution of Japanese, German and Italian nationals. Special steps may be taken to protect the thousands of German Jewish refugees.

It was expected that an early step in enforcement of the regulations would be the purging of foreign-dominated organizations, such as the German-American Bund, of their alien membership.

Firearms barred

No “enemy” alien can possess firearms or other material of war, shortwave receivers and transmitters and other signal devices, cameras, codes and ciphers, papers, documents, books, photographs, sketches or maps of military and naval establishments.

Airplane flights by Japanese, German and Italian nationals are prohibited, except where authority is given by the Attorney General or War Department. They are barred from highways, waterways, railways, subways, public utility plants, buildings and other places not generally accessible or used by the general public.


Germany clamps down on U.S. correspondents

Berlin, Germany (UP) –
American correspondents on Berlin were barred from the official press conference today and were instructed to proceed to their homes.

The “request” was made by Minister Paul Schmidt of the Foreign Office Press Department:

…in view of the fact that, contrary to all international law, German press correspondents in the United States have been arrested.


U.S. Steel Corp. director resigns to enter Navy

New York (UP) –
Junius S. Morgan, recently called up for active duty as a lieutenant-commander in the U.S. Naval Reserve, has resigned as a director of U.S. Steel Corp., and as an alternative member of its finance committee, it was announced today.

Mr. Morgan had previously been granted an indefinite leave of absence from his executive post with the investment banking firm of Morgan, Stanley & Co., Inc.


EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 8965

Extension of trust periods on Indian lands expiring during calendar year 1942

By virtue of and pursuant to the authority vested in me by Section 5 of the act of February 8, 1887 (24 Stat. 388, 389), by the act of June 21, 1906 (34 Stat. 325, 326), and by the act of March 2, 1917 (39 Stat. 969, 976), it is ordered that the periods of trust applying to Indian lands, whether of a tribal or individual status, which, unless extended, will expire during the calendar year 1942, be, and they are hereby, extended for a further period of twenty-five years from the date on which any such trust would otherwise expire.

This order is not intended to apply to any case in which the Congress has specifically reserved to itself authority to extend the period of trust on tribal or individual Indian lands.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
The White House
December 10, 1941


U.S. State Department (December 10, 1941)

740.0011 P. W./900: Telegram

The Ambassador in the United Kingdom to the Secretary of State

London, December 10, 1941 — 1 p.m.
[Received December 10 — 12:11 p.m.]

5974. 

Personal for the Secretary and the President.

The Prime Minister, as you will have seen in the press, announced to the Parliament at 11 o’clock this morning the loss of the Prince of Wales and the Repulse. I was with him last night and saw him immediately following the announcement and have been constantly with him over the last few days. It seemed best to me that certain information should go from him direct to you rather than through the Embassy. I hope you and the Secretary approve. He feels that information from the Pacific calls for reconsideration of planning as you already know. Discouragements seem only to give him new courage and add to his determination.

Your speech to the Congress was carried on the BBC. It gave people great confidence here. I listened to your talk to the Nation last night. There was serious interference but it was repeated this morning, again at noon on the NBC. People here assume that we are in the total war together. News from the Middle East and Russia is good.

WINANT


851.33/204: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France

Washington, December 10, 1941 — 4 p.m.

908.

The Naval Observer in Martinique reported yesterday that Admiral Robert had informed him that the airplane carrier Béarn would leave today, December 10, on a 10 days’ cruise “for recreation for the crew.” At the same time the Navy received word that the French forces in Martinique were replacing the propellers on the grounded planes. A preliminary message was sent to Admiral Robert through the American Consul stating that this Government requested that the ships should not leave Fort-de-France since under present conditions the departure of the vessel will undoubtedly be subject to misinterpretation. The State Department has now received word that the departure of the Béarn has been cancelled by Admiral Robert.

In your interview with Marshal Pétain, please inform him of these circumstances and state that this Government appreciates the action taken by Admiral Robert in response to our request. Please request officially of the Marshal, however, as by the personal instruction of the President, that Marshal Pétain have addressed to Admiral Robert immediate orders not to permit the departure of any of the naval vessels now in Martinique or in the other French colonies in the Western Hemisphere from the ports where they may now be stationed. You may state that in view of the fact that the United States is now at war with Japan in the Pacific, and in view of the increasingly serious and critical situation in the Atlantic, the departure of the French vessels would give rise to grave concern on the part of the United States, and that, furthermore, should the vessels leave notwithstanding this request, steps would have to be taken by the United States as a measure of self-defense to prevent the departure of these vessels. As the Marshal well knows, and as the President has repeatedly made clear, it is the President’s hope that all misunderstandings and difficulties between France and the United States can be avoided, and it is because of his earnest hope in that regard that the President has requested you to deliver this message to Marshal Petain.

Please state in conclusion to the Marshal that the President would appreciate it if you could be furnished by the Marshal with a copy of the orders in the sense suggested which Marshal Pétain may cause to be addressed to Admiral Robert.

HULL


851.85/379: Telegram

The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State

Vichy, December 10, 1941 — noon.
[Received 4:47 p.m.]

1517.

Department’s 850, November 17.

Following is summary of Foreign Office note of December 9:

  1. If German Armistice Commission consents, France disposed authorize sale of Normandie reserving the right to repurchase under following conditions:

a. France will purchase in the United States petroleum products, foodstuffs and cotton goods with sale proceeds not exceeding one-third for each category. Purchases will be shipped to French North and West Africa upon resumption of economic plan.

  1. [b.] If France unable obtain German consent, departure three freighters from Mediterranean as stipulated paragraph 1 of proposals made November 19 by Maritime Commission to Henry-Haye, United States would:

Either renounce this stipulation while maintaining the other proposals of the Maritime Commission November 1;

Or permit chartering three freighters from Mediterranean to Spain for Spanish-American runs which Germans might accept more readily.

c. If France able obtain German consent departure three freighters from Mediterranean for United States-North Africa line, number French freighters in United States to be released and assigned this line to be four instead of three, French freighters chartered by Maritime Commission being reduced to four plus Normandie, tankers from Martinique to be chartered remaining three.

  1. Foreign Office will inform Embassy as soon as possible of definitive German position concerning departure three freighters from Mediterranean for North Africa-United States run.

Copy and translation of this note being forwarded airmail.

Repeated by airmail to Algiers and Casablanca.

LEAHY

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Hitler’s announcement to the Reichstag
December 11, 1941, 3:00 p.m. CET

Audio of the speech:

The speech where Adolf Hitler declared war on the USA, 1941 original (1)

Abgeordnete!

Männer des Deutschen Reichstages!

Ein Jahr weltgeschichtlicher Ereignisse geht zur Neige, ein Jahr größter Entscheidungen steht vor uns. In dieser ernsten Zeit spreche ich zu Ihnen. Abgeordnete des Reichstages‚ als den Vertretern der deutschen Nation. Allein darüberhinaus soll das ganze deutsche Volk von diesem Rückblick Kenntnis nehmen und von den Entscheidungen, die uns Gegenwart und Zukunft aufzwingen.

Nach der abermaligen Ablehnung meines Friedensangebotes im Jahre 1940 durch den derzeitigen britischen Ministerpräsidenten und die ihn tragende oder beherrschende Clique war es im Herbst klar, daß dieser Krieg gegen alle Gründe der Vernunft und der Notwendigkeit mit den Waffen bis zum Ende durchgekämpft werden muß. Sie kennen mich, meine alten Parteigenossen, daß ich stets ein Feind halber oder schwächlicher Entschlüsse war.

Wenn die Vorsehung es so gewollt hat, daß dem deutschen Volk dieser Kampf nicht erspart werden kann, dann. will ich ihr dafür dankbar sein. daß sie mich mit der Führung eines historischen Ringens betraute, das für die nächsten 500 oder 1000 Jahre nicht nur unsere deutsche Geschichte. sondern die Geschichte Europas. ja der ganzen Welt, entscheidend gestalten wird.

Das deutsche Volk und seine Soldaten arbeiten und kämpfen heute nicht nur für sich und ihre Zeit‚ sondern für kommende, ja fernste Generationen. Eine geschichtliche Revision einmaligen Ausmaßes wurde uns vom Schöpfer aufgetragen‚ die zu vollziehen wir nunmehr verpflichtet sind.

Der schon kurz nach der Beendigung des Kampfes in Norwegen mögliche Waffenstillstand im Westen zwang die deutsche Führung zu allererst, die gewonnenen, politisch, strategisch und wirtschaftlich wichtigen Gebiete vor allem militarisch zu sichern.

So haben die damals eroberten Länder seitdem ihr Widerstandsvermögen verändert. Von Kirkenes bis zur spanischen Grenze erstreckt sich ein Gürtel von Stützpunkten und Befestigungen größten Ausmaßes.

Zahllose Flugplätze wurden gebaut oder im hohen Norden zum Teil aus dem Urgestein des Granits gesprengt. Marinebasen erhielten Schutzbauten für U-Boote in einem Ausmaß und in einer Stärke, daß sie sowohl von See als auch von der Luft aus praktisch unverletzbar sind. Der Verteidigung selbst dienen mehr als eineinhalbtausend neue Batterien, deren Stellungen erkundet, geplant und ausgebaut werden mußten. Ein Netz von Straßen und Eisenbahnen wurde angelegt, so daß heute die Verbindung zwischen der spanischen Grenze und Petsamo unabhängig vom Meere sichergestellt ist. Pioniere und Baubataillone der Marine, des Heeres und der Luftwaffe in Verbindung mit der Organisation Todt haben hier Anlagen geschaffen‚ die dem Westwall in nichts nachstehen. An ihrer Verstärkung wird unentwegt weitergearbeitet.

Es ist mein unbeirrbarer Entschluß, diese europäische Front für jeden Feind unangreifbar zu machen.

Diese auch über den letzten Winter hin fortgesetzte Arbeit defensiver Art fand ihre Ergänzung durch eine offensive Kriegführung, wie sie‚ durch die jahreszeitlichen Verhäitnisse bedingt‚ möglich war. Deutsche Überwasserund Unterwasser-Seestreitkräfte führten ihren stetigen Vernichtungskrieg gegen die britische und die ihr dienstbare Kriegs- und Handelsmarine weiter. Die deutsche Luftwaffe unterstützte durch Aufklärung und Angriff die Schädigung der feindlichen Tonnage und brachte in zahllosen Vergeltungsflügen dem Engländer eine bessere Vorstellung über den „reizenden Krieg“ bei, dessen Urheber mit in erster Linie sein heutiger Premierminister ist.

In diesem Kampf wurde in der Mitte des vergangenen Jahres Deutschland vor allem durch seinen italienischen Bundesgenossen unterstützt. Viele Monate lastete das Gewicht eines großen Teils der britischen Macht auf den Schultern des mit uns verbündeten italienischen Staates. Nur infolge der enormen Überlegenheit an schweren Panzern gelang es den Engländern, in Nordafrika vorübergehend eine Krise herbeizuführen.

Schon am 24. März des vergangenen Jahres aber begann eine kleine Gemeinschaft deutsch-italienischer Verbände unter der Führung Rommels zum Gegenangriff anzutreten.

Am 2. April fiel Agedabia. Am 4. wurde Bengasi erreicht. Am 8. zogen unsere gemeinsamen Verbände in Derna ein, am 11. wurde Tobruk eingeschlossen und am 12. April Bardia besetzt.

Das deutsche Afrikakorps hat um so Hervorragenderes geleistet. als den Deutschen rein klimatisch dieser Kriegsschauplatz vollkommen fremd und ungewohnt war. So wie einst in Spanien sind nunmehr in Nordafrika Deutsche und Italiener dem gleichen Feinde stets gemeinsam gegenübergetreten.

Während durch diese kühnen Maßnahmen die nordafrikanische Front unserer beiden verbündeten Länder mit dem Blut deutscher und italienischer Soldaten wie der gesichert wurde, zog sich über Europa bereits der unheildrohende Schatten einer entsetzlichen Gefahr zusammen.

Der bittersten Not gehorchend habe ich mich im Herbst 1939 entschlossen, wenigstens den Versuch zu machen, durch das Ausschalten der akuten deutsch-russischen Spannung die Voraussetzung für einen allgemeinen Frieden zu schaffen. Dies war psychologisch schwer infolge der Gesamteinstellung des deutschen Volkes und vor allem der Partei gegenüber dem Bolschewismus, sachlich genommen aber leicht, da Deutschland in all den Gebieten, die England als von uns bedroht erklärte und mit Beistandpakten überfiel, tatsächlich immer nur wirtschaftliche Interessen gesehen und vertreten hatte. Denn ich darf Sie erinnern, Abgeordnete, Männer des Deutschen Reichstages, daß England im ganzen Früh- und Hochsommer des Jahres 1939 wieder zahlreichen Staaten und Ländern seinen Beistand anbot mit der Be- hauptung‚ Deutschland besäße die Absicht, bei ihnen einzufallen und sie ihrer Freiheit zu berauben.

Das Deutsche Reich und seine Regierung konnten mit bestem Gewissen daher versichern‚ daß es sich dabel nur um Unterstellungen handelte, die der Wahrheit in keiner Weise entsprachen.

Es kam dazu noch die nüchterne militärische Erkenntnis‚ daß im Falle eines Krieges, der durch die britische Diplomatie dem deutschen Volke aufgezwungen werden sollte‚ der Kampf nach zwei Fronten ohnehin nur mit sehr schweren Opfern durchführbar schien. Nachdem außerdem die baltischen Staaten‚ Rumänien usw. der Annahme der britischen Beistandspakte zugeneigt waren und damit zu erkennen gaben, daß sie ebenfalls an eine solche Bedrohung glaubten, war es für die deutsche Reichsregierung nicht nur ein Recht, sondern auch eine Pflicht, ihrerseits die Grenzen der deutschen Interessen zu bestimmen.

Die betroffenen Länder mußten allerdings – auch zum Leidwesen des Deutschen Reiches selbst – in kurzer Zeit erkennen, daß der einzige Faktor‚ der der stärkste Garant gegenüber dem drohenden Osten sein konnte, nur Deutschland war.

So wie sie durch ihre eigene Politik die Verbindungen zum Deutschen Reich durchschnitten hatten und statt dessen sich dem Beistand der Macht anvertrauten, die in ihrem sprichwörtlichen Egoismus seit Jahrhunderten nie Beistand gab, sondern stets nur Hilfe forderte, waren sie verloren.

Dennoch erregte das Schicksal dieser Länder das stärkste Mitempfinden des deutschen Volkes. Der Winterkampf der Finnen zwang uns ein Gefühl, gemischt aus Bitternis und Bewunderung, auf. Bewunderung, weil wir selbst als Soldatenvolk für Heldentum und Aufopferung ein empfängliches Herz besitzen, Bitternis weil wir mit dem Blick auf den drohenden Feind im Westen und die Gefahr im Osten militärisch zu helfen nicht in der Lage waren.

Sowie es klar wurde, daß Sowjetrußland aus der Abgrenzung der politischen deutschen Einflußsphären das Recht ableitete, die außerhalb lebenden Nationen praktisch auszurotten. war das weitere Verhältnis nur noch ein zweckbestimmtes‚ dern Vernunft und Gefühle feindlich gegenüberstanden.

Von Monat zu Monat mehr wurde schon im Jahre 1940 die Erkenntnis gewonnen, daß die Pläne der Männer des Kreml bewußt auf die Beherrschung und damit Vernichtung ganz Europas hinzielten.

Ich habe der Nation schon ein Bild des Aufmarsches der russischen militärischen Machtmittel im Osten gegeben, zu einer Zeit‚ in der Deutschland nur wenige Divisionen in den an Rußland angrenzenden Provinzen besaß. Nur ein Blinder konnte es übersehen‚ daß sich hier ein Aufmarsch von weltgeschichtlich einmaligen Dimensionen vollzog. Und zwar nicht, um etwas zu verteidigen, was nicht bedroht war, sondern nur‚ um etwas anzugreifen, was zur Verteidigung nicht mehr fähig zu sein schien.

Wenn die blitzartige Beendigung des Feldzuges im Westen den Moskauer Machthabern auch die Möglichkeit nahm, mit einer sofortigen Erschöpfung des Deutschen Reiches rechnen zu können, so beseitigte dies keineswegs ihre Absichten, sondern verschob nur den Zeitpunkt des Angriffes. Im Sommer 1941 glaubte man, den günstigen Moment des Losschlagens zu sehen. Nun sollte ein neuer Mongolensturm über Europa hinwegbrausen.

Für die gleiche Zeit aber,versprach Mister Churchill auch die Wende des englischen Kampfes gegen Deutschland. Er versucht heute in feiger Weise abzuleugnen, daß er in den Geheimsitzungen des Jahres 1940 im englischen Unterhaus als wesentlichsten Faktor für die erfölgreiche Fortführung und Beendigung dieses Krieges‚auf den sowjetischen Kriegseintritt hinwies, der spätestens im Jahre 1941 kommen sollte und der England dann in die Lage versetzen würde, auch seinerseits zum Angriff überzugehen.

Im Frühling dieses Jahres verfolgten wir deshalb in gewissenhafter Pflicht den Aufmarsch einer Weltmacht, die an Menschen undMaterialüberunerschöpfliche Reserven zu verfügen schien. Schwere Wolken begannen sich über Europa zusammenzuziehen.

Denn, meine Abgeordneten, was ist Europa? Es gibt keine geographische Definition unseres Kontinents, sondern nur eine volkliche und kulturelle. Nicht der Ural ist die Grenze dieses Kontinents, sondern jene Linie, die" das Lebensbild des Westens von dem des Ostens trennt.

Es gab eine Zeit, da war Europa jenes griechische Eiland, in das nordische Stämme vorgedrungen waren, um von dort aus zum erstenmal ein Licht anzuzünden, das Seitdem langsam aber stetig die Welt der Menschen zu erhellen begann. Und als diese Griechen den Einbruch der persischen Eroberer abwehrten, da verteidigten sie nicht ihre engere Heimat, die Griechenland war, sondern jenen Begriff, der heute Europa heißt.

Und dann wanderte Europa von Hellas nach Rom.

Mit dem griechischen Geist und der griechischen Kultur verband sich römisches Denken und römische Staatskunst. Ein Weltreich wurde geschaffen, das auch heute noch in seiner Bedeutung und fortzeugenden Kraft nicht erreicht, geschweige denn übertroffen ist. Als aber die römischen Legionen gegenüber dem afrikanischen Ansturm Karthagos in drei schweren Kriegen Italien verteidigten und endlich den Sieg erfochten, war es wieder nicht Rom, für das sie kämpften, sondern das die griechisch-römische Welt umfassende Europa.

Der nächste Einbruch gegen diesen Heimatboden der neuen menschlichen Kultur erfolgte aus den Weiten des Ostens. Ein furchtbarer Strom kulturloser Horden ergoß sich aus Innerasien bis tief in das Herz des heutigen europäischen Kontinents, brennend, sengend und mordend als wahre Geißel des Herrn.

In der Schlacht auf den Katalaunischen Feldern traten zum erstenmal in einem Schicksalskampf von unabsehbarer Bedeutung Römer und Germanen gemeins am für eine Kultur ein, die, von den Griechen ausgehend, über die Römer hinweg nunmehr auch die Germanen in ihren Bann gezogen hatte.

Europa war gewachsen.Aus Hellas und Rom entstand das Abendland und seine Verteidigung war nunmehr für viele Jahrhunderte nicht nur die Aufgabe der Römer, sondern vor allem auch die Aufgabe der Germanen. In eben dem Maße aber, in dem das Abendland, beleuchtet von griechischer Kultur, erfüllt vom Eindruck der gewaltigen Überlieferungen des römischen Reiches, durch die germanische Kolonisation seine Räume erweiterte, dehnte sich räumlich jener Begriff, den wir Europa nennen.

Ganz gleich, ob nun deutsche Kaiser an der Unstruth oder auf dem Lechfeld die Einbrüche aus dem Osten abwehrten, oder Afrika in langen Kämpfen aus Spanien zurückgedrängt wurde, es war immer ein Kampf des werdenden Europas gegenüber einer ihm im tiefsten Wesen fremden Welt. Wenn einst Rom seine unvergänglichen Verdienste an der Schöpfung und Verteidigung dieses Kontinents zukamen, dann übernahmen nunmehr auch Germanen die Verteidigung und den Schutz einer Völkerfamilie, die unter sich in der politischen Gestaltung und Zielsetzung noch so differenziert und auseinanderweichend sein mochte:

Im Gesamtbild aber doch eine blutmäßig und kulturell teils gleiche, teils sich ergänzaende Einheit darstellt.

Und von diesem Europa aus ging nicht nur eine Besiedlung anderer Erdteile vor sich, sondern eine geistige und kulturelle Befruchtung, deren sich nur jener bewußt wird, der gewillt ist, die Wahrheit zu suchen, statt sie zu verleugnen.

Es hat deshalb auch nicht England den Kontinent kultiviert, sondern Splitter germanischen Volkstums unseres Kontinents sind als Angelsachsen und Normannen auf diese Inselgezogen und haben ihr eine Entwicklung ermöglicht, die sicher einmalig ist. Und ebenso hat nicht Amerika Europa entdeckt.sondern umgekehrt. Und all das, was Amerika nicht aus Europa bezogen hat, mag wohl einer verjudeten Mischrasse als bewunderungswürdig erscheinen, Europa aber sieht darin nur ein Zeichen des Verfalls in Kunst und kultureller Lebenshaltung, das Erbe jüdischen oder vernegerten Bluteinschlags.

Meine Abgeordneten! Männer des Deutschen Reichstages!

Ich muß diese Ausführungen machen, denn der Kampf, der sich in den ersten Monaten dieses Jahres allmählich als unausbleiblich abzuzeichnen begann und zu dessen Führung dieses Mal in erster Linie das Deutsche Reich berufen ist, geht ebenfalls über die Interessen unseres eigenen Volkes und Landes weit hinaus. Denn so wie einst die Griechen gegenüber den Persern nicht Griechenland und die Römer gegenüber den Karthagern nicht Rom, Römer und Germanen gegenüber den Hunnen nicht das Abendland, deutsche Kaiser gegenüber Mongolen nicht Deutschland, spanische Helden gegenüber Afrika nicht Spanien, sondern Europa verteidigt haben, so kämpft Deutschland auch heute nicht für sich selbst, sondern für unseren gesamten Kontinent.

Und es ist ein glückliches Zeichen, daß diese Erkenntnis im Unterbewußtsein der meisten europäischen Völker heute so tief ist, daß sie, ‚sei es durch offene Stellungnahme, sei es durch den Zustrom von Freiwilligen, an diesem Kampfe teilnehmen.

Als die deutschen und italienischen Armeen am 6. April dieses Jahres zum Angriff gegen Jugoslawien und Griechenland antraten, war dies die Einleitung des großen Kampfes, in dem wir uns zur Zeit noch befinden.

Denn die Revolte. die in Belgrad zum Sturz des ehemaligen Prinzregenten und seiner Regierung führte, war bestimmend für den weiteren Verlauf der Geschehnisse in diesem Raum Europas. Wenn auch England an diesem Putsch maßgebendst beteiligt war, so spielte doch die Hauptrolle Sowjetrußland.

Was ich Herrn Molotow anläßlich seines Besuches in Berlin verweigert hatte, glaubte Stalin nunmehr auf dem Umweg einer revolutionären Bewegung auch gegen unseren Willen erreichen zu können. Ohne Rücksicht auf die abgeschlossenen Vertrage weiteten sich die Absichten der bolschewistischen Machthaber. Der Freundschaftspakt mit dem neuen revolutionären Regime erhellte blitzartig die Nähe der drohenden Gefahr.

Was vor der deutschen Wehrmacht in diesem Feldzuge geleistet wurde, fand im Deutschen Reichstag am 4. Mai 1941 seine Würdigung.

Was auszusprechen mir damals aber leider versagt bleiben mußte, war die Erkenntnis, daß wir mit rasender Schnelligkeit der Auseinandersetzung mit einem Staat entgegengingen, der im Augenblick des Balkanfeldzuges nur deshalb noch nicht eingriff, weil sein Aufmarsch noch night vollendet und die Benützung der Flughäfen vor allem infolge der um diese Jahreszeit erst einsetzenden Schneeschmelze und damit der Grundlosmachung der Rollfelder unmöglich war.

Meine Abgeordneten! Reichstages!

So wie mir im Jahre 1940 durch Mitteilungen aus dem englischen Unterhaus und durch Beobachtung der russischen Truppenverschiebungen an unseren Grenzen die Möglichkeit der Entstehung einer Gefahr im Osten des Reiches bewußt wurde, erteilte ich sofort die Anweisung zur Aufstellung zahlreicher neuer Panzer-, motorisierter und Infanteriedivisionen. Die Voraussetzungen dafür waren sowohl personell als auch materiell reichlich vorhanden. Wie ich Ihnen, meine Abgeordneten, und überhaupt dem ganzen deutschen Volke nur eine Versicherung geben kann:

Wenn man auch in den Demokratien von Rüstung – wie leicht begreiflich – sehr viel redet, dann wird aber trotzdem im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland dafür immer noch mehr gearbeitet. Es war in der Vergangenheit so und es ist dies auch heute nicht anders. Jedes Jahr wird uns mit vermehrten und vor allem auch besseren Waffen dort finden, wo die Entscheidungen fallen.

Trotz aller Einsicht in die Notwendigkeit, unter keineri Umständen dem Gegner die Möglichkeit zu bieten, den ersten Stoß in unser Herz tun zu können, war der Entschluß in diesem Fall doch ein sehr sdtwerer. Wenn die. Artikelschreiber unserer demokratischen Zeitungen heute erklären, daß ich bei genauerer Kenntnis der Stärke des bolschewistischen Gegners es mir überlegt haben würde, zum Angriff zu schreiten, so verkennen sie ebensosehr die Lage wie meine Person.

Ich habe keinen Krieg gesucht, sondern habe im Gegenteil alles getan, um ihn zu vermeiden. Ich würde aber pflichtvergessen und gewissenlos handeln, wenn ich es trotz der Kenntnis der Unvermeidbarkeit eines Waffenganges versäumen würde, die daraus einzig möglichen Konsequenzen zu ziehen.

Weil ich Sowjetrußland für die tödlichste Gefahr nicht nur des Deutschen Reiches, sondern für ganz Europa hielt, habe ich mich entschlossen, wenn möglich noch wenige Tage vor Ausbruch dieser Auseinandersetzung selbst das Zeichen zum Angriff zu geben.

Für die Tatsache der Absicht aber des russischen Angriffes liegt heute ein wahrhaft erdrückendes und authentisches Material vor. Ebenso sind wir uns im klaren über den Zeitpunkt, an dem dieser Angriff stattfinden sollte. Angesichts der uns vielleicht im ganzen Umfang aber wirklich erst heute bewußt gewordenen Größe der Gefahr kann ich dem Herrgott nur danken, daß er mich zur richtigen Stunde erleuchtet hat und mir die Kraft schenkte, das zu tun, was getan werden mußte.

Dem verdanken nicht nur Millionen deutscher Soldaten ihr Leben, sondern ganz Europa sein Dasein. Denn das darf ich heute aussprechen: Wenn sich diese Welle von über 20.000 Panzern, Hunderten an Divisionen, Zehntausenden an Geschützen, begleitet von mehr als 10.000 Flugzeugen, unversehens über das Reich hin in Bewegung gesetzt haben würde, wäre Europa verloren gewesen!

Das Schicksal hat eine Reihe von Völkern bestimmt, durch den Einsatz ihres Blutes diesem Stoß zuvorzukommen, beziehungsweise ihn aufzufangen.

Hätte sich Finnland nicht sofort entschlossen, zum zweiten Male die Waffen zu ergreifen, dann würde die gemächliche Bürgerlichkeit der anderen nordischen Staaten schnell ihr Ende gefunden haben.

Wäre das Deutsche Reich nicht mit seinen Soldaten und Waffen vor diesen Gegner getreten, würde ein Strom über Europa gebrandet sein, der die lächerliche britische Idee der Aufrechterhaltung des europäischen Gleichgewichts in ihrer ganzen Geistlosigkeitundstupiden Tradition einmal für immer erledigt hätte.

Würden nicht Slowaken, Ungarn und Rumänen den Schutz dieser europäischen Welt mit übernommen haben. dann wären die bolschewistischen Horden wie der Hunnenschwarm eines Attila über die Donauiänder gebraust. und an den Gefilden des Ionischen Meeres würden heute Tataren und Mongolen die Revision des Vertrages von Montreux erzwingen.

Hätten nicht Italien, Spanien, Kroatien ihre Divisionen gesendet, dann würde nicht eine Abwehr einer europäischen Front entstanden sein, die als Proklamation des Begriffs des neuen Europa ihre werbende Kraft auch auf alle anderen Völker ausstrahlen ließ. Aus diesem ahnungsvollen Erkennen heraus sind von Nord- und Westeuropa die Freiwilligen gekommen: Norweger, Dänen, Holländer, Flamen, Belgier usw., ja selbst Franzosen, die dem Kampf der verbündeten Mächte der Achse im wahrsten Sinne des Wortes den Charakter eines europäischen Kreuzzuges geben.

Es ist noch nicht die Zeit, über die Planung und Führung dieses Feldzuges zu sprechen. Allein ich glaube schon jetzt, in diesem gewaltigsten Kampfe aller Zeiten, bei dem sich durch die Größe des Raumes und die Vielzahl der Ereignisse nur zu leicht die einzelnen Eindrücke verwischen, in wenigen Sätzen auf das Erreichte hinweisen zu dürfen.

Am 22. Juni begann im grauenden Morgen der Angriff. Mit unwiderstehlicher Kühnheit wurden jene Grenzbefestigungen durchstoßen, die bestimmt waren, den russischen Aufmarsch gegen uns vor jeder Überraschung zu sichern.

Schon am 23. Juni war Grodno gefallen.

Am 24. Juni waren nach der Einnahme von Brest-Litowsk die Zitadelle niedergekämpft und ebenso Wilna und Kowno genommen.

Am 26. Juni fiel Dünaburg.

Am 10. Juli wurden die ersten beiden großen Umfassungsschlachten bei Bialystok und Minsk abgeschlossen. 324.000 Gefangene, 3332 Panzer und 1809 Geschütze fielen in unsere Hand.

Schon am 13. Juli erfolgte an fast allen entscheidenden Stellen der Durchbruch durch die Stalin-Linie.

Am 16. fiel nach schweren Kämpfen Smolensk, während am 19. Juli deutsche und rumänische Verbände den Übergang über den Dnjestr erzwangen.

Am 6. August wurde in vielen Kesseln die Schlacht von Smolensk beendet. Wieder marschierten in deutsche Gefangenschaft 310.000 Sowjetsoldaten, während 3205 Panzer und 3120 Geschütze teils als vernichtet, teils als Beute gezählt werden konnten.

Schon drei Tage später vollendete sich das Schicksal einer weiteren russischen Heeresgruppe.

Am 9. August wurden in der Schlacht von Uman wieder 103.000 Sowjetrussen gefangen, 317 Panzer, 1100 Geschütze zerstört oder erbeutet.

Am 17. August fiel Nikolajew, am 21. wurde Cherson genommen. Am salben Tag fand die Schlacht bei Goniel ihren Abschluß mit 84.000 Gefangenen und 144 Panzern und 848 Geschützen, die abermals teils erbeutet, teils vernichtet worden waren.

Am 21. August wurden die russischen Stellungen zwischen dem Ilmen- und Peipussee durchbrochen, während am 26. August der Brückenkopf um Dnjepropetrowsk in unsere Hände kam.

Schön am 28. des gleichen Monats zogen deutsche Truppen nach schweren Kämpfen in Revalund Baltisch Port ein, während am 30. Viip uri durch die Firmen genommen wurde.

Mit der am 8. September erfolgten Eroberung von Schlüssel urg wurde Leningrad endgültig auch ach dem Süden hin abgeschlossen.

Am 16. September gelang es, die Brückenköpfe über den Dnjepr zu bilden, und schön am 18. September fiel Poltawa in die Hand unserer Soldaten.

Am 19. September erstürmten deutsche Verbände die Zitadelle von Kiew und am 22. wurde die Eroberung von Ösel durch die Einnahme der Hauptstadt gekrönt. Nunmehr aber erst reiften die größten Operationen zu den erwarteten Erfolgen heran.

Am 27. September war die Schlacht bei Kiew abgeschlossen. 665.000 Gefangene setzten sich in endlosen Kolonnen nach Westen in Bewegung. 884 Panzer, 3178 Geschütze aber blieben in den Kesseln als Beute liegen.

Schon am 2. Oktober begann die Durchbruchsschlacht nunmehr in der Mitte der Ostfront, während am 11. Oktober die Schlacht am Aso.wschen Meer ihren erfolgreichen Abschluß fand.

Wieder wurden 107.000 Gefangene, 212 Panzer und 672 Geschütze gezählt.

Am 16. Oktober erfolgte nach hartem Kampf der Einzug der deutschen und rumänischen Verbände in Odessa.

Am 18. Oktober war die am 2. Oktober begonnene Durchbruchsschlacht in der Mitte der Ostfront mit einem neuen, weltgeschichtlich einmaligen Erfolg beendet.

663.000 Gefangene waren das eine Ergebnis, 1242 Panzer, 5452 Geschütze, teils vernichtet und teils erbeutet, das andere.

Am 21. Oktober wurde die Eroberung von Dagö abgeschlossen.

Am 24. Oktober das Industriezentrum Charkow genommen.

Am 28. Oktober in schwersten Kämpfen der Zugang zur Krim endgültig erzwungen und schon am 2. November die Hauptstadt Simferopol erstürmt.

Am 16. November war die Krim durchstoßen bis Kertsch.

Am 1. Dezember aber betrug die Gesamtzahl der gefangenen Sowjetrussen 3.806.865.

Die Zahl der vernichteten oder erbeuteten Panzer betrug 21.391, die der Geschütze 32.541 und die der Flugzeuge 17.322.

Im gleichen Zeitraum wurden 2191 britische Flugzeuge abgeschossen. – Durch die Kriegsmarine 4.170.611 Bruttoregisterformen. durch die Luftwaffe 2.346.180 Bruttoregistertonnen versenkt, also zusammen: 6.516.791 Bruttoregistertonnen vernichtet.

Meine Abgeordneten!

Mein deutsches Volk!

Dies sind nüchterne Tatsachen und vielleicht trockene Zahlen. Mögen sie aber nie der Geschichte und vor allem dem Bewußtsein und der Erinnerung unseres eigenen deutschen Volkes entschwinden! Denn hinter diesen Zahlen verbergen sich die Leistungen, Opfer und Entbehrungen, stehen der Heldenmut und die Todesbereitschaft von Millionen der besten Männer unseres eigenen Volkes und der mit uns verbündeten Staaten.

Alles das mußte erkämpft werden mit dem Einsatz der Gesundheit und des Lebens und unter Anstrengungen, von denen die Heimat wohl kaum eine Ahnung hat.

In endlose Fernen marschierend, gequält von Hitze und Durst, oft fast bis zur Verzweiflung gehemmt durch den Schlamm grundioser Wege, vom Weißen bis zum Schwarzen Meer den Unbilden eines Klimas ausgesetzt, das von der Glut der Juli- und Augusttage sich senkt bis zu den Winter-stürmen des November und Dezember, gepeinigt von Insekten. leidend unter Schmutz und Ungeziefer, frierend in Schnee und Eis, haben sie gekämpft. die Deutschen und die Firmen, die Italiener, Slowaken, Ungarn und Rumänen. die Kroaten, die Freiwilligen aus den nordischen und westeuropäischen Ländern. alles in allem: die Soldaten der Ostfront!

Ich will an diesem Tag keine einzelnen Waffen nennen, will keine Führung rühmen, sie haben alle ihr Höchstes gegeben. Und doch verpflichten Einsicht und Gerechtigkeit, eines immer wieder festzustellen:

Von all unseren deutschen Soldaten trägt so wie einst auch heute die schwerste Last des Kampfes unsere einng dastehende Infanterie.

Vom 22. Juni bis 1. Dezember hat das deutsche Heer in diesem Heldenkampf verloren: 158.773 Tote, 563.082 Verwundete und 31.191 Vermißte.

Die Luftwaffe 3231 Tote, 8453 Verwundete und 2028 Vermißte.

Die Kriegsmarine 310 Tote, 232 Verwundete und. 115 Vermißte.

Mithin die deutsche Wehrmacht zusammen: 162.314 Tote-, 571.767 Verwundete und 33.334 Vermißte.

Also an Toten und Verwundeten etwas mehr als das Doppelte der Sommeschlacht des Weltkrieges, an Vermißten etwas weniger als die Hälfte der damaligen Zahl, alles aber Väter Volkes!

Und nun lassen Sie mich demgegenüber zu jener anderen Welt Stellung nehmen, die ihren Repräsentanten in dem Mann hat, der, während die Völker und ihre Soldaten in Schnee und Eis kämpfen, in taktvoller Weise vom Kaminfeuer aus zu plaudern pflegt, und damit also vor allem von jenem Mann. der der Hauptschuldige an diesem Kriege ist.

Als sich im Jahre 1939 die Lage der Nationalitäten im damaligen polnischen Staat als immer unerträglicher erwies, versuchte ich zunächst auf dem Wege eines billigen Ausgleichs die untragbar gewordenen Zustände zu beseitigen. Es schien eine gewisse Zeit so, als ob die polnische Regierung selber ernstlich erwogen hätte, einer vernünftigen Lösung zuzustimmen. Ich darf hier noch einfügen, daß bei all diesen Vorschlägen von deutscher Seite nichts gefordert wurde, was nicht schon früher deutsches Eigentum gewesen war, ja daß wir im Gegenteil auf sehr viel Verzicht leisteten, was vor dem Weltkrieg Deutschland gehörte.

Sie erinnern sich noch der dramatischen Entwicklung dieser Zeit, der sich fortgesetzt erhöhenden Opfer der deutschen Volksgruppe. Sie sind, meine Abgeordneten. am besten in der Lage, die Schwere dieser Blutopfer zu ermessen, wenn Sie sie in Vergleich setzen zu den Opfern des jetzigen Krieges.

Denn der bisherige Feldzug im Osten hat die gesamte deutsche Wehrmacht rund 160.000 Tote gekostet. allein im tiefsten Frteden sind damals in wenigen Monaten in Polen über 62.000 Volksdeutsche zum Teil unter den grausamsten Martem getötet worden.

Daß das Deutsche Reich ein Recht besaß, solche Zustände an seiner Grenze zu beanstanden und auf ihre Beseitigung zu drängen, überhaupt auch auf seine Sicherheit bedacht zu sein, dürfte wohl kaum bestritten werden in einer Zeit, in der andere Länder Elemente ihrer Sicherheit sogar in fremden Kontinenten suchen. Die Probleme, die korrigiert werden sollten, waren territorial genommen unbedeutend. Im wesentlichen handelte es sich um Danzig und um die Verbindung der abgerissenen Provinz Ostpreußen mit dem übrigen Reich. Schwerer wogen die grausamen Verfolgungen, denen die Deutschen gerade in Polen ausgesetzt waren.

Ein nicht minder schweres Schicksal hatten dort übrigens auch die anderen Minoritaten zu erdulden.

Als sich nun in den Augusttagen die Haltung Polens dank der als Blankovollmacht ausgestellten Garantie Englands immer mehr versteifte‚ sah sich die deutsche Reichsregierung, und zwar zum letztenmal, veranlaßt, einen Vorschlag zu unterbreiten, auf Grund dessen sie bereit war, in Verhandlungen mit Polen einzutreten und von dem sie dem damaIigen englischen Botschafter wörtlich Kenntnis gab.

Ich darf diese Vorschläge am heutigen Tage der Vergessenheit entreißen und sie Ihnen Wieder in Erinnerung bringen.

Die Lage zwischen dem Deutschen Reich und Polen ist zur Zeit so, daß jeder weitere Zwischenfall zu einer Entladung der beiderseits in Stellung gegangenen militärischen Streitkräfte führen kann. Jede friedliche Lösung muß so beschaffen sein, daß sich nicht bei nächster Gelegenheit die diesen Zustand ursächlich bedingenden Ereignisse wiederholen können und dadurch nicht nur der Osten Europas, sondern auch andere Gebiete in die gleiche Spannung versetzt werden.

Die Ursachen dieser Entwicklung liegen

  1. in der unmöglichen Grenzziehung, wie sie durch das Versailler Diktat vorgenommen wurde,
  2. in der unmöglichen Behandlung der Minderheit in den abgetrennten Gebieten.
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Aus diesen Erwägungen ergeben sich folgende praktische Vorschläge:

  1. Die Freie Stadt Danzig kehrt auf Grund ihres rein deutschen Charakters sowie des einmütigen Willens ihrer Bevölkerung sofort in das Deutsche Reich zurück.

  2. Das Gebiet des sogenannten Korridors, das von der Ostsee bis zu der Linie Marienwerder – Graudenz, Kulm – Bromberg (diese Städte einschließlich) und dann etwa westlich nach Schönlanke reicht, wird über seine Zugehörigkeit zu Deutschland oder zu Polen selbst entscheiden.

  3. Zu diesem Zweck wird dieses Gebiet eine Abstimmung vornehmen. Abstimmungsberechtigt sind alle Deutschen, die am 1. Jänner 1918 in diesem Gebiete wohnhaft waren oder bis zu diesem Tage dort geboren wurden‚ und desgleichen alle an diesem Tage in diesem Gebiet wohnhaft gewesenen oder bis zu diesem Tage dort geborenen Polen, Kaschuben usw. Die au5 diesem Gebiet vertriebenen Deutschen kehren zur Erfüllung ihrer Abstimmung zurück.

Zur Sicherung einer objektiven Abstimmung sowie zur Gewährleistung der dafür notwendigen umfangreichen Vorarbeiteu wird dieses erwähnte Gebiet ähnlich dem Saargebiet einer sofort zu bildenden Internationalen Kommission unterstellt, die von den vier Großmächten Italien. Sowjetunion, Frankreich, England gebildet wird. Diese Kommission übt alle Hoheitsrechte indiesem Gebiet aus. Zu dem Zweck ist dieses Gebiet in einer zu vereinbarenden kürzesten Frist von den polnischen Militärs, der polnischen Polizei und den polnischen Behörden zu räumen.

  1. Von diesem Gebiet bleibt ausgenommen der polnische Hafen Gdingen, der grundsätzlich polnisches Hoheitsgebiet ist, insoweit er sich territorial auf die polnische Siedlung beschränkt.

Die näheren Grenzen dieser polnischen Hafenstadt wären zwischen Deutschland und Polen festzulegen und nötigenfalls durch ein internationales Schiedsgericht festzusetzen.

  1. Um die notwendige Zeit für die erforderlichen umfangreichen Arbeiten zur Durchführuug einer gerechten Abstimmung sicherzustellen, wird diese Abstimmung nicht vor Ablauf von zwölf Monaten stattfinden.

  2. Um während dieser Zeit Deutschland seine Verbindung mit Ostpreußen und Polen seine Verbindung mit dem Meere unbeschränkt zu garantieren, werden Straßen und Eisenbahnen festgelegt, die einen freien Transitverkehr ermöglichen. Hiebei dürfen nur jene Abgaben erhoben werden, die für die Erhaltung der Verkehrswege, beziehungsweise für die Durchführung der Transporte erforderlich sind.

  3. Über die Zugehörigkeit des Gebietes entscheidet die einfache Mehrheit der abgegebenen Stimmen.

  4. Um nach erfolgter Abstimmung – ganz gleich, wie diese ausgehen möge – die Sicherheit des freien Verkehrs Deutschlands mit seiner Provinz Danzig-Ostpreußen und Polen seine Verbindung mit dem Meere zu garantieren, wird, falls das Abstimmungsgebiet an Polen fällt, Deutschland eine exterritoriale Verkehrszone, etwa in Richtung von Bütow-Danzig, beziehungsweise Dirschau gegeben, zur Anlage einer Reichsautobahn sowie einer viergleisigen Eisenbahnlinie. Der Bau der Straße und der Eisenbahn wird so durchgeführt, daß die polnischen Kommunikationswege dadurch nicht berührt‚ das heißt entweder überoder unterfahren werden. Die reite dieser Zone wird auf einen Kilometer festgesetzt, und ist deutsches Hoheitsgebiet.

Fällt die Abstimmung zugunsten Deutschlands aus, erhält Polen zum freien und uneingeschränkten Verkehr nach seinem Hafen Gdingen die gleichen Rechte einer ebenso exterritorialen Straßen- beziehungsweise Bahnverbindung, wie sie Deutschland zustehen würden.

  1. Im Falle des Zurückfallens des Korridors an das Deutsche Reich erklärt sich dieses bereit, einen Bevölkerungsaustausch mit Polen in dem Ausmaß vorzunehmen, als der Korridor hierfür geeignet ist.

  2. Die etwa von Polen gewünschten Sonderrechte im Hafen von Danzig würden paritätisch ausgehandelt werden, mit gleichen Rechten Deutschlands im Hafen von Gdingen.

  3. Um in diesem Gebiet jedes Gefühl einer Bedrohung auf beiden Seiten zu beseitigen, würden Danzig und Gdingen den Charakter reiner Handelsstädte erhalten‚ das heißt ohne militärische Anlagen und militärische Befestigungen.

  4. Die Halbinsel Hela, die entsprechend der Abstimmung entweder zu Polen oder zu Deutschland käme, würde in jedem Fall ebenfalls zu demilitarisieren sein.

Die damalige polnische Regierung hat es abgelehnt, auf diese Vorschläge auch nur zu reagieren. Es erhebt sich dabei aber doch die Frage: Wie konnte es ein so unbedeutender Staat wagen, solche Vorschläge einfach zu negieren und darüber hinaus nicht nur zu weiteren Grausamkeiten gegenüber den Deutschen, die diesem Lande die ganze Kultur geschenkt hatten‚ zu greifen, sondern sogar noch die allgemeine Mobilmachung anzuordnen?

Der Einblick in die Dokumente des Auswärtigen Amtes in Warschau hat uns allen später die überraschende Aufklärung gegeben:

Ein Mann war es der mit teuflischer Gewissenlosigkeit seinen gesamten Einfluß zur Anwendung brachte, um Polen in seinem Widerstand zu bestärken und jede Möglichkeit einer Verständigung auszuschalten.

Die Berichte, die der damalige polnische Gesandte in Washington, Graf Potocki, seiner Regierung in Warschau schickte, sind Dokumente‚ aus denen mit erschrekkender Deutlichkeit hervorgeht, wie sehr ein einziger Mann und die ihn treibenden Kräfte mit der Verantwortung für den zweiten Weltkrieg belastet sind.

Es erhebt sich zunächst die Frage, aus welchen Gründen konnte dieser Mann in eine so fanatische Feindschaft gegenüber einem Land verfallen, das bisher in seiner ganzen Geschichte weder Amerika noch ihm selbst irgend ein Leid zugefügt hatte.

Soweit es sich um die Stellung Deutschlands zu Amerika handelt‚ ist folgendes zu sagen:

  1. Deutschland ist vielleicht die einzige Großmacht, die weder auf dem nord- noch südamerikanischen Kontinent jemals eine Kolonie besessen oder sich sonst politisch betätigt hat, es sei denn durch die Auswanderung vieler Millionen Deutscher und deren Mitarbeit, aus der der amerikanische Kontinent, insonderheit die Vereinigten Staaten nur Nutzen gezogen haben.

  2. Das Deutsche Relch hat in der ganzen Geschichte der Entstehung und des Bestehens der Vereinigten Staaten niemals eine politisch ablehnende oder gar feindliche Haltung eingenornmen, wohl aber mit dem Blut vieler seiner Söhne mitgeholfen, die USA. zu verteidigen.

  3. Das Deutsche Reich hat sich an keinem Krieg gegen die Vereinigten Staaten selbst beteiligt, wohl aber wurde es von den Vereinigten Staaten im Jahre 1917 mit Krieg überzogen, und zwar aus Gründen, die durch einen Ausschuß restlos aufgeklärt worden sind, den der jetzige Präsident Roosevelt zur Prüfung dieser Frage selbst eingesetzt hatte.

Gerade dieser Untersuchungsausschuß zur Klärung der Gründe des amerikanischen Kriegseintritts hat einwandfrei festgestellt, daß diese für den amerikanischen Kriegseintritt 1917 ausschließlich auf dem Gebiet der kapitalistischen Interessen einiger kleiner Gruppen lagen, daß Deutschland selbst jedenfalls keinerlei Absicht hatte, mit Amerika in einen Konflikt zu geraten.

Auch sonst gibt es zwischen dem amerikanischen und dem deutschen Volk keine Gegensätze, seien sie territorialer oder politischer Art, die irgendwie die Interessen oder gar die Existenz der Vereinigten Staaten berühren könnten.

Die Verschiedenheit der Staatsformen war immer gegeben. Sie kann aber überhaupt nicht als ein Grund für Feindseligkeiten im Völkerleben herangezogen werden‚ solange sich nicht eine Staatsform bemüht, außerhalb des ihr natürlich gegebenen Bereiches in andere einzugreifen.

Amerika ist eine von einem Präsidenten mit großer autoritärer Vollmacht geleitete Repuink. Deutschland war einst eine von einer bedingten Autorität geführte Monarchie‚ später eine autoritätslose Demokratie, heute eine von starker Autorität geführte Republik. Zwischen beiden Staaten liegt ein Ozean. Die Divergenzen zwischen dem kapitalistischen Amerika und dem bolschewistischen Rußland müßten, Wenn überhaupt diese Begriffe etwas Wahres in sich hätten, wesentlich größer sein als zwischen dem von einem Präsidenten geführten Amerika und dem von einem‚Führer geleiteten Deutschland.

Es ist nun aber eine Tatsache, daß die beiden historischen Konflikte zwischen Deutschland und den Vereinigten Staaten, wenn auch von der gleichen Kraft inspiriert, doch ausschließlich durch zwei Männer der USA. angefacht worden sind, nämlich durch den Präsidenten Wilson und durch Franklin Roosevelt.

Das Urteil über Wilson hat die Geschichte selbst gesprochen. Sein Name bleibt verbunden mit einem der gemeinsten Wortbrüche aller Zeiten. Die Folgen seines Wortbruches waren eine Zerrüttung des Lebens der Völker nicht nur bei den sogenannten Besiegten‚ sondern auch bei den Siegern selbst. Das durch seinen Wortbruch allein ermöglichte Diktat von Versailles hat Staaten zerrissen, Kulturen zerstört und die Wirtschaft aller ruiniert.

Wir wissen heute, daß hinter Wilson eine Gesellschaft interessierter Finanziers stand‚ die sich dieses paralytischen Professors bedienten, um Amerika in den Krieg zu führen, von dem sie sich erhöhte Geschäfte erhofften.

Daß das deutsche Volk diesem Mann einst geglaubt hatte, mußte es mit dem Zusammenbruch seiner politischen und wirtschaftlichen Existenz bezahlen.

Welches ist nun der Grund, daß nach so bitteren Erfahrungen sich wieder ein Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten findet, der erneut seine einzige Aufgabe darin sieht, Kriege entstehen zu lassen und vor allem die Feindschaft gegen Deutschland bis zum Kriegsausbruch zu steigern?

Der Nationalsozialismus kam in Deutschland im selben Jahre zur Macht, in dem Roosevelt zum Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten gewählt wurde. Es ist nun wichtig, die Momente zu prüfen, die als Ursache der heutigen Entwicklung angesehen werden müssen.

Zunächst die persönliche Seite:

Ich verstehe nur zu wohl, daß zwischen der Lebensauffassung und -einstellung des Präsidenten Roosevelt und meiner eigenen ein Weltweiter Abstand ist.

Roosevelt stammt aus einer steinreichen Familie, gehörte von vornherein zu jener Klasse von Menschen, denen Geburt und Herkunft in den Demokratien den Weg des Lebens ebnen und damit den Aufstieg sichern.

Ich selbst war nur das Kind einer kleinen und armen Familie und mußte mir unter unsäglichen Mühen durch Arbeit und Fleiß meinen Weg erkämpfen.

Als der Weltkrieg kam, hatte Roosevelt in einer unter dem Schatten Wilsons beündlichen Stellung den Krieg aus der Sphäre des Verdienenden miterlebt. Er kennt daher nur die angenehmen Folgen der Auseinandersetzung von Völkern und Staaten. die sich für den ergeben. der dort Geschäfte macht, wo andere verbluten.

In dieser gleichen Zeit war mein eigenes Leben wieder auf der ganz anderen Seite gelegen. Ich gehörte nicht zu denen, die Geschichte oder gar Geschäfte machten, sondern nur zu denen, die Befehle ausführten.

Als gewöhnlicher Soldat habe ich mich bemüht, in diesen vier Jahren vor dem Feindemeine Pflicht zu erfüllen und kehrte aus dem Kriege natürlich gerade so arm zurück wie ich im Herbst 1914 in ihn gezogen war. Ich babe also mein Schicksal mit dem von Millionen geteilt, Herr Franklin Roosevelt das seine mit dem der sogenannten oberen Zehntausend. Während Herr Roosevelt nach dem Kriege schon seine Fähigkeiten in Finanzspekulationen erprobte, um aus der Inflation, das heißt dem Elend der anderen persönlfchen Nutzen zu ziehen, lag ich noch, ebenfalls wie viele andere Hunderttausend. im Lazarett.

Und als Herr Roosevelt die Laufbahn des normalen geschäftlich erfahrenen, wirtschaftlich fundierten, herkunftsmäßig protegierten Politikers beschritt, kämpfte ich als namenloser Unbekannter für die Wiedererhebung eines Volkes, dem das schwerste Unrecht in seiner.ganzen Geschichte angetan worden war.

Zwei Lebenswege! Als Franklin Roosevelt an die Spitze der Vereinigten Staaten trat, war er der Kandidat einer durch und durch kapitalistischen Partei‚ die sich seiner bediente. Und als ich Kanzler des Deutschen Reiches wurde war ich der Führer einer Volksbewegung, die ich selbst geschaffen hatte.

Die Kräfte, die Herrn Roosevelt trugen, waren die Kräfte, die ich auf Grund des Schicksals meines Volkes und meiner heiligsten inneren Überzeugung bekämpfte. Der „Gehirntrust“, dessen sich der neue amerikanische Präsident bediente, bestand aus Angehörigen desselben Volkes, das wir als eine parasitäre Erscheinung der Menschheit in Deutschland bekämpften und aus dem öffentlichen Leben zu entfernen begannen.

Und doch hatten wir beide etwas Gemeinsames:

Franklin Roosevelt übernahm Staat mtt einer infolge der demokratischen Etnflüsse verfallenen Wirtschaft, und ich trat an die Spitze eines Reiches, das sich ebenfalls dank der Demokratie vor dem vollkommenen Ruin befand.

Die Vereinigten Staaten besaßen 13 Millionen Deutschland 7 Millionen und allerdings noch weitere 7 Millionen Kurzarbeiter.

In beiden Staaten Waren die öffentlichen Finanzen zerrüttet, das Absinken des allgemeinen wirtschaftlichen Lebens schien kaum mehr aufzuhalten.

In diesem Moment beginnt in den Vereinigten Staaten und im Deutschen Reich nunmehr eine Entwicklung, die es der Nachwelt leicht machen wird, über die Richtigkeit der Theorien ein abschließendes Urteil zu fällen.

Während im Deutschen Reich unter der nationalsozialistischen Führung in wenigen Jahren ein ungeheurer Aufstieg des Lebens der Wirtschaft, der Kultur. der Kunst usw. einsetzte, war es dem Präsidenten Roosevelt nicht gelungen, auch nur die geringsten Verbesserungen in seinem eigenen Lande herbeizuführen.

Wieviel leichter aber mußte diese Arbeit in den Vereinigten Staaten sein, in denen knapp 15 Menschen auf dem Quadratkilometer leben gegenüber 140 in Deutschland!

Wenn es in diesem Lande nicht gelingt‚ eine wirtschaftliche Blüte herbeizufiihren, dann hängt es nur zusammen entweder mit dem schlechten Willen einer herrschenden Führung oder mit einer vollkommenen Unfähigkeit der berufenen Führer.

In knapp fünf Jahren waren in Deutschland die wirtschaftlichen Probleme gelöst und die Erwerbslosigkeit beseitigt.

In derselben Zeit hat der Präsident Roosevelt die Staatsschulden seines Landes auf das ungeheuerlichste erhöht, den Dollar entwertet, die Wirtschaft noch mehr zerrüttet und die Erwerbslosenzahl beibehalten.

Dies ist aber nicht verwunderlich, Wenn man bedenkt, daß die Geister, die dieser Mann zu seiner Unterstützung gerufen hat oder besser, die ihn gerufen hatten, zu jenen Elementen gehören, die als Judeil ein Interesse nur an der Zerrüttung und niemals an der Ordnung besitzen können! Während wir im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland die Spekulation bekämpften, erlebte sie unter der Ära Roosevelts eine staunenswerte Blüte.

Die Gesetzgebung des New Deal dieses Mannes war falsch und damit der größte Fehlschlag, den je ein Mann erlitten hatte. Es gibt keinen Zweifel darüber, daß eine Fortsetzung dieser Wirtschaftspolitik in Friedenszeiten diesen Präsidenten früher oder später trotz aller seiner dialektischen Geschicklichkeit zum Scheitern gebracht haben würden.

In europäischen Staaten würde er sicherlich sein Ende vor dem Staatsgerichtshof wegen willkürlicher Verschleuderung des nationalen Vermögens gefunden haben. Vor einem bürgerlichen Gericht aber wegen schuldhafter Geschäftsgebarung dem Gefängnis kaum entgangen sein.

Dieses Urteil oder besser diese Erkenntnis besitzen auch viele und auch angesehene Amerikaner!

Eine drohende Opposition braute sich über dem Haupt dieses Mannes zusammen. Sie ließ ihn ahnen, daß nur eine Ablenkung der Aufmerksamkeit der öffentlichen Meinung von seiner inneren Politik zur äußeren hin Rettung bringen konnte.

Es ist interessant, in diesem Zusammenhang die Berichte des polnischen Gesandten Potocki aus Washington zu studieren, der immer wieder darauf hinweist, daß sich Roosevelt der Gefahr des Zusammenbruchs seines ganzen wirtschaftlichen Kartenhauses genau bewußt sei und deshalb unter allen Umständen eine außenpolitische Ablenkung benötige.

Er wurde darin bestärkt durch den Kreis der ihn umgebenden Juden, die aus alttestamentarischer Rachsucht in den Vereinigten Staaten das Instrument zu sehen glaubten. um mit ihm den europäischen, lmmer antisemitischer werdenden Nationen eln zweites Purim bereiten zu können. Es war der Jude in seiner ganzen satanischen Niedertrach der sich um diesen Mann schade und ach dem dieser Mann aber auch griff.

So beginnt denn steigend der Einfluß des amerikanischen Präsidenten sich in dem Sinne auszuwirken, Konflikte zu schaffen oder vorhandene Konflikte zu vertiefen, auf alle Fälle aber zu verhindern, daß Konflikte eine friedliche Lösung finden. Jahrelang hat dieser Mann nur einen einzigen Wunsch, daß irgendwo in der Welt ein Streit ausbricht, am besten in Europa‚ der ihm die Möglichkeit gibt, durch Verpflichtung der amerikanischen Wirtschaft an einem der beiden Streitenden eine politische Interessenverflechtung herzustellen, die geeignet sein konnte, Amerika einem solchen Konflikt näherzubringen und damit die Aufmerksamkeit von seiner zerfahrenen Wirtschaftspolitik im Inneren nach außen hin abzulenken.

Besonders brüskant wird sein Vorgehen in diesem Sinne gegen das Deutsche Reich. Vom Jahre 1937 ab setzten eine Anzahl von Reden ein, darunter eine besonders niederträchtige vom 5. Oktober 1937 in Chikago, in denen dieser Mann planmäßig beginnt, die amerikanische Offentlichkeit gegen Deutschland aufzuhetzen. Er droht mit der Aufrichtung einer Art von Quarantäne gegen die sogenannten autontären Staaten.

Im Vollzug dieser sich nun dauernd steigernden Haß- und Hetzpolitik des Präsidenten Roosevelt beruft er nach neuerlichen beleidigenden Erklärungen den amerikanischen Botschafter in Berlin zur Berichterstattung nach Washington. Seitdem sind die beiden Staaten nur noch durch Geschäftsträger miteinander Verbunden.

Vom November 1938 ab beginnt er planmaßig und bewußt jede Möglichkeit einer europäischen Befriedungspolitik zu sabotieren. Er heuchelt dabei nach außen hin Interesse am Frieden, droht aber jedem Staat. der bereit ist, die Politik einer friedlichen Verständigung zu betreiben, mit Sperrung von Anleihen, mit wirtschaftlichen Repressalien, mit Kündigung von Darlehen usw.

Hier geben einen erschütternden Einblick die Berichte der polnischen Botschafter in Washington, London, Paris und Brüssel.

Im Jänner 1939 beginnt dieser Mann seine Hetzkampagne zu verstärken und droht mit allen Maßnahmen vor dem Kongreß, gegen die autoritären Staaten vorzugehen, außer mit Krieg.

Während er dauernd behauptet, daß andere Staaten versuchten‚ sich in amerikanische Angelegenheiten einzumischen und auf die Aufrechterhaltung der Monroe-Doktrin pocht, beginnt er seit dem März 1939 in innereuropäischen Angelegenheiten hineinzureden, die den Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten überhaupt nichts angehen.

Erstens versteht er diese Probleme nicht und zweitens, selbst wenn er sie verstiinde und die geschichtlichen Hergänge begriffe, hätte er ebenso wenig das Recht, sich um den mitteleuropäischen Raum zu bekümmern, wie eiwa das deutsche Staatsoberhaupt ein Recht hat, über die Verhältnisse in einem Staat der USA. zu urteilen oder gar zu ihnen Stellung zu nehmen.

Ja, Herr Roosevelt geht noch weiter! Entgegen allen völkerrechtlichen Bestimmungen erklärt er Regierungen die ihm nicht passen, nicht anzuerkennen. Neuordnungen nicht entgegenzunehmen‚ Gesandtschaften von längst aufgelösten Staaten zu belassen oder gar als rechtmäßige Regierungen einzusetzen. Ja endlich geht er so weit, mit solchen Gesandten Verträge abzuschließen, die ihm dann sogar das Recht geben, fremde Territorien einfach zu besetzen.

Am 15. April 1939 kam der berühmte Appell Roosevelts an mich und den Duce, der eine Mischung von geographischer und politischer Unkenntnis einerseits‚ gepaart mit der Arroganz eines Angehörigen bestimmter Millionärskreise anderseits darsteilte und in dem wir aufgefordert wurden, Erklärungen abzugeben und mit x-beliebigen Staaten Nichtangriffspakte zu schließeri, dabei zum.großen Teil mit Staaten, die überhaupt nicht im Besitz ihrer Freiheit waren, weil sie von den Bundesgenossen des Herrn‘Roosevelt entweder annektiert oder in „Protektorate“ verwandelt worden sind.

Sie erinnern sich, meine Abgeordneten, daß ich damals diesen zudringlichen Herren eine ebenso höfliche wie deutliche Antwort gab, was immerhin wenigstens für einige Monate den Strom der Redseligkeit dieses biederen Kriegshetzers abstoppte.

An seine Stelle trat aber nun die ehrenwerte Frau Gemahlin. Sie lehnte es ab, in einer Welt leben zu wollen, wie wir sie besitzen. Das ist wenigstens verständlich. Denn dies ist eine Weit der Arbeit, nicht eine solche des Betruges und der Schiebungen. Nach Erholung aber setzt der Mann dieser Frau dafür am 4. November 1939 die Abänderung des Neutralitätsgesetzes so durch‚ daß nunmehr das Waffenausfuhrverbot aufgehoben wird, und zwar zugunsten einer einseitigen Belieferung der Gegner Deutschlands.

Er beginnt dann so ähnlich wie in Ostasien mit China‚ auch hier über den Urnweg einer wirtschaftlichen Verflechtung, eine früher oder später wirksam werdende Interessengemeinschaft herzustellen. Schon im selben Monat erkennt er einen Haufen von polnischen Emigranten als sogenannte Exilregierung an, deren einziges politisches Fundament ein paar Millionen von Warschau mitgenommener polnischer Goldstücke gewesen ist.

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Schon am 9. April geht er weiter und verfügt nunmehr eine Sperrung der norwegischen und dänischen Guthaben mit dem verlogenen Vorwand, einen deutschen Zugriff dadurch zu verhindern, obwohl ihm genau bekannt ist, daß zum Beispiel die dänische Regierung in ihrer Vermögensverwaltung von Deutschland überhaupt nicht beachtet‚ geschweige denn kontrolliert wird.

Zu den verschiedenen Exilregierungen wird nun weiter von ihm auch noch eine norwegische anerkannt. Schon am 15. Mai 1940 kommen zu diesen nun auch noch holländische und belgische Emigrantenregierungen, und ebenso tritt eine Sperrung der holländischen und belgischen Guthaben ein.

Allein die wahre Gesinnung dieses Mannes enthüllt sich erst in einem Telegramm vom 15. Juni an den französischen Ministerpräsidenten Reynaud. Er teilt ihm mit, daß die amerikanische Regierung die Hilieleistungen an Frankreich verdoppeln wird, vorausgesetzt, daß Frankreich den Krieg gegen Deutschland fortsetzt. Um diesem Wunsch nach Kriegsverlängerung noch besonders Nachdruck zu geben, gibt er die Erklärung ab. daß die amerikanische Regierung die Ergebnisse der Eroberung, das heißt also die Rückgewinnung der einst Deutschland geraubten Gebiete nicht anerkennen werde. Ich brauche Ihnen nicht versichern, daß es jeder deutschen Regierung gleichgültig ist, ob der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten eine Grenze in Europa anerkennt oder nicht und auch in der Zukunft gleichgültig sein wird!

Ich führe den Fall nur zur Charakterisierung der planmäßigen Hetze dieses Mannes an, der von Frieden heuchelt und ewig nurzum Kriege hetzt. Denn nun überfällt ihn die Angst, daß im Falle des Zustandekommens eines europäischen Friedens die Milliardenvergeudung seiner Aufrüstung in kurzer Zeit als glatter Betrug erkannt wird, da niemand Amerika angreift, wenn dieses nicht selbst den Angriff dazu provoziert!

Am 17. Juni 1940 verfügt der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten die Sperrung der französischen Guthaben, um, wie er sich ausdrückt, sie dem deutschen Zugriff zu entziehen, in Wirklichkeit aber, um mit Hilfe eines amerikanischen Kreuzers das Gold von Casablanca nach Amerika abzuführen.

Vom Juli 1940 steigern sich die Maßnahmen Roosevelts immer mehr, um, sei es durch den Eintritt amerikanischer Staatsangehöriger indie britische Luftwaffe oder durch die Ausbildung von englischem Flugpersonal in den Vereinigten Staaten den Weg zum Kriege selbst zu finden. Und schon im August 1940 erfolgt die gemeinsame Aufstellung eines militärischen Programms für die Vereinigten Staaten und Kanada. Um aber nun die Bildung eines amerikanisch-kanadischen Verteidigungskomitees wenigstens den größten Dummköpfen plausibel erscheinen zu lassen‚ erfindet er von Zeit zu Zeit Krisen, in denen er tut, als ob Amerika von einem Überfall bedroht sei, was er seinem – schon wirklich erbarmungswürdigen – Anhang dadurch einsuggeriert, daß er plötzlich Reisen abbricht, in höchster Eile nach Washington zurückfährt, um solcherart die Gefährlichkeit der Situation zu unterstreichen.

Im September 1940 nähert er sich dem Krieg noch mehr. Er tritt an die englische Flotte 50 Zerstörer der amerikanischen Flotte ab, wofür er allerdings militärische Stützpunkte in den britischen Besitzungen von Nord- und Mittelamerika übernimmt. Wie denn überhaupt eines erst die Nachwelt klären wird, nämlich inwieweit bei all diesem Haß gegen das soziale Deutschland auch noch die Absicht mitspielt, das britische Empire in der Stunde des Verfalls möglichst sicher und gefahrlos übernehmen zu können.

Nachdem nun England nicht mehr in der Lage ist, mit barem Gelde amerikanische Lieferungen bezahlen zu können, preßt er dem amerikanischen Volk das Pacht- und Leihgesetz auf. Als Präsident erhält er nun Vollmachten zur pacht- und leihweisen Unterstützung der Länder, deren Verteidigung ihm, Roosevelt, für Amerika als lebenswichtig erscheinen.

Allein im März 1941 geht dieser Mann, nachdem Deutschland unter keinen Umständen zu bewegen ist‚ auf seine fortgesetzten Anflegelungen zu reagieren, wieder einen Schritt weiter.

Schon am 19. Dezember 1939 haben amerikanische Kreuzer innerhalb der Sicherheitszone den Dampfer Columbus britischen Kriegsschiffen in die Hände gespielt. Er mußte deshalb versenkt Werden. Am selben Tage haben USA.-Streitkräfte mitgewirkt bei dem Aufbringungsversuch des deutschen Dampfers Arauca. Am 27. Jänner 1940 hat der USA.-Kreuzer Trenton wieder völkerrechtswidrig von Bewegungen der deutschen Handelsdampfer Arauca, La Plata und Wangoni die feindlichen Seestreitkräfte unterrichtet.

Am 27. Juni 1940 verfügte er vollständig Völkerrechtswidrig eine Beschränkung der Freizügigkeit ausiändischer Handelsschiffe in USA.-Häfen.

Im November 1940 ließ er die deutschen Dampfer Phrygia, Idarwald und Rhein durch USA.-Kriegsschiffe solange verfolgen, bis sich diese Dampfer selbst versenken mußten, um nicht dem Feinde in die Hand zu fallen.

Am 13. April 1941 erfolgte die Freigabe des Verkehrs durch das Rote Meer für USA.-Schiffe zur Versorgung der britischen Armeen im Nahen Osten.

Im Monat März war unterdes bereits die Beschlagnahme aller deutschen Schiffe durch die amerikanischen Behörden erfolgt. Deutsche Reichsangehörige wurden dabei in der entwürdigendsien Weise behandelt, ihnen gänzlich völkerrechtswidrig bestimmte Aufenthaltsorte angewiesen, Reisebeschränkungen auferlegt usw.

Zwei aus kanadischer Gefangenschaft entkommene deutsche Offiziere wurden ebenfalls entgegen allen völkerrechtlichen Bestimmungen gefesselt und wieder an die kanadischen Behörden ausgeliefert. Am 27. März begrüßt derselbe Präsident, der gegen jede Aggression ist, die durch eine Aggression in Belgrad nach dem Sturz der legalen Regierung ans Ruder gekommene Putschistenclique Simowitsch und Genossen.

Der Präsident Roosevelt schickte schon monatelang vorher den Oberst Donovan, ein voliständig minderwertiges Subjekt, in seinem Auftrag auf den Balkan, um dort zu versuchen, in Sofia und in Belgrad einen Aufstand gegen Deutschland und Italien herbeizufiihren.

Er verspricht darauf im April Jugoslawien und Griechenland Hilfe auf Grund des Leih- und Pachtgesetzes. Noch Ende April erkennt dieser Mann die jugoslawischen und griechischen Emigranten wieder als Exilregierung an und sperrt im übrigen erneut völkerrechtswidrig die jugoslawischen und griechischen Guthaben. Von Mitte April ab erfolgt außerdem eine weitere Überwachung des Westatlantiks durch USA.-Patrouillen und deren Meldungen an die Engländer.

Am 26. April liefert Roosevelt an England 20 Schnellboote und zugleich finden laufend Reparaturen britischer Kriegsschiffe in USA.-Häfen statt. Am 12. Mai erfolgt die völkerrechtswidrige Bewaffnung und Reparatur norwegischer Dampfer, die für England fahren. Am 4. Juni treffen amerikanische Truppentransporte in Grönland zum Flugplatzbau ein und am 9 Juni kommt die erste englische Meldung, daß auf Grund eines Befehls des Präsidenten Roosevelt ein USA.-Kriegsschiff ein deutsches U-Boot bei Grönland mit Wasserbomben bekämpft habe.

Am 14. Juni erfolgt wieder völkerrechtswidrig die Sperrung der deutschen Guthaben in den Vereithen Staaten. Am 17. Juni verlangt Präsident Roosevelt unter verlogenen Vorwänden die Zurückziehung der deutschen Konsuln und Schließung der deutschen Konsulate. Er verlangt weiter die Schließung der deutschen Presseagentur „Transocean“‚ der deutschen Informationsbibliothek und der deutschen Reichsbahnzentrale. Am 6. bis 7. Juli erfolgt die Besetzung des in der deutschen Kampfzone gelegenen Island auf Befehl Roosevelts durch amerikanischen Streitkräfte.

Er hofft dadurch nun bestimmt,

  1. Deutschland endlich zum Kriege zu zwingen,
  2. ansonsten den deutschen U-Boot-Krieg wertlos zu machen, ähnlich wie im Jahre 1915/1916.

Zur gieichen Zeit schickt er ein amerikanisches Hilfsversprechen an die Sowjetunion ab. Am 10. Juli gibt plötzlich der Marineminister Knox bekannt, daß die USA.-Marine einen Schießbefehl gegen die Achsenkriegsschiffe besitze. Am 4. September operiert dei USA.-Zerstörer „Greer" entsprechend dem ihm gegebenen Befehl mit englischen Flugzeugen gegen deutsche U-Boote im Atlantik.

Fünf Tage später stellt ein deutsches U-Boot USA.-Zerstörer als Geleitfahrzeuge im englischen Konvoi fest. Am 11. September endlich hält Roosevelt jene Rede, in der er selbst den Befehl zum Schießen gegen alle Achsenschiffe bestätigt und neu erteilt. Am 29. September greifen USA.-Bewacher ein deutsches U-Boot östlich Grönland mit Wasserbomben an. Am 17. Oktober bekämpft der USA.-Zerstörer Kearney, im Geleitschutz für England fahrend, wieder ein deutsches U-Boot mit Wasserbomben und am 6. November endlich kapern USA.-Streitkräfte völkerrechtswidrig den deutschen Dampfer Odenwald, schleppen ihn in einen amerikanischen Hafen und setzen die Besatzung gefangen.

Die beleidigenden Angriffe und Anflegelungen dieses sogenannten Präsidenten gegen mich persönlich will ich dabei als belanglos übergehen. Daß er mich einen Gangster nennt, ist um so gleichgültiger, als dieser Begriff wohl mangels an derartigen Subjekte nicht aus Europa, sondern aus den USA. stammt!

Aber abgesehen davon, kann ich von Herrn Roosevelt überhaupt nicht beleidigt werden, denn ich halte ihn so wie einst Woodrow Wilson ebenfalls für geisteskrank.

Daß dieser Mann mit seinem jüdischen Anhang seit Jahren mit den gleichen Mitteln gegen Japan kämpft, ist uns bekannt. Ich brauche sie hier nicht zur Sprache bringen. Auch hier sind dieselben Methoden zur Anwendung gekommen. Erst hetzt dieser Mann zum Krieg, dann fälscht er die Ursachen, stellt willkürliche Behauptungen auf, hüllt sich dann in widerwärtiger Weise ein in eine Wolke christlicher Heuchelei und führt so langsam, aber sicher die Menschheit dem Krieg entgegen, nIcht ohne dann als alter Freimaurer dabei Gott zum Zeugen anzurufen für die Ehrbarkeit seines Handeins.

Ich glaube. Sie alle werden es als eine Erlösung empfunden haben, daß nunmehr endlich ein Staat als erster gegen diese in der Geschichte einmalige und unverschämte Mißhandlung der Wahrheit und des Rechtes zu jenem Protest schritt, den dieser Mann ja gewünscht hat und über den er sich daher jetzt nicht wundern darf. Daß die japanische Regierung es nach jahrelangem Verhandeln mit diesem Fälscher endlich sait hatte, sich noch weiter in so unwilrdiger Weise verhöhnen zu lassen, erfüllt uns alle, das deutsche Volk, und ich glaube, auch die übrigen anständigen Menschen auf der ganzen Welt. mit einer tiefen Genugtuung.

Wir wissen, welche Kraft hinter Roosevelt steht. Es ist jener Ewige Jude‚ der seine Zeit als gekommen erachtet, um das auch an uns zu vollstrecken, was wir in Sowjetrußland alle schaudemd sehen und erleben mußten. Wir haben das jüdische Paradies auf Erden nunmehr kennengelernt. Millionen deutscher Soldaten haben den persönlichen Einblick gewinnen können in ein Land, in dem dieser internationale Jude Mensch und Gut zerstörte und vernichtete. Der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten mag das vielleicht selbst nicht begreifen. Dann spricht dies nur für seine geistige Beschränktheit.

Wir aber wissen, daß dies das Ziel seines ganzen Kampfes ist: Auch wenn wir nicht im Bündnis mit Japan stünden‚ wären wir uns darüber im klaren, daß es die Absicht der Juden und ihres Franklin Roosevelt ist, einen Staat nach dem anderen allein zu vernichten. Das heutige Deutsche Reich hat aber nun nichts mehr gemein mit dem Deutschland von einst.

Wir werden daher auch von unserer Seite nun das tun, was dieser Provokateur seit Jahren zu erreichen versuchte. Nicht nur, weil wir Verbündete von Japan sind, sondern weil Deutschland und Italien in ihrer derzeitigen Führung genügend Einsicht und Stärke besitzen, um zu begreifen, daß in dieser historischen Zeit das Sein oder Nichtsein der Nationen bestimmt wird, vielleicht für immer.

Was diese andere Welt mit uns vorhat‚ ist uns klar. Sie haben das demokratische Deutschland von einst zum Verhungern gebracht‚ sie würde das sozialistische von jetzt ausrotten. Wenn Herr Roosevelt oder Herr Churchill erklären, daß sie dann später eine neue soziale Ordnung aufbauen wollen, dann ist das ungefähr so, als wenn ein Friseur mit kahlem Kopf ein untrügliches Haarwuchsmittel empfiehlt.

Die Herren, die in den sozial rückständigsten Staaten leben, hätten, statt für Kriege zu hetzen, sich um ihre Erwerbslosen kümmern sollen! Sie haben in ihren Ländern Not und Elend genug, um sich dort im Sinne einer Verteilung von. Lebensmitteln zu beschäftigen. Was das deutsche Volk betrifft, so braucht es weder von Herrn Churchill noch von einem Herrn Roosevelt oder Eden Almosen, sondern es will nur sein Rechtl.

Und dieses Recht zum Leben wird es sich sicherstellen, auch wenn tausend Churchills oder Roosevelts sich dagegen verschwören wollten. Dieses Volk hier hat nun eine fast 2000jährige Geschichte hinter sich. Es war in dieser langen Zeit noch nie so einig und geschlossen wie heute und wie es, dank der nationaisozialistischen Bewegung, für alle Zukunft nun sein wird. Es war aber auch vielleicht noch nie so helisehend und selten so ehrbewußt. Ich habe daher heute dem amerikanischen Geschäftsträger die Pässe zustellen und ihm folgendes eröffnen lassen:

Im Verfolg der immer weiteren Ausdehnung einer auf unbegrenzte Weltherrschaftsdiktatur gerichteten Politik des Präsidenten Roosevelt sind die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika im Verein mit England vor keinem Mittel zurückgewichen, um dem deutschen, dem italienischen und auch dem japanischen Volk die Voraussetzungen ihrer natürlichen Lebenserhaltung zu bestreiten. Die Regierungen Englands und der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika haben sich aus diesem Grunde nicht nur für die Gegenwart, sondern auch für alle Zukunft jeder berechtigten Revision zur Herbeiführung einer besseren Neuordnung der Welt entgegengesetzt.

Seit Kriegbeginn hat sich der amerikanische Präsident Roosevelt in steigendem Maße eine Reihe schwerster völkerrechtswidriger Verbrechen zuschulden kommen lassen. Gesetzlose Übergriffe aui Schiffe und sonstiges Eigentum deutscher und italienischer Staatsbürger verbanden sich mit der Bedrohung, ja der willkürlichen Beraubung der persönlichen Freiheit der Betroffenen durch Internierungen usw‚ die sich auch sonst weiter verschärfenden Angriffe des Präsidenten der Vereinigten Staaten, Roosevelt‚ führten am Ende so weit‚ daß er der amerikanischen Marine den Befehl erteilte, entgegen allen Völkerrechtsbestimmungen. Schiffe deutscher und italienischer Nationalität überall sofort anzugreifen‚ zu beschießen und sie zu, versenken.

Amerikanische Minister rühmten sich auch, auf diese verbrecherische Weise deutsche U-Boote vernichtet zu haben. Deutsche und italienische Handelsschiffe wurden von amerikanischen Kreuzern überfallen, gekapert und ihre friedliche Besatzung in Gefängnisse abgeführt Ohne jeden Versuch einer amtlichen Widerlegung von seiten der amerikanischen Regierung wurde aber darüber hinaus nunmehr in Amerika der Plan des Präsidenten Roosevelt veröffentlicht spätestens im Jahre 1943 Deutschland und Italien mit militärischen Machtmitteln in Europa selbst angreifen zu wollen.

Dadurch ist das aufrichtige und von beispielloser Langmut zeugende Bestreben Deutschlands und ltaliens‚ trotz der seit Jahren erfolgten unerträglichen Provokationen durch den Präsidenten Roosevelt eine Erweiterung des Krieges zu verhüten und die Beziehungen zu den Vereinigten Staaten aufrechtzuerhalten, zum Scheitern gebracht worden.

Deutschland und Italien haben demgegenüber sich nunmehr endlich gezwungen gesehen, getreu den Bestimmungen des Dreimächtepakts vom 27. September 1940 Seite an Seite mit Japan den Kampf zur Verteidigung und damit Erhaltung der Freiheit und Unabhängigkeit ihrer Völker und Reiche gegen die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und England gemeinsam zu ühren.

Die drei Mächte haben deshalb das folgende Abkommen abgeschlossen und am heutigen Tage in Berlin unterzeichnet:

In dem unerschütterlichen Entschluß, die Waffen nicht niederzulegen, bis der gemeinsame Krieg gegen die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und England zum erfolgreichen Ende geiührt worden ist‚ haben sich die deutsche Regierung‚ die italienische Regierung und die japanische Regierung über folgende Bestimmungen geeinigt:

ARTIKEL 1
Deutschland, Italien und Japan werden den ihnen von den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und England aufgezwungenen Krieg mit allen ihnen zu Gebote stehenden Machtmitteln gemeinsam bis zum siegreichen Ende führen.

ARTIKEL 2
Deutschiand, Italien und Japan verpflichten sich, ohne volles gegenseitiges Einverständnis weder mit den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika noch mit England Waffenstillstand oder Frieden zu schließen.

ARTIKEL 3
Deutschland, Italien und Japan werden auch nach siegreicher Beendigung des Krieges zum Zwecke der Herbeifiihrung einer gerechten Neuordnung im Sinne des von ihnen am 27. September 1940 abgeschlossenen Dreimächtepaktes auf das engste zusammenarbeiten.

ARTIKEL 4
Dieses Abkommen tritt sofort mit seiner Unterzeichnung in Kraft und bleibt ebenso lange wie der Dreimächtepakt vom 27. September 1940 in Geltung. Die hohen vertragschließenden Teile werden sich rechtzeitig vor Ablauf dieser Geltungsdauer über die weitere Gestaltung ihrer im Artikel 3 dieses Abkommens vorgesehenen Zusammenarbeit verständigen.

Abgeordnete! Männer des Deutschen Reichstages!

Wir sind uns schon seit der Ablehnung meines letzten Friedensvorschlages vom Juli 1941 im klaren, daß dieser Kampf bis zur letzten Konsequenz durchgekämpft werden muß. Daß sich die angelsächsisch-jüdisch-kapitalistische Welt mit dern Bolschewismus dabei in einer Front befindet, ist für uns Nationalsozialisten keine Überraschung. Wir haben sie im Innern stets in der gleichen Gemeinschaft gefunden. Allein wir haben diesen Kampf im lnnern erfolgreich bestanden und unsere Gegner endlich nach sechzehnjährigem Ringen um die Macht vernichtet.

Als ich mich vor 23 Jahren entschloß, in das politische Leben einzutreten, um die Nation aus ihrem Verfall wieder emporzuführen, war ich ein namenloser unbekannter Soldat. Viele unter Ihnen wissen‚ wie schwer die ersten Jähre dieses Kampfes gewesen sind. Der Weg der kleinen Bewegung von sieben Mann bis zur Übernahme der verantwortlichen Regierung am 30. Jänner 1933 war ein so wundersamer, daß nur die Vorsehung selbst durch ihren Segen dies ermöglicht haben kann.

Heute stehe ich an der Spitze des stärksten Heeres der Welt. der gewaltigsten Luftwaffe und einer stolzen Marine. Hinter mir und um mich als eine verschworene Gemeinschaft weiß ich die Partei, mit der ich groß geworden bin und die durch mich groß geworden ist.

Die Gegner, die ich vor mir sehe, sind die bekannten Feinde seit über 20 Jahren. Allein der Weg‚ der vor mir liegt, ist nicht zu vergleichen mit dem Weg‚ auf den ich zurückblicken kann. Das deutsche Volk steht in der Erkenntnis der entscheidenden Stunde seines Daseins. Millionen von Soldaten erfüllen unter den schwersten Bedingungen gehorsam und treu ihre Pflicht. Millionen deutscher Bauern und Arbeiter, deutscher Frauen und Mädchen stehen in den Fabriken und Kontoren, auf den Feldern und Äckern und schaffen im Schweiße ihres Angesichts der Heimat das Brot und der Front die Waffen. Mit uns im Bunde sind starke Völker, die, von der gleichen Not gequält, die gleichen Feinde vor sich finden.

Der amerikanische Präsident und seine plutokratische Clique haben uns als die Völker der Habenichtse getauft. Das ist richtig!

Die Habenichtse aber wollen leben und sie werden äuf alle Fälle erreichen‚ daß das Wenige, das sie zum Leben haben, ihnen nicht auch noch von den Besitzenden geraubt wird. Sie kennen, meine Parteigenossen. meine unerbittliche Entschlossenheit. einen einmal begonnenen Kampf bis zum erfolgreichen Ende zu führen. Sie kennen meinen Willen. in so einem Kampf vor nichts zurückzuscheuen. alle Widerstände zu brechen, die gebrochen werden müssen.

Ich habe Ihnen in meiner ersten Rede am 1. September 1939 versichert, daß in diesem Krieg weder Waffengewalt noch Zeit Deutschland niederzwingen werden. Ich will meinen Gegnern auch versichern, daß uns nicht nur die Waffengewalt oder die Zeit nicht bezwingen werden‚ sondern daß uns auch kein innerer Zweifel wankend macherf kann in der Erfüllung unserer Pilicht.

Wenn wir an die Opfer unserer Soldaten denken, an ihren Einsatz, dann ist jedes Opfer der Heimat gänzlich belanglos und unbedeutend. Wenn wir aber die Zahl all jener uns überlegen, die in den Generationen schon vor uns für des deutschen Volkes Bestehen und Größe gefallen sind‚ dann wird uns erst recht die Größe der Pflicht bewußt, die auf uns selbst lastet.

Wer aber dieser Pflicht sich zu entziehen beabsichtigt, der hat keinen Anspruch darauf, in unserer Mitte als Volksgenosse bewertet zu werden.

So wie wir mitleidlos hart gewesen sind im Kampf um die Macht, werden wir genau so mitleidlos und hart sein im Kampf um die Erhaltung unseres Volkes. In einer Zeit, in der tausende unserer besten Männer, Väter und Söhne unseres Volkes fallen, soll keiner mit dem Leben rechnen, der in der Heimat die Opfer der Front entwerten will.

Ganz gleich, unter welchen Tarnungen‚ jemals der Versuch gemacht werden würde, diese deutsche Front zu stören den Widerstandswillen unseres Volkes zu untergraben, die Autorität des Regimes zu schwächen, die Leistungen der Heimat zu sabotierenl Der Schuldige wird fallen. Nur mit einem Unterschied, daß der Soldat am der Front dieses Opfer in höchster Ehre bringt, während der andere, der dieses Ehrenopfer entwertet, in Schande stirbt.

Unsere Gegner sollcn sich nicht täuschen! ln den 2000 Jahren der uns bekannten deutschen Geschichte ist unser Volk niemals geschlossener und einiger gewesen als heute. Der Herr der Welten hat so Großes in den letzten Jahren an uns getan, daß wir in Dankbarkeit uns vor einer Vorsehung verneigen, die uns gestattet hat, Angehörigeeines so großen Volkes sein zu dürfen. Wir danken ihm‚ daß wir angesichts der irüheren und kommenden Generationen des deutschen Volkes auch uns in Ehren eintragen können in das unvergängliche Buch der deutschen Geschichte!

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1280px-Flag_of_Germany_(1935–1945).svg

German declaration of war on the United States
December 11, 1941

The German Chargé d’Affaires, Dr. Hans Thomsen, and the First Secretary of the German Embassy, Mr. von Strempel, called at the State Department at 8:00 a.m. The Secretary, otherwise engaged, directed that they be received by the Chief of the European Division of the State Department, Mr. Ray Atherton. Mr. Atherton received the German representatives at 9:30 a.m.

The German representatives handed to Mr. Atherton a copy of a note that is being delivered this morning to the American Chargé d’Affaires in Berlin. Dr. Thomsen said that Germany considers herself in a state of war with the United States. He asked that the appropriate measures be taken for the departure of himself, the members of the German Embassy, and his staff in this country. He reminded Mr. Atherton that the German government had previously expressed its willingness to grant the same treatment to American press correspondents in Germany as that accorded the American official staff on a reciprocal basis and added that he assumed that the departure of other American citizens from Germany would be permitted on the same basis of German citizens desiring to leave this country. He referred to the exchange of civilians that had been arranged at the time Great Britain and Germany broke off diplomatic relations.

The German Chargé d’Affaires then stated that the Swiss government would take over German interests in this country and that Dr. Bruggmann had already received appropriate instructions from his government.

He then handed Mr. Atherton a note from the German government. Mr. Atherton stated that in accepting this note from the German Chargé d’Affaires, he was merely formalizing the realization that the government and people of this country had faced since the outbreak of the war in 1939 of the threat and purposes of the German government and the Nazi regime toward this hemisphere and our free American civilization.

Mr. Atherton then said that this government would arrange for the delivery of Dr. Thomsen’s passports and that he assumed that we would very shortly be in communication with the Swiss Minister. He added that Dr. Thomsen must realize, however, that the physical difficulties of the situation would demand a certain amount of time in working out this reciprocal arrangement for the departure of the missions of the two countries. The German representatives then took their leave.

The text of the note which the German representatives handed to Mr. Ray Atherton, Chief of the European Division of the State Department, at 9:30 a.m., December 11, the original of which had been delivered the morning of December 11 to the American Chargé d’Affaires in Berlin, follows:

Herr Geschäftsträger!

Nachdem die Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika vom Ausbruch des durch die englische Kriegserklärung an Deutschland vom 3. September 1939 heraufbeschworenen europäischen Krieges an alle Regeln der Neutralität in immer steigendem Maße zugunsten der Gegner Deutschlands auf das flagranteste verletzt, sich fortgesetzt der schwersten Provokationen gegenüber Deutschland schuldig gemacht hat, ist sie schließlich zu offenen militärischen Angriffshandlungen übergegangen.

Am 11. September 1941 hat der Herr Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika öffentlich erklärt, daß er der amerikanischen Flotte und Luftwaffe den Befehl gegeben habe, auf jedes deutsche Kriegsfahrzeug ohne weiteres zu schießen. In seiner Rede vom 27. Oktober 1941 hat er nochmals ausdrücklich bestätigt, daß dieser Befehl in Kraft sei.

Gemäß diesem Befehl haben seit Anfang September 1941 amerikanische Kriegsfahrzeuge deutsche Seestreitkräfte systematisch angegriffen. So haben amerikanische Zerstörer, zum Beispiel die Greer, die Kearney und die Reuben James, planmäßig das Feuer auf deutsche U-Boote eröffnet. Der Staatssekretär der amerikanischen Marine, Herr Knox, hat selbst bestätigt‚ daß amerikanische Zerstörer deutsche U-Boote angegriffen haben.

Ferner haben die Seestreitkräfte der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika auf Befehl ihrer Regierung deutsche Handelsschiffe auf dem offenen Meere völkerrechtswidrig als feindliche Schiffe behandelt und gekapert.

Die Reichsregierung stellt daher fest:

Obwohl sich Deutschland seinerseits gegenüber den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika während des ganzen gegenwärtigen Krieges streng an die Regeln des Völkerrechts gehalten hat, ist die Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika von anfänglichen Neutralitätsbrüchen endlich zu offenen Kriegshandlungen gegen Deutschland übergegangen. Sie hat damit praktisch den Kriegszustand geschaffen.

Die Reichsregierung hebt deshalb die diplomatischen Beziehungen zu den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika auf und erklärt, daß sich unter diesen durch den Präsidenten Roosevelt veranlaßten Umständen auch Deutschland von heute ab als im Kriegszustand mit den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika befindlich betrachtet.

Mr. Chargé d’Affaires:

The Government of the United States having violated in the most flagrant manner and in ever increasing measure all rules of neutrality in favor of the adversaries of Germany and having continually been guilty of the most severe provocations toward Germany ever since the outbreak of the European war, provoked by the British declaration of war against Germany on September 3, 1939, has finally resorted to open military acts of aggression.

On September 11, 1941, the President of the United States publicly declared that he had ordered the American Navy and Air Force to shoot on sight at any German war vessel. In his speech of October 27, 1941, he once more expressly affirmed that this order was in force. Acting under this order, vessels of the American Navy, since early September 1941, have systematically attacked German naval forces. Thus, American destroyers, as for instance the Greer, the Kearny and the Reuben James, have opened fire on German submarines according to plan. The Secretary of the American Navy, Mr. Knox, himself confirmed that American destroyers attacked German submarines.

Furthermore, the naval forces of the United States, under order of their Government and contrary to international law have treated and seized German merchant vessels on the high seas as enemy ships.

The German Government therefore establishes the following facts:

Although Germany on her part has strictly adhered to the rules of international law in her relations with the United States during every period of the present war, the Government of the United States from initial violations of neutrality has finally proceeded to open acts of war against Germany. The Government of the United States has thereby virtually created a state of war.

The German Government, consequently, discontinues diplomatic relations with the United States of America and declares that, under these circumstances brought about by President Roosevelt, Germany too, as from today, considers herself as being in a state of war with the United States of America.

Accept, Mr. Chargé d’Affaires, the expression of my high consideration.

December 11, 1941
RIBBENTROP

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1280px-Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned.svg

Mussolini’s war statement
December 11, 1941

Camerali!

È questo un’altra giornata di decisioni solenni nella storia d’Italia e di memorabili eventi destinati ad imprimere un nuovo corso nella storia dei continenti.

Le Potenze del Patto di acciaio, l’Italia fascista e Germania nazionalsocialista, sempre piu strettamente unite, scendono oggi a lato dell’eroico Giappone contro gli Stati Uniti d’America.

Il Tripartito diventa un’alleanza militare che schiera attorno alle sue bandiere duecentocinquanta milioni di uomini risoluti a tutto pur di vincere.

Né l’Asse né il Giappone volevano l’estensione del conflitto.

Un uomo, un uomo solo, un autentico e democratico despota, attraverso una serie infinita di provocazioni, ingannando con una frode suprema le stesse popolazioni del suo Paese, ha voluto la guerra e l’ha preparata giorno per giorno con diabolica pertinacia.

I formidabili colpi che sulle immense distese del Pacifico sono già stati inferti alle forze americane mostrano di quale tempra siano i soldati del Sol Levante. Io dico, e voi lo sentite, che è un privilegio combatte re con loro.

Oggi il Tripartito, nella pienezza dei suoi mezzi morali e materiali, è uno strumento poderoso per la guerra e il garante sicuro della vittoria. Sara domani l’artefice e l’organizzatore della giusta pace tra i popoli.

Italiani e Italiane!

Ancora una volta in piedi. State degni di questa grande ora.

Vinceremo!


The Minister for Foreign Affairs Count Ciano received the Chargé d’Affaires of the United States of America at the Palazzo Chigi today at 2.30 p.m. and made the following statement:

S. M. il Re Imperatore dichiara che l’Italia si considera da oggi in stato di guerra con gli Stati Uniti d’America.

His Majesty the King and Emperor declares that from now on Italy regards itself as at war with the United States of America.

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Germany, Italy, and Japan sign new pact barring a separate peace with the United States and Britain
December 11, 1941

ARTICLE I
Italy, Germany and Japan will henceforth conduct in common and jointly a war which has been imposed on them by the United States of America and England, by all means at their disposal and until the end of hostilities.

ARTICLE II
Italy, Germany and Japan undertake each for himself that none of the parties to the present accord will conclude either armistice or peace, be it with the United States or with England without complete and reciprocal agreement [of the three signatories to this pact].

ARTICLE III
Italy, Germany and Japan, even after the victorious conclusion of this war, will collaborate closely in the spirit of the Tripartite Pact, concluded Sept. 21, 1940, in order to realize and establish an equitable new order in the world.

ARTICLE IV
The present accord is effective immediately on its signature and remains in force for the duration of the Tripartite Pact, signed Sept. 21, 1940. The high contracting parties of this accord will at an opportune moment agree among themselves the means of implementing Article III above of this accord.

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Message to Congress
December 11, 1941

On the morning of 11 December, the Government of Germany, pursuing its course of world conquest, declared war against the United States.

The long-known and the long-expected has thus taken place. The forces endeavoring to enslave the entire world now are moving toward this hemisphere.

Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty, and civilization.

Delay invites greater danger. Rapid and united effort by all of the peoples of the world who are determined to remain free will ensure a world victory of the forces of justice and of righteousness over the forces of savagery and of barbarism.

Italy also has declared war against the United States.

I therefore request the Congress to recognize a state of war between the United States and Germany, and between the United States and Italy.

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23040860-8cfd-42b7-bdb3-39c0a0c050fa

JOINT RESOLUTION

Declaring that a state of war exists between the Government of Germany and the Government and the people of the United States and making provisions to prosecute the same.

Whereas the Government of Germany has formally declared war against the Government and the people of the United States of America:

Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of war between the United States and the Government of Germany which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Government of Germany; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.

SAM RAYBURN
Speaker of the House of Representatives

HENRY A. WALLACE
Vice President of the United States and the President of the Senate

Approved —
Dec. 11, 1941, 3:05 p.m. EST
FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT

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JOINT RESOLUTION

Declaring that a state of war exists between the Government of Italy and the Government and the people of the United States and making provisions to prosecute the same.

Whereas the Government of Italy has formally declared war against the Government and the people of the United States of America:

Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the state of war between the United States and the Government of Italy which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and the President is hereby authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Government of Italy; and, to bring the conflict to a successful termination, all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.

SAM RAYBURN
Speaker of the House of Representatives

HENRY A. WALLACE
Vice President of the United States and the President of the Senate

Approved —
Dec. 11, 1941, 3:06 p.m. EST
FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT


U.S. State Department (December 11, 1941)

360M.1121 Devenis, Michael: Telegram

The Chargé in the Soviet Union to the Secretary of State

Kuybyshev (via Moscow), December 11, 1941 — 12 a.m.
[Received December 12 — 6:05 a.m.]

2040. 

With reference to the Department’s telegram No. 1261, December 6, 1 p.m., the Foreign Office has promised to investigate the question of Devenis’ alleged whereabouts and report its findings to the Embassy as soon as possible.


740.0011 Pacific War/1293

The Australian Minister to the Secretary of State

Washington, December 11, 1941.

No. 269/41

Sir: I have the honour to convey to you the following message which I have received from the Australian Minister for External Affairs:

I desire to express the Commonwealth Government’s profound appreciation of the initiative[,] courage and patience displayed by the President of the United States and the Secretary of State in their endeavour to prevent war in the Pacific and in their objective of outlawing force as the instrument of national policy.

For the time being the attempt to maintain Pacific peace on the basis of law and justice has been checked by the sudden and treacherous attack of the Japanese forces while diplomatic negotiations were actually proceeding.

The Commonwealth Government is honoured to be associated with the United States in resisting the aggressors until they are finally overthrown and until the principles for which the President has so frequently declared are established not only in the Pacific but everywhere in the world.

I have [etc.]

R. G. CASEY


740.00111 ARNC/217a: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in Brazil

Washington, December 11, 1941 — 3 p.m.

1340. 

Please deliver following message from Professor Fenwick to Dr. Mello Franco:

Recommend Committee consider possible ways of extending functions to meet present emergency.

HULL


740.0011 European War 1939/17361: Telegram

The Consul General at Algiers to the Secretary of State

Algiers, December 11, 1941 — 3 p.m.
[Received December 12 — 3 a.m.]

629. 

From Murphy. Your 474, December 2, 9 p.m., to Casablanca.

Vice Admiral Fenard, who returned to Algiers last night, tells me that during his visit to Vichy Darlan convinced him that there is no reason to fear a German intrusion in this area. Darlan told him that no major concessions in French Africa had been made to the Germans or are contemplated. Darlan and other Vichy officials, he said, now manifest the greatest interest in the continuation of the American economic plan for North Africa. They hope that American vessels will be used in the New York–Casablanca run. Fenard declared that many French officials now only begin to realize the importance of French Africa and the American plan which some were inclined to deprecate. He mentioned the increasing alarm felt by many regarding the local economic situation which is acutely unsatisfactory. He said that there is real apprehension over the problem of keeping millions of discontented Arabs in line. Fenard said that Darlan’s offer to sell us the Normandie is a gesture which proves the French desire to be friendly.

He intimated, as did another Admiral (who asked that his name be not mentioned) just arrived from Vichy, that Darlan is convinced of American naval supremacy and is positive that the United States will defeat Japan. Under present circumstances Darlan cannot publish these sentiments but my contacts seem certain that he will be guided thereby in whatever influence he has on French policy. Fenard and other French officials here have expressed to us their sympathy with the United States in its war with Japan and their wishes for our victory. I believe that sentiment is shared by the bulk of the North African population.

Fenard painted a gloomy picture of North African economy, saying if American supplies are not received industry will drop to 10% of normal, and urged that we take prompt action to resume shipments to this area. He handed me a memorandum regarding the official contracts made for the purchase of goods in the United States, credits opened and licenses delivered for about 200,000 tons of merchandise with a value of approximately $5,500,000. The memorandum inquires whether the orders given, the licenses and navicerts granted stand and whether the ships now in New York may be loaded. The reply will, of course, affect the movements of the ships now in Casablanca which would carry cargoes for New York. Goods sold f.o.b. once on board of course become the risk of consignee. The memorandum urgently requests the Department’s early comment.

Admiral Fenard who was obviously acting under Darlan’s instructions concluded with an urgent appeal that we make our influence felt in this area where he said we are most welcome by sending American goods and American ships “before it is too late”.

Repeated to Vichy. Copies to North African offices by courier. [Murphy.]

COLE


851.33/206: Telegram

The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State

Vichy, December 11, 1941 — 7 p.m.
[Received 11 p.m.]

1523. 

Department’s 898, December 6, 4 p.m., 903, December 8 [9], 6 p.m. and 908, December 10, 4 p.m.

At 6 p.m. conferred with the Marshal for a half hour with Admiral Darlan present and discussed the questions contained in cables referred to above, explaining to the Marshal that America’s formal involvement in war with Axis Powers may change the entire picture from the point of view of the United States.

The Marshal indicated a desire that we continue our economic relief in Africa and directed Admiral Darlan to prepare a memorandum reply to the specific questions contained in Department’s 898, December 6, 4 p.m., his first reaction apparently being that satisfaction could be given to our requests.

In regard to naval ships in French colonial ports in the Western Hemisphere, Admiral Darlan said they have no intention of leaving port and that they are disarmed. In reply to a categorical inquiry, he said he will issue instructions to Admiral and will inform me by memorandum in regard thereto.

In reply to a question as to any possible change in the attitude of the French Government toward this Embassy because of the declaration of war against us by Germany and Italy, the Marshal stated that he is most desirous of maintaining the existing understanding friendly relations between our two governments and that no demand has come from the Axis for France to change its attitude. He said, however:

If Germany should make such a demand, they can starve our civilian population and we are helpless.

He stated France intends to “remain neutral” and if Germany brings pressure to bear toward forcing a change, he will endeavor to find means to maintain our recent relations.

It is my personal opinion that no effective effort will be made by the Marshal’s Government in our behalf if Germany should ask that diplomatic relations between France and America be made difficult or interrupted. Such a request by Germany is expected by our friends in the Vichy Government and I believe it is also expected by the Marshal himself.

I told the Marshal that our formal involvement in the war caused by the German-Italian declarations of today changes the situation and makes any French assistance hereafter given to the Axis Powers a direct injury to the United States.

Both the Marshal and Darlan were particularly cordial during this interview and both expressed regret that America has become involved in the “World War.”

Repeated to Algiers.

LEAHY


860P.85/67

The Latvian Minister to the Secretary of State

Washington, December 11, 1941.

Sir: I have been deeply affected by the announcement which has been made today that war has been declared upon the United States by Germany, the power which at the present time is illegally and by force occupying my own country. It seems hardly necessary for me to state that every patriotic Latvian must consider that the welfare of his country depends upon the defeat of Nazi Germany and desires to do everything possible to aid in bringing this about.

There are at the present time in the waters of this hemisphere eight vessels flying the Latvian flag. Practically all of these vessels are operating at the present time. They are not, however, functioning with full efficiency since conflicts are continually breaking out among the operators, the masters, and members of crew. These conflicts are extremely difficult to mediate or settle in view of the absence of the owners or lack of clarity of ownership, and because of their inability to call at, or to receive directions from, Latvian ports.

It is my considered opinion that these vessels would be much more useful if they should be taken over by the Government of the United States. I also feel that the interest of the owners would be more carefully safeguarded as a result of their requisitioning by the American Government. In case the American Government should consider that it would be desirable to requisition these vessels, I wish to assure it that I am willing to lend cooperation in this matter in every way that is legal and proper.

Accept [etc.]

Dr. ALFRED BILMANIS


125.0040/79: Telegram

The Minister of Hungary to the Secretary of State

Budapest, December 11, 1941 — 9 p.m.
[Received December 11 — 4:41 p.m.]

703. 

I saw Prime Minister 8 o’clock this evening. He said because of Central European solidarity which he compared with solidarity of all American Republics, Hungary was obliged to sever relations with United States but not with intention of declaring war.

He presumed Rumania would follow suit and that all American officials from Hungary, Germany and Rumania would be sent home together.

He said he would have to consult Berlin about our method of departure and route.

PELL

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President Roosevelt’s statement of thanks to the Republican and Democratic National Chairmen for pledging cooperation in the war
December 11, 1941

Let me thank you both, personally and on behalf of our country, for the patriotic action you have in contemplation. The national organizations of the two great parties are capable of inestimable service in our present emergency. The nationwide quality of their personnel, the circumstance that their agents are men and women of eminence and respect in their respective communities will, I am sure, demonstrate that in time of war there can be no partisan domestic politics. There can be only a determined intent of a united people to carry on the struggle for human liberty to a victorious conclusion.

So, I am sure we appreciate – and the people will appreciate – that the political truce is for the period of the emergency and that the principles of our respective parties will continue to dominate our courses. When the war is over we will still be adhering to our historic method of settling our domestic problems which has made our country the great nation it is, and has shown the world that democratic freedom is a perfectly workable system of government.

My own thought, with which I hope you will agree, is that the two national party organizations can function to the best advantage in the field of civilian defense, but you will, of course, work out your own procedure and processes in carrying out your patriotic purpose.


U.S. Navy Department (December 11, 1941)

Communiqué No. 2

The Marine garrison on Wake Island has been subject to four separate attacks in the last 48 hours by enemy aircraft and one by light naval units. Despite the loss of part of the defending planes and the damage to material and personnel, the defending garrison succeeded in sinking one light cruiser and one destroyer of the enemy forces by air action. A resumption of the attack and a probable landing attempt is expected. The Marine garrison is continuing to resist. The above report is based on information received up until noon December 11.

Communiqué No. 3

The Navy Department announced that Adm. Thomas C. Hart, USN, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Asiatic Fleet, has reported that Navy patrol planes scored bomb hits on a Japanese battleship of the Kongo class off the coast of Luzon. The ship was badly damaged. This is the second Japanese battleship to be bombed effectively by U.S. forces.


The Pittsburgh Press (December 11, 1941)

WAR BULLETINS!

U.S. Ambassador and Pétain meet

Vichy, France –
Adm. William D. Leahy, U.S. Ambassador to Vichy, conferred with Chief of State Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain for 30 minutes tonight.

British commander missing

Singapore –
Sir Tom Philips, Commander-in-Chief of Britain’s Far Eastern Fleet, is missing in the Prince of Wales-Repulse disaster, an official communiqué said tonight. Capt. John Leach of the Prince of Wales is also missing, the communiqué said.

Autos on Turnpike searched

Somerset, Pennsylvania –
All autos entering the tunnels on the Pennsylvania Turnpike are being searched by State Motor Police against any possible acts of sabotage.

British hold in northern Malaya

Singapore –
A British communiqué reported today that Japanese air and sea forces still appear to be engaged in raiding operations over wide areas of the Pacific. The communiqué said that British defenses in northern Malaya are holding firmly against Japanese attacks and that:

…there appears to be no change in the enemy’s plans.

No further Japanese efforts to land in the Kuantan area, north of Singapore, were reported.

18-64 draft ages suggested

Washington –
Brig. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, director of Selective Service, said today that it might be desirable eventually to register all men between the ages of 18 and 64, inclusive, for military service, civilian defense and other purposes.

Roosevelt praises ‘political truce’

Washington –
President Roosevelt today expressed his appreciation to leaders of the Democratic and Republican parties for their “political truce” invoked for the duration of the emergency and suggested that the facilities of the party organizations be used in civilian defense.

Casualty list received

Washington –
Chairman David I. Walsh (D-MA) of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee said today that the Hawaiian casualty list was received by the Navy this morning but will not be made public for two or three days so that next of kin can be notified first.

Foreign service approved

Washington –
The Senate and House today swiftly passed legislation permitting President Roosevelt to use U.S. troops anywhere in the world in prosecution of the war against the Axis. The measure also extends the term of service for selectees to six months past the duration of war.

Honolulu evacuation plans ready

Washington –
Plans have been completed to evacuate 60,000 civilians from the city of Honolulu if it is threatened with sea or air attack again. The program provides for the movement of 40,000 civilians to camp sites scattered over the island of Oahu, and another 20,000 to small villages on the lee side of the island.

Attack on Jap base reported

Batavia, NEI –
The official Aneta News Agency today reported that Australian bombers have attacked a Japanese air base on the island of Pobre, between the Celebes and the Japanese island of Palau. Pobre is southeast of the Philippines.

Nazis execute 11 Frenchmen

Vichy, France –
German authorities at Brest have executed 11 Frenchmen for illegal possession of arms. The executions bring to a total of 199 the number of persons executed in occupied France in reprisal for anti-German activities.

Americans seek way home

London, England –
The Exchange Telegraph Agency reported from Lisbon today that many Americans had arrived there from France in hope of getting passage to the United States.

Filipinos to ‘do part to the end’

Manila, Philippines –
President Manuel Quezon, replying to President Roosevelt’s “heartening message,” today asserted that the Philippines “will do their part to the end.” The Malacañan (Philippine White House) announced that Quezon is reorganizing the Civilian Emergency Administration to enable its more efficient operations.

U.S. correspondents restricted

London, England –
The United Press listening post heard the official German news agency report that American press correspondents in Paris have been banned from press conferences there and ordered to remain in their homes.

Trading in Axis dollar bonds suspended

New York –
Trading in Italian and German dollar bonds was suspended by the New York Stock Exchange today following the declarations of war on the United States by both those countries.

Writer hits Axis hard

London, England –
German soldiers “cry like children” and Italians “die like flies” in the severe cold on the Russian front, Radio Moscow said today.

Taft predicts unlimited support

Washington –
Senator Robert A. Taft (R-OH) said today that President Roosevelt will have the unlimited support of every American in the all-out war which he predicted will last at least five years.


Raid closings hamper coast defense work

Four aircraft plants are forced to shut in new blackout
By the United Press

Southern California’s defense industries, including aircraft plants building $1 billion worth of warplanes, sought today to bolster defense precautions to prevent costly shutdowns during air-raid alarms.

Four aircraft plants were closed last night, their production of vital planes and parts halted, because of a three-hour air-raid alarm during which the Army said an enemy plane was overhead.

Consolidated Aircraft, building $750 million worth of heavy bombers, Ryan Aeronautical and Solar Aircraft, building training planes, and Rohr Aircraft, manufacturer of equipment, were told by the Army to order their 17,000 night-shift workers home because their planes could not be completely blacked out.

Shipyards hampered

Shipyards, where most of the activity is out of doors, were also hampered by the blackouts and production was delayed.

The Army said it would cooperate to prevent delays when possible and ordered elimination of all practice blackouts. The alert signals will also be dispensed with and henceforth warnings will be flashed only when aircraft is approaching and immediately full blackouts are necessitated.

The alarm last night was spread throughout Southern California from Bakersfield to the border town of Tijuana, Mexico, and the southern tip of Nevada where huge Boulder Dam is located, when the Army heard an unidentified plane “over and south of Los Angeles.”

Planes sent up

Planes of the Interceptor Command were sent up, anti-aircraft units were ordered to blast the plane if it were spotted, and the entire area was blacked out. Army searchlights pierced the night.

Capt. Harry S. Fuller, air-raid warning official here, said that “by a process of elimination” the Army concluded the unidentified plane was an enemy craft.

The blackout through the area was “near perfect” with the exception of Los Angeles where it was “spotty,” he said.

The Pacific Northwest, from Roseburg, Oregon, to Alaska and west of the Cascade Mountains, underwent its third night of blackout. Radio stations closed down at 7:30 p.m. (10:30 p.m. EST), although lights were not turned off until 1:30 a.m. (4:30 a.m. EST) in Washington and Oregon. British Columbia, blanketed by a heavy fog, went on a complete blackout basis at dusk.

Perfect ARP systems

Prodded by Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia of New York, Director of Civilian Defense, Pacific Coast cities began perfecting their air-raid warden systems. He said San Francisco, and all other exposed cities, needed gas masks, more firefighting equipment, more air-raid wardens, more auxiliary firefighters, more drills.

La Guardia said he was “not satisfied with civilian defense forces anywhere,” but that the United States, after three days of war, was ahead of Great Britain at a corresponding period of the European war.

In Portland, Oregon, the City Council passed an ordinance providing $500 fine and six months’ imprisonment for violation of blackout regulations.

Has third alarm

Metropolitan New York had its third alarm in 24 hours yesterday.

The Eastern alarm was attributed, as were the two before it, to overzealousness on the part of warning signal operators. Planes were spotted but they turned out to be U.S. naval craft. Tuesday’s two alarms were traced to a “phony tip.”

The latest New York alarm caught the city’s millions during the morning rush hour. Air-raid wardens herded crowds off the streets, stopped children en route to school and sent them home.

Lasts 12 minutes

The alarm lasted 12 minutes in Manhattan, longer in other boroughs and counties on Long Island, where the sirens first began shrieking.

All patients who could be removed were ordered evacuated from the U.S. Veterans Hospital near San Francisco’s Golden Gate.

Canadian and U.S. military planes scoured the fog-shrouded Pacific coastal waters from Vancouver Island to Alaska for Japanese aircraft carriers and other enemy craft.

RCAF authorities refused to comment on the results.


Senator halts vote to allow troops abroad

Johnson says AEF sought; draftee age minimum slash opposed

Washington (UP) –
Immediate Congressional approval of legislation authorizing use of selectees and National Guardsmen outside the Western Hemisphere was blocked today by Senator Hiram W. Johnson (R-CA) because he understood:

It’s for an AEF.

The House was prepared to pass the legislation, but deferred action pending Senate approval.

Mr. Johnson objected after there developed a parliamentary tangle requiring unanimous consent to bring up the proposal in advance of action on the chamber’s “unfinished business” – a tristate river compact.

He told reporters later that his maneuver gave him time to study the measure.

The legislation was called up by Chairman Robert R. Reynolds (D-NC) of the Military Affairs Committee, who believes that an AEF of millions of men will be needed to crush Japan and defeat Germany if formal hostilities with that nation begin.

In the House, Chairman Andrew J. May (D-KY) of the Military Affairs Committee announced he would oppose any proposal to lower the minimum draft age from 21 to 18 years. He said the War Department had sent the committee no request for legislation to broaden the present age limits of 21-28 to 18-44, but that such a proposal would be given “fair and impartial hearings” if offered.

He said:

I am ready to do whatever is necessary to help this country win, but I don’t want to go below the age of 21.

Rep. Hamilton Fish (R-NY), who returned recently from active duty with the Army, said he would support the bill eliminating hemisphere restrictions on use of troops because:

It is very proper in time of war.


Mexican troops rushed to defend Pacific Coast

Mexico City, Mexico (UP) –
All Mexican troops, airplanes and gunboats “that can be spared” were moving west today and it was revealed that Gen. Lazaro Cardenas, former President of the republic, had been named commander of Mexico’s entire armed forces on the Pacific from the American border to Guatemala.

President Manuel Avila Camacho designated Gen. Cardenas to coordinate the nation’s emergency defense plans in cooperation with the United States against a possible invasion threat by Japan.

In a special presidential decree, President Camacho consolidated 12 western military zones and two naval zones to be commanded by Gen. Cardenas from headquarters at Ensenada, Baja California.

Meanwhile, six generals and one admiral of the Spanish Republic, now refugees in Mexico from the regime of Gen. Francisco Franco, offered President Avila Camacho the service of hundreds of other refugees with military and technical training.

The Defense Ministry did not reveal the exact number of troops or planes to be concentrated on the Pacific. The force would be admittedly limited since first-line troops under arms now total less than 60,000 men and the air force can count on less than 100 planes.

Nevertheless, the concentration will be of inestimable value in strengthening vigilance against surprise attacks along the 4,574 miles of Mexican coastline in the Pacific.

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ARMY BOMBERS SINK JAP BATTLESHIP
Planes blast Jap vessel in Luzon action

Stimson confirms report of success – invasion continues

Washington (UP) –
Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson today confirmed the sinking of the 29,000-ton Japanese battleship Haruna off the northern coast of Luzon yesterday by U.S. Army bombers.

Mr. Stimson told a press conference that the Office of Naval Intelligence had just:

…confirmed the sinking by Army bombers of the 29,000-ton Japanese battleship Haruna off Luzon.

He made the announcement just before the War Department issued a 10:30 a.m. communiqué on Philippine operations in which the sinking of the battleship was reported.

The Haruna, a vessel of 29,330 tons, was built in 1913 and carried 980 officers and men. The ship was armed with eight 14-inch guns, 16 6-inch guns and lesser arms. The Haruna carried three aircraft, which were added to her equipment in 1927. The ship was refitted between 1926 and 1930.

Thus the United States has revenged at least in part the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor Sunday in which the loss of one old U.S. battleship has been officially announced and other losses reported.

The War Department communiqué said that three were continued attempts by strong Japanese forces to establish themselves along the northern coast of Luzon.

The communiqué said:

Determined resistance has confined this action to the attack in the vicinity of Aparri, at the extreme northern tip of Luzon, where the Japanese attempted to establish a beachhead yesterday.

Air activity continued in the vicinity of Manila, with intermittent attacks on airfields at Cavite and Nichols Field throughout the day.

Mr. Stimson said that Aparri is just a “small landing place,” which is shut off from the main part of the island by mountains, and that if the Japanese attempt to transport an army through the passes, it will “be a slow job.”

Mr. Stimson said that he had sent a message to Lt. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, commander of the United States Far Eastern forces, congratulating him on the sinking, his defense against “great odds” and the conduct of the U.S. Army and Philippine troops.

Heavy loss of planes

Mr. Stimson predicted the ultimate triumph of the United States cause over the “autocratic” powers.

He said there was a “heavy loss” of planes in Hawaii as a result of Sunday’s surprise raid, but said that it:

…can and is being made good at the present moment.

He also said that full details of the attack are not yet known, but that the principal concern of the War Department is getting defenses strengthened everywhere.

Mr. Stimson said:

We do not believe in recrimination of placing of the blame on anybody at this time. We believe that is a sign of immaturity. The investigations can come later. Now we are stressing preparedness.

Praises aviators

He said that one incident had given him great encouragement during the attack on Hawaii. While the bombing was in progress, he revealed, a flight of Flying Fortresses arrived at Hawaii from San Francisco. Mr. Stimson said that the first of these planes was shot down, but the others were able to land safely at other airports. Of these, he said two suffered slight damage which has been repaired.

He said that this showed the ability of U.S. soldiers to keep their heads and take care of themselves.

Mr. Stimson told newsmen that we must expect initial reverses but that it is:

…the last shots and not the first that count.

Early reverses seen

He said the American people should be careful never to underestimate the ability of the Japanese seamen, because:

I’ve seen enough of them in the Far East to know.

Mr. Stimson said:

The American people have been put through a very heavy test during the past few days. When we survey the situation cold-bloodedly, we must expect initial reverses.

He said that history shows there are three periods in a war. He said that the first is the so-called “unset” during which governments of free peoples are at a distinct disadvantage. The others are the periods when the drag begins to weigh down on the nations involved, and the finish.

Stimson said:

It has almost been proved a fact that the free people win because of their endurance. Such governments have a momentum from the people that no one man can possibly have.


Army beats off Luzon invaders

By Frank Hewlett, United Press staff writer

Manila, Philippines –
An Army communiqué announced today that the situation was completely in hand in the fight against a Japanese attempt to invade the Philippines.

Later communiqués, indicating an increasingly favorable United States position, said a Japanese detachment which landed near Lingayen on the west coast of Luzon Island was being disposed of in mopping up operations and that interceptor planes had driven off a Japanese bombing formation which brought a noon air-raid alarm to Manila.

The Army reported the sinking of the Japanese battleship Haruna off the northern coast of Luzon and said it was set afire by three direct hits from a bombing plane. Beside the direct hits, the plane dropped two bombs close to the ship’s sides.

As regards the fight against the Japanese attempt to invade Luzon, the main island of the Philippines group, in a threat to Manila, the great Cavite Naval Base and the Army flying fields, the communiqué asserted that a Philippine Army division had beaten back light Japanese troop attacks near Lingayen, in Pangasinan Province, 100 miles north of Manila.

This point is the closest to which the Japanese had come to Manila in their invasion attempts, which previously had been reported as centering farther north on the west coast and on the north coast. Lingayen, an important trade center, is on the Gulf of Lingayen. A direct main line railroad connects it with Manila.

The Army communiqué:

The situation is completely in hand. There have been no major developments since yesterday with the one exception of light attacks by ground troops in the vicinity of Lingayen which were repulsed by one Filipino Army division.

One of our Army bombers late yesterday attacked a Japanese battleship of the Hiranuma 29,000-ton class, a capital ship, 10 miles northeast of northern Luzon and scored three direct hits and two very close alongside.

When the bomber left, the battleship was blazing fiercely.

The Manila Tribune reported that an American tank ship was sunk during yesterday’s Japanese raids on Manila and that one American and one British freighter were damaged. Several seamen were killed and at least 24 wounded, the Tribune said.

The Tribune said 15 Japanese planes were shot down in yesterday’s raids, the Bulletin nine.

Deaths reported

The Tribune reported 30 civilians killed and 250 wounded in all. The Bulletin reported 37 killed and 46 wounded in the Pasay suburb alone and said at least 140 wounded were brought to Manila from the Cavite Naval Base.

The Bulletin reported that two priests had been arrested at San Fernando, in Pampanga Province, for alleged fifth column activities.

San Fernando, mentioned in the War Department communiqué as a zone of Japanese invasion attempts, is on the west coast of Luzon, north of Lingayen Gulf.

The Bulletin asserted also that in Manila, a signal line between Nichols Field and an air-raid tower was cut, supposedly by fifth columnists, and delayed the alarm when the Japs raided the Manila Bay area yesterday.

Gas instruction given

Air-raid Chief Warden Alfredo G. Eugenio issued detailed instructions to the public for procedure in event of gas attacks.

The Tribune reported that a Filipino air squadron under Capt. Jesús Villamor chased a superior force of 20 enemy planes from Zablan Field, near Manila, yesterday and hit and possibly downed one.

An anti-aircraft gun crew at Zablan Field was credited with downing another bomber.

Both Nichols Field and nearby Nielson Airport were reported damaged slightly.

Reliable informants said Lt. Andrew Krieger of the United States Army Air Corps parachuted to safety from his plane during yesterday’s raids after seeing three Japs parachuting from a plane.

One raid alarm

Philippine Army men fought off one low-flying Japanese plane with machine guns, and it was believed that the plane crashed in the hills near Manila.

Radio Mexico, quoting Manila advices, reported that the Japs lost 54 planes yesterday in Philippine operations.

There was a one-hour air-raid alarm in Manila during the night, ending at 1 a.m.

Japanese reconnaissance planes were reported to have flown over the city, circled the Cavite Naval Base, and to have flown off westward.

Major LeGrande A. Diller, Army spokesman, said a checkup showed that there was no truth in a report that a German pilot had been shot down in a Japanese plane.


May be fighting Japs in Philippines

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The picture above and the one immediately below, just received from the Philippines, are among the latest showing U.S. defense forces in the islands. A battery gun section is shown above in action during maneuvers. It was made just before the war started. This unit may be in actual combat with the Jap invaders today.

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Men of the Coast Artillery are shown loading a 10-inch gun during Army maneuvers in the Philippines.

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This telephoto shows a battleship of the Haruna class of Japanese warships, one of which was sunk by a U.S. Army plane off the Philippines.


197 U.S. airplanes lost in Philippine fighting, Japs say

Prisoners, ships seized at Guam, submarine and service vessel sunk off Hawaiian Islands, Tokyo radio reports – Lexington sunk, Berlin says
By the United Press

Japan asserted officially today that its forces had destroyed 197 United States planes in two days’ operations in the Philippines and had sunk an American destroyer, a submarine and a special service ship in operations off the Hawaiian Islands.

A German broadcast quoted Tokyo as claiming the sinking of the 33,000-ton United States aircraft carrier Lexington off Hawaii.

Imperial Headquarters at Tokyo asserted that Japanese troops, landing on America’s outpost islands of Guam, had taken about 350 prisoners, captured much material and seized key points in the harbor without loss.

A 3,000-ton American oil tanker was captured in the harbor, Tokyo asserted, and its captain and crew of 30 made prisoner.

Plain losses listed

It was asserted further that five of a formation of seven American planes had been shot down in air attacks on Wake Island and that numerous “military objectives” had been destroyed.

Tokyo claimed that 45 American planes were shot down and 71 destroyed on the ground in Japanese attacks on Iba and other airfields in the Philippines Tuesday against the loss of five Japanese planes.

Imperial Headquarters claimed that in big-scale attacks on the Manila zone yesterday 45 American planes were shot down and that 36 grounded planes were destroyed.

Tell of suicide attacks

A later communiqué asserted that in the Manila attacks a transport was heavily damaged and that an arsenal was exploded at nearby Cavite Naval Base.

Loss of five Japanese planes was admitted. Two of the planes, it was said, dived headlong into their objectives in suicide attacks.

It was said that two British gunboats were sunk by direct bomb hits in an attack on Hong Kong.

Admit ‘warship’ lost

It was asserted that only three Japanese planes were lost in the attacks by which the British battleship Prince of Wales and battlecruiser Repulse were sunk, and Japanese naval planes, attacking the Kuatan air base in Malaya, destroyed 10 British planes. It was asserted that other Navy bombers destroyed a 7,000-ton British freighter off eastern Malaya.

Radio Vichy reported a Japanese naval admission that “a warship” had been sunk yesterday. Germany reported from Tokyo the admission that a submarine chaser had been lost in Philippine landing operations.

Radio Vichy said Tokyo “confirmed” that attacks on American warships had been made by torpedo-carrying planes, none of which was lost.

Fleet supremacy claimed

Radio Vichy quoted the Japanese that considerable numbers of troops had been landed on Luzon Island in the Philippines and that the position of the American troops was “gravely endangered.”

A Tokyo Navy spokesman said Japan was determined and prepared to assume control of the air over the Pacific and the Indian Oceans.

The spokesman said:

Contrary to Anglo-American expectations, the qualitative strength of the Japanese fleet increased after the Washington Naval Conference of 1928. The United States and Great Britain forced Japan to have a weaker fleet as compared with theirs, believing thus to prevent the Japanese fleet from maintaining supremacy.

The unexpected naval victory off Hawaii reversed completely the proportion established by the Washington conference.

Indies surrender seen

The Japanese fleet will now let the facts talk, showing the entire world its supremacy.

Another Japanese broadcast suggested that in view of “tremendous Japanese success,” the Netherlands East Indies would soon surrender:

…to prevent needless sacrifice.

Tokyo said that it had concluded a defensive and “offensive” pact with Thailand today (Thursday):

…similar to that with French Indochina.

It was added that the Thai government had proclaimed “a state of war” – possibly martial law – and asked its public to respect order.

The Japanese government information board said that 270 Americans and Britons had been detained in Tokyo “as a precaution for their protection and well-being.” Three to four newspapermen were included.

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Where fighting rages in Philippines

Fullscreen capture 12132020 103538 AM.bmp
U.S. forces fought off the Japanese from Manila to the top of Luzon Island today. (1) A Japanese battleship was set afire and sunk off the north coast. (2) An invasion thrust was beaten back at San Fernando. (3) Mopping up operations against Japanese landing parties was in progress at Lingayen, 100 miles north of Manila. (4) Japanese planes continued to raid the great Cavite Naval Base and the Army air base at Nichols Field.


Casualty list

By the United Press

The War Department today made a new list of three officers and 87 enlisted men killed in the Japanese air raid on Hawaii Sunday.

The list brought to nine officers and 115 enlisted men killed and two wounded, the number thus far announced.

The Department said the next of kin had been notified.

Dead:

PITTSBURGH DISTRICT:

  • 2nd Lt. Louis G. Moslener Jr.
  • Sgt. Elwood R. Gummerson
  • Pvt. John F. Morris
  • Pvt. Brooks J. Brubaker Jr.
  • Pvt. Ernest M. Walker Jr.

PENNSYLVANIA:

  • Staff Sgt. Billy O. Brandt\
  • Pvt. Charles W. Narehood
  • Pvt. Ralph S. Smith
  • Pvt. Jerome J. Szematowicz
  • Pvt. Marlon H. Zaczkiewicz
  • Pvt. Jack H. Feldman
  • Cpl. Theodore J. K. Lewis

WEST VIRGINIA:

  • Staff Sgt. Harold C. Elyard
  • Pvt. Robert Hull Jr.

OHIO:

  • Pvt. Richard E. Livingston
  • Pvt. Horace A. Messam

ELSEWHERE:

  • Pvt. William F. Shields, Bisbee, Arizona.
  • Pvt. Jack W. Cox, Culver City, California.
  • Pvt. Howard N. Lust, Lynwood, California.
  • Cpl. Thomas E. Roberts, Westminster, California.
  • Pvt. Edward F. Bernick, San Francisco, California.
  • 2nd Lt. William Grover, Needles, California.
  • Pvt. Garland C. Anderson, Omega, Georgia.
  • Staff Sgt. George K. Gannam, Savannah, Georgia.
  • Pvt. Malcolm W. Fairchild, Chicago, Illinois.
  • 1st Lt. William R. Schick, Chicago, Illinois.
  • Pvt. Donald V. Chipman, Wheeler, Illinois.
  • Pvt. Russel C. Defenbaugh, Peoria, Illinois.
  • Cpl. Robert R. Garrett, Galesburg, Illinois.
  • Pvt. James R. Johnson, Jacksonville, Florida.
  • Pvt. Harry E. Smith, Harvey, Illinois.
  • Pvt. Joseph R. Drisner, East Chicago, Indiana.
  • TSgt. Homer E. Ferris, Patoka, Indiana.
  • Pvt. Conrad Kujawa, Hammond, Indiana.
  • Pvt. William H. Offutt, Connersville, Indiana.
  • Pvt. Elmer W. South, Indianapolis, Indiana.
  • Pvt. Julian C. Stultz, Zionsville, Indiana.
  • Pvt. William Coyne Jr., Kansas City, Kansas.
  • TSgt. Daniel A. Dyer Jr., Beverly, Kansas.
  • Sgt. Roth J. Narramore, Elmdale, Kansas.
  • Pvt. Marion E. King Jr., Hunter, Kansas.
  • Pvt. James I. Wells, Browder, Kentucky.
  • Pvt. Hal H. Perry Jr., Newellton, Louisiana.
  • Pvt. Albert F. Boyle, Lowell, Massachusetts.
  • Pvt. Robert S. Brown, Chatham, Massachusetts.
  • Pvt. Stuart H. Flander, North Quincy, Massachusetts.
  • Pvt. Lawrence P. Lyons Jr., Chelsea, Massachusetts.
  • Pvt. George A. Moran, Somerville, Massachusetts.
  • Pvt. Joseph S. Zappala, Roslindale, Massachusetts.
  • Pvt. Manfred C. Anderson, Hancock, Michigan.
  • Pvt. Gordon R. Bennett Jr., Clio, Michigan.
  • Pvt. Lyle O. Edwards, Leslie, Michigan.
  • TSgt. Herman C. Reuss, Menominee, Michigan.
  • Pvt. Albert Hays, Kahoka, Missouri.
  • Pvt. Robert L. Avery, Lincoln, Nebraska.
  • Cpl. Harold W. Borgalt, Scribner, Nebraska.
  • Pvt. Victor L. Myers, Hendley, Nebraska.
  • Pvt. Charles P. Porterfield, North Platte, Nebraska.
  • Pvt. George Price, Artesia, New Mexico.
  • Cpl. Antonio S. Tafoya, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
  • Pvt. William W. Merrithew, Onenota, New York.
  • Pvt. Harrell K. Mattox, Shawnee, Oklahoma.
  • Pvt. William J. Brownlee, Corpus Christi, Texas.
  • Cpl. Richard A. Dickerson, El Paso, Texas.
  • Pvt. Ruperto B. Rodriguez, Del Rio, Texas.
  • Pvt. J. B. Sparks, Dumas, Texas.
  • Pvt. Anderson G. Tennison, Canadian, Texas.
  • Cpl. Laverne J. Needham, Walla Walla, Washington.
  • Pvt. John P. Holloway, Green Bay, Wisconsin.
  • Pvt. Herbert E. McLaughlin, Shawano, Wisconsin.
  • Pvt. Thomas F. Philipsky, Joricon, Wisconsin.
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Food supplies of nation high; prices to rise

Rationing unlikely next year with record 1941 crop gathered

Washington (UP) –
There will probably be no rationing of food supplies in the United States at least for another year and then only in the event 1942 crops are short.

Food will coast more – prices are already higher. Officials said “proper measures” are being prepared to prevent profiteering and control speculative trading.

President Roosevelt told the nation Tuesday that there is plenty of food for everyone and enough left over for our Allies. The 1941 crop as a whole was the largest on record. Secretary of Agriculture Claud R. Wickard said reserve food supplies are the largest in history and that shipments to Great Britain would be increased and total about $1 billion next year.

Staple foods stored

Farm officials urged consumers to forego hoarding. They expect some shortages of luxuries such as prices, teas and oils customarily imported from the Far East, but promised substitutes for most of them.

Large quantities of staple foods have been stored under the every-normal granary program and they will not have to be drawn upon during 1942, officials believe.

Here is the situation with respect to principal food items:

WHEAT: The 1941 crop of 961,194,000 bushels was more than 200 million bushels above the 1930-39 average and was one of the largest on record. Including reserves of 350,000,000 bushels, the total supply of 1,311,000,000 bushels is sufficient for two years of domestic consumption.

CORN: The 1941 corn crop of 2,675,000,000 bushels gave the nation a record total supply of approximately 3,200,000,000 bushels.

DAIRY PRODUCTS: Milk production on Dec. 1 averaged 8% above a year ago and was the highest on record. The production of eggs was at the highest rate on record. Cheese stocks are exceptionally high despite heavy shipments to Britain.

VEGETABLES: Those grown for canning and processing set new high records this year for corn, peas and tomatoes. The total for all principal kinds is more than 20% above previous records.

FRUIT: Production at a near record.

MEAT: Supplies are exceptionally large.

SUGAR: Officials are taking every precaution to prevent a shortage such as sent prices to 35¢ a pound during World War I. Supplies on hand are near a record high.


Hawaii attack kills admiral

Isaac Kidd commanded battleship division

Isaac_C._Kidd O Norman
Adm. Kidd

Washington (UP) –
The Navy announced last night that Rear Adm. Isaac Campbell Kidd was killed during the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, Sunday.

The Navy said he was in command of a battleship division of the Pacific Fleet.

It did not disclose the name of his flagship which he was presumably aboard.

Adm. Kidd was born in Cleveland March 26, 1884. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1906.

On Feb. 3, 1940, he was assigned as chief of staff and aide to the commander of battleships of the battle force.

He held the Cuban Pacification Medal, the Mexican Service Medal and the Victory Medal of the Atlantic Fleet class.

His home was in Washington, DC.


Pershing volunteers; Roosevelt accepts

Washington (UP) –
Despite his 81 years, Gen. John J. Pershing today offered to serve his country again in a letter to President Roosevelt, and the President replied that “your services will be of great value.”

The commander of the 1917 AEF wrote:

All Americans today are united in one ambition – to take whatever share they can in the defense of their country.

As one among millions, I hasten to offer my services, in any way in which my experience and my strength, to the last ounce, will be of help in the fight.

Will supreme confidence that, under your calm and determined leadership, we will retain our balance, despite foul blows, I am faithfully yours.

The President replied:

You are magnificent. You always have been – and always will be. I am deeply grateful to you for your letter of Dec. 10.

Under a wise law, you have never been placed on the retired list. You are very much on the active list and your services will be of great value.


Audience reaction brings cancellation of Mikado

Washington (UP) –
The National Theater has cancelled three scheduled performances of Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado, an operetta about the court of a Japanese emperor.

The theater management said that in Baltimore, where the operetta was staged Monday, the audience received the production coolly, particularly the opening line:

We are gentlemen of Japan.


Capital’s cherry trees become war casualties

Washington (UP) –
The capital’s famed Japanese cherry trees, mecca of tourists from all over the world, were today a casualty of the war in the Far East.

Four were chopped down last night. The vandals attached to one stump a note saying:

To hell with those Japanese.


Economists draw outline for long, hard-fought war

Although average American will have to tighten his belt as never before, experts say he will be vastly better off than Axis civilians
By Charles T. Lucey, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
Here’s a blueprint for the battle on the home front, as it is seen by economists and experts who are drawing the broad outlines for a long, hard war:

The average American will have to tighten his belt as never before.

His taxes will be the highest ever, and the government will appeal for more and more of his income to buy bonds for bombers and bullets.

He will work longer hours, but advancing living costs – despite control attempts – may more than offset his paycheck bulge.

He will have plenty of food and clothing – at much higher prices. Living costs are already up 12%, with some wholesale advances not yet translated into retail increases.

He and his family will get along without most of the frills and some of the modern “necessities.”

Excess food stored

If he lives within bombing distance of a coast, he will probably give part of his spare time to civilian protection programs.

As Washington is planning it, this to be everyone’s war.

With all the belt-tightening, your average American will be vastly better off than people in the Axis countries. We go to war with enough cotton in warehouses for a normal year’s consumption; excess wheat for nearly a year, and 600 million bushels of corn. But there must be expansion, and the American farmers are already signing up for it.

The government is planning an increasing of eight billion pounds in milk production, 300 million dozens in egg production, eight million more slaughter hogs, three million more slaughtered cattle, 70 million more chickens. Wheat production – much of the wheat export market has been lost with the war, of course – is to be cut 7.5 million bushels.

In fruit production, which cannot be expanded in a single year’s planting, the emphasis will be on better distribution so that millions of tons of edibles do not rot in fields and orchards. The housewife will be asked to eliminate kitchen waste.

But on civilian supplies that come from the factories, the problem to be met by the average American will be almost the reverse. Piling a war program of $150 billion or more on the industrial structure, the economists agree, means drastic curtailment of civilian production.

Hardly any metal household articles will escape curtailment. And substituting plastics may be difficult for two reasons – plastics will be used increasingly in war goods, and they require chemicals which will be needed for munitions.

Items will be scarce

Scores of small items will be scarce or unobtainable. Interruption of imports from the Pacific may mean less soap, for lack of copra and coconut oil; less cold cream, for lack of cocoa butter; less of many products using glycerin; less camphor and other medicines; less spice from the East Indies; less tea from China.

Already cuts of 50% in auto production mean the average citizen will make his car last another year, or maybe three ort four; and despite large rubber stockpiles, new tires may be hard to get. The auto owner is likely to have his tires retreaded.

One official said:

It isn’t possible to list everything the average citizen to going to find scarce or is going to have to get along without. But I believe we must be extremely pessimistic about it. We’ve been coasting in both raw materials and manufactured goods.

Government planners are looking to Latin American possibilities for offsetting shortages in both raw materials and manufactured goods.

Fiscal leaders to meet

Congress turned back a recent bid by Secretary Morgenthau for sharply increased taxes. But that was before Pearl Harbor. Mr. Morgenthau and Congressional fiscal leaders take the first step on a conference tomorrow toward deciding what taxes must be levied for next year.

The average citizen, especially in urban areas, will probably go to the volunteer office of the local civilian defense unit to offer his services. He may be an air-raid warden, a firewatcher to guard against incendiary bombs, a member of a rescue, bomb or demolition squad, a guard at a public-utility plant, an auxiliary policeman or fireman.

He may become responsible fort perhaps 500 persons in the area in which he lives – the man who instructs in proper conduct during air raids, and who knows where the water heater pilot lights must be turned off during a bombing. He may have the less dramatic task of improving community health, nutrition or recreation.

The average American, say the men planning war on the home front, must get ready for America’s own blood and sweat and tears. No one here doubts that he will.


Here’s how Roosevelt flashed Jap attack on Hawaii

By Thomas L. Stokes, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
Steve Early was lolling at home, reading the Sunday papers.

The telephone rang.

President Roosevelt said:

Steven, I have a bulletin here I want to give you to give the newspapers. Got a pencil?

Steve got one, and slowly took down the message as the calm voice came over the wire:

The Japanese have attacked Pearl Harbor from the air and all naval and military activities on the island of Oahu, principal American base in the Hawaiian Islands.

It was enough to raise the hair even of an ex-newspaperman who covered the last war here and who for more than eight years has sat in the midst of big events at the President’s right hand; but no time to get excited.

Typical Roosevelt touch

Then the calm voice again, after the message had been checked back carefully.

Have you got any news, Steve?

The typical Roosevelt touch.

Steve smiled.

This little incident tells the whole story of the orderly atmosphere which had prevailed at the White House since the war broke out.

Four days later, everybody at the White House, from the President down, is about caught up on the sleep lost those first two nights. You’d never know a war was on, except for the appearance of many new faces in a greatly increased Secret Service staff about the White House and executive offices, a few more reporters in the press room, a new, white sentry box for the enlarged police detail at the only gate which is open now, and the brisk military guards at the entrances of the two streets which flank the White House grounds.

Message in error

Most of the excitement at the White House those first hectic hours was brought in from outside – by the horde of newspapermen who rushed to the center of things. By radio newscasters who, that first night, set up their equipment on spare desks.

For that first flash from Steve Early’s home telephone set them in motion on the double-quick. Before Steve could get dresses and out of the house, the President had called back with another message, about the attack on Manila – which was in error, but only in being premature.

Soon Steve was behind the desk in his office, and there he sat until 1 a.m., only to go home and answer the telephone there all night long, and also the next night. Calls came not only from reporters and officials, but from people far away offering their services.

Reporters come and go

The President, likewise, was on the phone far into that first night, getting reports on developments, after his earlier conferences with State, War and Navy officials, his Cabinet and Congressional conferences. He was up early the next morning, and ready for a long day that included his speech to Congress.

The President has been dividing his time between his office in the executive offices and his study in the White House proper, a cozy and homelike room where some of the conferences of the last few days have taken place.

Crises are nothing new for the White House personnel, not even war crises.

Steve Early was a reporter during World War I, covering the State, War and Navy Departments – whose top personnel was in the present State Department building across from the White House. There started his friendship with Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy.

Steve remarked today:

He’s moved 100 yards in 28 years.

Secretary sees 3 wars

William D. Hassett, Steve’s assistant today, was covering Congress as a newspaperman during the last war. Marvin McIntyre, another of the President’s secretaries, was also a newspaperman here during World War I.

Maj. Gen. Edwin M. Watson, another secretary, was overseas during the last war with the 12th Field Artillery in the second division, and fought in all of that famous outfit’s engagements.

Rudolph Forster, executive clerk at the White House since March 1897, has seen three wars from the mansion. He goes about his business these days with perfect equanimity.


Martial law is proclaimed in Honolulu

Military rule for Hawaii is running smoothly, Army reports
By Frank Tremaine, United Press staff writer

The following is the first dispatch received by the United Press from Honolulu since late Sunday.

Honolulu, Hawaii – (Dec. 10, 12:10 p.m.)
Martial law has been proclaimed for the Territory of Hawaii with the full approval of President Roosevelt.

It is reported to be functioning smoothly and the method of operation and results to date have been reported directly to the President.

An Army announcement today said the Military Government of Hawaii is functioning well according to plan. The population of the territory (which includes many thousands of Japanese) is generally cooperating with the military authorities and is well behaved.

No attacks against the islands have been reported since Sunday.

A blackout was enforced throughout the islands last night and was intended to safeguard civilians as well as military installations, according to an official statement.

Results of the blackout were described as “impressive.”

There have been few cases of non-cooperation (on the part of the civilian population) and these have been “severely dealt with,” military authorities said.

A provist court, presided over by Judge James L. Coke, has been established and has disposed of 15 cases. Fifteen more cases are under investigation. Two persons who failed to obey the blackout regulations were fined $10 each. Two other cases, described as more flagrant, were also disposed of and the persons convicted were fined $100 each and sentenced to 100 days at hard labor as enemies of the territory. The sentences to hard labor were suspended but the fines stood.


Roosevelt approves Honolulu evacuation

Washington (UP) –
President Roosevelt has approved a plan for the emergency evacuation of 60,000 civilians from Honolulu City, Delegate Samuel W. King, Hawaii’s Representative in Congress, disclosed today.

Mr. King emphasized the plan does not contemplate immediate evacuation, but will provide facilities for an exodus if sea or air attack again threaten the island fortress.

Although civilian casualties from Sunday’s air blitzkrieg were comparatively small, Mr. King said tremendous carnage was possible if the Japanese should launch an all-out attack against civilian centers.

Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, as assistant director of Civilian Defense, sent a message today to the people of Hawaii, praising their courage.


Where Allies face greatest threat

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With the Japanese fighting in northern Malaya, occupying territory around Kota Bharu and establishing air bases in Thailand, the Allies face their greatest danger of the entire war because of the grave threat to Singapore. Loss of the great naval base would cut the British lifeline to India and the Near East and deprive the American Navy and the British of an operating base against Japan.

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Hitler, Il Duce go to Japs’ aid

They blame whole thing on United States

Berlin, Germany (UP) – (German radio recorded by United Press at New York)
Germany and her Axis partner, Italy, today declared war in the United States.

Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop made the formal declaration on behalf of Germany at noon (5 a.m. EST) in a note handed to the American chargé d’affaires in Berlin.

Adolf Hitler in a speech before the Nazi Reichstag announced that:

I today gave the order that the passports shall be given to the American Ambassador in Berlin.

Germany and Italy, Hitler told the Reichstag, are honoring their obligations under the tri-power military alliance and coming to the aid of Japan:

…in the struggle forced upon her.

The association of Germany, Italy and Japan, proclaimed the Führer, will last:

…at least as long as the war lasts.

Simultaneously, Premier Benito Mussolini appeared on the balcony of Venice Palace in Rome and announced to the throngs in the square below that the Axis partners have gone to war against the United States.

Germany, Hitler assured his audience, has the power and foresight to take all necessary measures for the world conflict.

He said:

We will always strike first. We will always deal the first blow.

Germany, Italy and Japan, he revealed, have bound themselves in a formal alliance of four articles. They agree:

  1. To carry on to final victory the war against Britain and the United States with “every conceivable means.”

  2. Not to conclude a separate peace or armistice.

  3. To continue the closest collaboration and to establish a new and lasting order along the lines of the Tripartite Agreement.

  4. To effectuate the pact immediately.

Hitler said:

After peace has been won, the three countries will proceed in close collaboration to guarantee a lasting peace.

Assails Roosevelt

President Roosevelt, charged the Führer, has done “everything in his power” to prevent Germany and Italy from securing their right of existence.

He shouted:

Our patience has come to the straining point. We had always tried to prevent a break with the United States.

But now, Italy and Germany, in loyal fulfillment of their obligations under the Axis agreement, associate themselves with Japan in the struggle against America and Britain.

Never before, said Hitler, has Germany been so united.

He declared:

No one will vanquish Germany. No one will destroy German unity. Germany is strong. Let us thank God that we can enter our names in the history of the Reich.

Singing solemn, sad

As Hitler concluded speaking at 4:33 p.m. (9:33 a.m. EST) after making his war declaration four minutes earlier, Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring rose and said:

God bless our Führer. God bless our Reich.

The Reichstag, assembled in the Kroll Opera House, rose and sang “Deutschland über alles” and the Nazi Horst Wessel song.

The United Press listening post reported that the singing was solemn and sounded sad. The listening post believed that the German broadcast may not have been made direct from radio microphones but from a recording of Hitler’s speech. They reported that a Nazi announcer interrupted repeatedly to give an English translation – a practice never before employed. Hitler spoke in a low, emotionless voice until he neared the end of his address when his voice rose to the familiar shrillness.

Hitler led up to his declaration against the United States with a lengthy attack upon President Roosevelt and his allegedly anti-German policy. He listed a long series of American attacks against Germany. His listeners cheered and laughed at his occasional bursts of satire. Once the broadcast was interrupted by a chorus of “pfui” from the Reichstag members.

Admits Libyan defeat

Hitler made these points:

  1. That Britain and the United States have “flagrantly violated” international law.

  2. That the United States:

…plans to take over the British Empire in the hour of its collapse as safely and with as little danger as possible.

  1. That the Axis has suffered a temporary defeat in Libya due to British superiority in heavy tanks.

  2. That only winter has halted the Nazi attack on Russia and that it will be resumed but not before next summer.

  3. That the United States was preparing plans for an attack upon Germany in 1943.

Hitler said:

A year of historical events is ending. A year of the greatest decisions is coming. If Providence has decided that a struggle shall occur, I am thankful that I have been elected to lead this struggle which will decide our future for 500 or 1,000 years.

Calls nation secure

He claimed Germany now stands secure behind a series of fortresses, air bases and naval bases which have been built from the Kirkenes in far northern Norway to the frontiers of Spain.

Wants to ‘save’ Europe

He said:

It is my unshakeable determination to make this European front unassailable and impregnable.

He charged that America’s threat to Europe stems from:

…an inheritance of Jewish and Negro spirit.

He said:

Fighting was unavoidable. Germany is the chief champion of this fight. The Germans are in the struggle to save the interests of the whole of Europe.

Hitler said that “a blind man” could have seen that Russia was preparing to challenge Germany and that Soviet intentions became clear after Joseph Stalin instigated the coup d’état in Yugoslavia which precipitated Germany’s campaign in the Balkans.

He said:

We will always strike first. We will always deal the first blow as we did with Russia.

Charges conspiracy

Hitler again claimed that Britain and Russia secretly conspired to attack Germany. He claimed that Russia planned to attack Germany in the summer of 1941 after which Britain would take the offensive. He said that these intentions were revealed by Prime Minister Winston Churchill at a secret session of the British Parliament.

Hitler said that if Finland had not joined with Germany:

…her own existence and that of the other Scandinavian states would rapidly have come to an end.

Hitler claimed that Germany held 3,806,000 Russian prisoners up to Nov. 28.

He placed German casualties in Russia up to Dec. 1 at 573,415 killed, wounded and missing, He listed them as: 162,314 killed, 377,767 wounded, 33,334 missing.

Every step forward in Russia, he said, had been fought for – against Russian resistance, against Russian heat, Russian mud, Russian cold.

No ill will toward U.S.

Germany, Hitler insisted, never had any ill will toward the United States. Germany had no colonies or claims in North America; had never interfered in American affairs; had aided the United States in winning its war of independence; had never participated in any war against the United States.

He said the United States went to war against the Reich in 1917 for “reasons wholly spurious.”

He said differences of government between the two countries were not sufficient as a cause for bad feeling.

He said:

There are two persons responsible for relations between the United States and Germany. They are Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt. Wilson broke a pledge to Germany.


Mussolini announces war declaration

Rome, Italy (UP) – (via Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Italy declared war on the United States today when Foreign Minister Count Galeazzo Ciano summoned U.S. Chargé d’Affaires George Wadsworth to the foreign office and handed him his passports.

Ciano said in a communication to Wadsworth:

His Majesty, the King-Emperor of Italy, declares that Italy considers herself in a state of war with the United States of America from today.

Italy’s war declaration was proclaimed by Premier Benito Mussolini in a speech before a vast assemblage of cheering Italians from the balcony of Venice Palace.

Mussolini said that “one man alone” is responsible for:

…this new war because by his continued provocations he has prepared for war day by day with diabolic persistence.

The reference was presumably to President Roosevelt.

Promises victory

He added:

Italian men and women will be worthy of this great hour.

He said:

Fascist Italy and Nationalist Socialist Germany, ever closely linked, participate from today on the side of heroic Japan against the United States of America.

We shall win.

Mussolini continued:

This is a great day in the history of the continent of Europe.

Italy and her ally Germany together with Japan enter the war against the United States.

150 million men are resolute to do everything to reach final victory.

We shall wage war in order to conquer.

After an infinite series of provocations, the Japanese have struck in the Pacific and have achieved great victories.

It is a privilege to fight at their sides.

The Tripartite Pact [the German-Italian-Japanese alliance, now brought into active force] is a sure guarantee of victory and a powerful instrument for a just peace for the nations.

The approximately 100,000 persons who crowded the Venice Square and overflowed into nearby streets called Mussolini back to the balcony nine times to acknowledge their cheers.


All U.S. reporters in Berlin arrested

Berlin, Germany – (German broadcast recorded by United Press)
All American newspaper and Press Association correspondents in Berlin were arrested at midnight, in retaliation for the arrest of German correspondents in the United States.


U.S. ship docks safely after 3 days on Pacific

San Francisco, California (UP) –
The SS Lurline, caught between Honolulu and San Francisco when the Japanese attack began, arrived here yesterday with 500 passengers after a three-day zigzag run to safety.

The Lurline was 1,000 miles from Honolulu when ship’s officers learned of the outbreak of war. Most of the passengers refused to believe the news until the ship was blacked out, portholes were painted blue and all passenger radios were confiscated.


Radio advised to be careful

Avoid ‘horror and undue excitement,’ it is told

Washington (UP) –
President Neville Miller of the National Association of Broadcasters advised radio stations today to use “unusually careful editorial judgment” in selecting war news.

Mr. Miller said it was equally important that announcers and newscasters report war news:

…calmly, slowly and deliberately, so as to avoid horror, suspense and undue excitement.

He agreed with the War Department that definite periods should be established for handling of war news:

…except for news of transcendent importance.

Chairman James Lawrence Fly of the FCC, meanwhile, assured the radio industry that their facilities generally would remain in private hands. He said censorship was not being undertaken.

An order signed by President Roosevelt yesterday gives the Defense Communications Board authority to designate radio facilities for the “use, control, inspection or closure” by the War or Navy Department or other government agency. It was explained that the order mainly affected stations used for point-to-point broadcasting of messages which could be used to augment the communication facilities of the Army and Navy.


Statement on a conference on wartime labor policy
December 11, 1941

The President today issued invitations for a conference to be held between industry and labor to consider the problem of labor disputes during the war.

The President invited the Presidents of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations each to designate six representatives from different unions affiliated with their organizations. He also invited the Chairman of the Business Advisory Council of the Department of Commerce to choose, after appropriate consultation, twelve representatives of industrial management. He will later appoint someone to serve as Moderator and Associate Moderator.

The conference will be held at Washington and will commence during the early part of the week of December 15.

The first and essential objective of the conference will be to reach a unanimous agreement to prevent the interruption of production by labor disputes during the period of the war. It is not expected that there will be any hesitation on the part of either labor or industry to accept this basic condition of the nation’s safety.

The conferees doubtless will find it necessary to agree upon machinery by which these disputes may amicably and finally be settled. It is thought this machinery might include appropriate procedures for adjusting disputes, for mediation, and for resort in defense industries to some tribunal whose decisions will be binding by agreement on all parties. But it is for the conferees to decide what form the machinery shall take so long only as an agreement is reached. Since the efficacy of that agreement will depend upon the voluntary cooperation of all concerned, emphasis is placed on the fact that it must represent a unanimous accord.

The agreement, it is pointed out, might include or be followed by an agreement defining appropriate practices for both labor and management to secure maximum production for war needs. In view of the gravity of the emergency now confronting this country, the President urges that the conferees reach a conclusion, at least upon the primary agreement preventing interruptions to production, and report to him within a very few days after convening.

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Völkischer Beobachter (December 12, 1941)

Das Reich und Italien an Japans Seite –
Kriegszustand mit USA.

Leidenschaftliches Bekenntnis des Führers: „Gemeinsamer Kampf mit allen Mitteln bis zum Endsieg“

In einer Stunde weltgeschichtlicher Entscheidungen sprach der Führer zum deutschen Volk und zur Welt. Während im Pazifik seit vier Tagen die Waffen Japans dem Kriegsbrandstifter Roosevelt die einzig mögliche Antwort geben, versammelten sich am Donnerstag im Reichstag die Abgesandten des deutschen Volkes‚ um eine Erklärung der Reichsregierung entgegenzunehmen. Sie ist so ausgefallen‚ wie sie dem Wesen‚ der Ehrauffassung und der Mission des deutschen Volkes entspricht: Das Reich und Italien treten mit ihren gesamten Machtmitteln an die Seite Japans‚ um Roosevelts und Churchills Weltbrand zu ersticken. Die Waffen warden erst ruhen, wenn der Endsieg erfochten ist.


Zweiweltenkampf

Die angekündigte und nicht nur vom deutschen Volk‚ sondern von der ganzen Welt mit größter Spannung erwartete Regierungserklärung im Deutschen Reichstag wurde durch die große Führerrede zu einer geschichtlichen Kundgebung von einmaliger Größe. Nachdem im Pazifik die von der plutokratischen Herrschsucht und Überheblichkeit in die Enge getriebene und gepeinigte tapfere japanische Nation in kühnem Entschluß Roosevelt die einzig mögliche Antwort mit scharfen Waffen erteilt und den Schleier der pazifistischen Heuchelei des Hauptkriegsschuldigen zerrissen hatte, ging offenbar der Kampf zwischen zwei Welten seinem Höhepunkt entgegen.

Der Führer hat ihn in seiner großen Rede vor den Männern des Deutschen Reichstages bis in seine letzten jüdischen Wurzeln hinein allseitig und mit erschütternder Eindringlichkeit aufgezeichnet. Er stellte seinen Lebensweg und sein Werk als das eines schlichten und ehrbaren Arbeiters und Soldaten symbolhaft gegen den Werdegang dieses typischen Plutokratensohnes und Schiebers Roosevelt, der die Welt und die Völkerschicksale nur unter dem Gesichtspunkt des Geldverdienens kennt. Wie noch nie zuvor sprach der Führer im Namen Europas und bekannte sich zu seiner alten stolzen Kultur und zu der Ehrauffassung seiner Völker. Er zeichnete ein leuchtendes Bild von den opfervollen und kühnen Leistungen des deutschen Heeres und seiner Verbündeten im Ostfeldzuge, wo sie die alles zu verschlingen drohende Gefahr des jüdischen Bolschewismus siegreich gebannt haben.

Mit großem Jubel nahmen die Männer des Deutschen Reichstages die Meldung des Führers auf‚ daß soeben in Berlin zwischen den drei Mächten Deutschland‚ Japan und Italien ein Abkommen getroffen wurde, in dem ihre verschworene Kampfgemeinschaft gegen den jüdisch-plutokratisch-bolschewistischen Weltfeind zum Ausdruck kommt. Er zeichnete in großen Linien und mit einer glühenden Leidenschaft diesen Zweiweltenkampf, den die nationalsozialistische Revolution in 16jährigem Kampf schon im Innern Deutschlands gegen den gleichen Feind siegreich bestehen konnte. Die Vorsehung habe diesen Kampf bisher in sichtbarer Weise gesegnet, und wir haben allen Grund, zu glauben‚ daß sie ihn auch jetzt, nachdem er auf dem welt-weiten Höhepunkt angekommen ist, weiterhin segnen wird.

Die deutsche Nation ist in dieser geschichtlichen Stunde sich der Größe ihres geschichtlichen Auftrages voll bewußt. Wie ein granitener Block steht sie Schulter an Schulter in Front und Heimat geschlossen in diesem größten und ehrenvollsten Kampf ihrer Geschichte. Noch nie war ihr die Notwendigkeit ihres Kampfes klarer Und noch nie ihre Entschlossenheit‚ Opferfreude und Gläubigkeit so groß wie heute.

Der Kriegszustand mit Roosevelts plutokratischer Weltdiktatur ist nur die äußere Bestätigung einer schon längst tatsächlich von der Gegenseite svstematisch herbeigeführten Lage. Er wirkt auf das deutsche Volk wie eine Befreiung von einer unerträglichen Belastung. Herr Roosevelt hat nun seinen Krieg! Mag er sehen‚ wie er damit zurechtkommt!

K. N.


81 USA.-Flugzeuge über Manila vernichtet –
Flugzeugträger Lexington versenkt

dnb. Tokio, 11. Dezember –
Die Marineabteilung des Kaiserlichen Hauptquartiers gibt bekannt, daß die japanische Luftwaffe am 10. Dezember auf nordamerikanische Armeestreitkräfte auf den Philippinen einen großen Angriff durchgeführt hat. Bei einem Luftkampf über Manila wurden 45 feindliche Flugzeuge abgeschossen. 36 feindliche Flugzeuge wurden am Boden zerstört. Bei Hawai wurden ein USA.-Zerstörer, ein U-Boot und ein weiteres Spezialschiff durch direkte Treffer vernichtet. Der japanische Generalstab gab außerdem bekannt, daß der 33.000 Tonnen große nordamerikanische Flugzeugträger Lexington, über den wir bereits in unserer gestrigen Ausgabe berichteten, in den Kämpfen um Hawai versenkt worden ist.

Die Lexington ist ein Schwesterschiff der Saratoga. Beide Flugzeugträger sind die größten, die die Vereinigten Staaten besitzen. Sie können 90 Flugzeuge befördern. Sie sind bewaffnet mit acht 20,3-Zentimeter-Geschützen, zwölf 12,7-Zentimeter-Flakgeschützen, vier 5,7- und acht 4-Zentimeter Flakgeschützen. Beide Flugzeugträger sind im Jahre 1925 vom Stapel gelaufen und 1926 in Dienst gestellt. Die Besatzung beträgt 1400 Mann.

Luftabwehr erfolglos

Aus Manila hier eingetroffene Berichte bestätigen im übrigen die Wirksamkeit der japanischen Bombenangriffe und die Erfolglosigkeit der philippinischen Luftabwehr, wobei die Tatsache ausdrücklich betont wird, daß lediglich militärische Anlagen das Ziel der japanischen Luftangriffe waren. Das Hauptziel der japanischen Luftangriffe sei Cavite, der Flugplatz Nicholsfield, der Nilson-Flugplatz, das Fort McKinley und das Fort William gewesen. Auf die Stadt Manila seien keine Bomben abgeworfen worden.

Die japanischen Flugzeuge flogen, wie weiter berichtet wird, in geordneter Formation teilweise in großer Höhe unbekümmert um die Flugabwehr zurück, deren Geschosse zwar den Himmel mit kleinen Wolken punktierten, jedoch viel zu kurz lagen. Die Fliegerabwehr wurde stark behindert einerseits durch das grelle Sonnenlicht, andererseits durch die riesigen Rauchwolken, die die Ziele der japanischen Bomben umlagerten. Jeder der vier Angriffe wurde in mehreren Wellen durchgeführt. Die Angriffe galten vor allen Dingen dem USA.-Stützpunkt Cavite, wo Augenzeugen die gewaltige Wirkung von mehreren hundert Bomben beobachtet haben. Die dortigen Öllager wurden offensichtlich in Brand geworfen. Auch die in der Bucht von Manila liegenden Schiffe wurden mehrmals mit gutem Erfolg angegriffen. Die nordamerikanischen Flugzeuge waren außerstande, die japanischen Flugzeuge vor Ende des Bombenangriffs zu erreichen, nur einmal wurde ein Luftkampf beobachtet.

Die japanische Landoffensive auf der größten philippinischen Insel Luzon ist amerikanischen Rundfunkberichten zufolge in vollem Gange. Die Japaner, die ursprünglich am Nordende von Luzon, bei Aparri, zur Landung ansetzten, konnten weitere Truppen landen und beherrschen zur Zeit fast das gesamte Nordende der Insel sowie das zwischen San Fernando und Vigan gelegene Gebiet ander Westküste Luzons. Die japanischen Landungen erfolgten in einer Küstenausdehnung von etwa 250 Kilometer.


U.S. State Department (December 12, 1941)

859B.01/388

The Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the American Legation in Denmark

PJIA Journal Nr. 84 B.2.a.
Copenhagen, December 12, 1941.

Note Verbale

The American Chargé d’Affaires in Copenhagen has been good enough to leave with the Ministry for Foreign Affairs a copy of the note which the State Department in Washington recently transmitted to the former Danish Minister there, M. Kauffmann, concerning his status and authority particularly with regard to Greenland.

The Royal Danish Government has taken notice of this document with the greatest anxiety as it appears to indicate that M. Kauffmann has now obtained recognition in relation to the United States of America as an organ competing with the lawful Danish Government having been invested with all the Danish Government’s authority with regard to Greenland and Danish property in the United States of America and in Greenland.

This is the regrettable result of a development in which M. Kauffmann himself appears to have been the impelling force; for according to the information available here, there is nothing to indicate that the Government of the United States of America would itself have taken the initiative to bring about the status which M. Kauffmann has gradually succeeded in obtaining, if he himself on April 9, 1940, had loyally followed the lawful Danish Government like Denmark’s other Ministers in foreign countries.

M. Kauffmann has achieved this status after an usurpation in explanation of which he merely states that the Danish Government is acting under duress as a result of the occupation and that it is therefore incompetent. In this respect, however, he has evidently acted as early as on April 9, 1940, in the expectation of developments in Denmark under the occupation of an entirely different nature to those which actually ensued. His attitude is based on illogical reasoning; Denmark is certainly under the occupation of German troops, but this does not prevent the lawful Danish Government, which is composed of representatives of all the great political parties from directing all affairs in the country. In all essential respects, Danish social life is continued normally, the powers of State – legislative, judiciary and executive – carrying on their functions independently and without interference from the occupying power.

M. Kauffmann was Denmark’s Minister in Washington and had no function beyond that. A diplomatic agent cannot be or become anything different or more than what his Government has entrusted him to be, and neither under international law nor under Danish constitutional law can he acquire any independent political authority without a special mandate. The Danish people is represented by its King, Government and Parliament, and how can the authority of these lawful instances with any justification be transferred to a chance diplomatic agent by a mere act of usurpation?

To the extent to which M. Kauffmann is in a position to act on the basis of his being recognized by the Government of the United States of America the anomalous situation is now in fact established that there are so to speak two Danish “Governments,” one being the lawful Government appointed by the King, recognized by the people, and domiciled in Denmark, at which foreign powers (including the United States of America) maintain legations, the other being the “Kauffmann usurper Government” which on the basis of certain ideas of duress and negotiorum gestio has obtained the authority which the lawful Government in Copenhagen would normally be able to exercise through its (law-abiding) Minister in Washington.

It should be remembered that the position of Denmark is quite different to that of States whose Governments after the failure of their resistance against German military power have left their country and established themselves abroad. In Denmark, the King and Government remained in the country on April 9, 1940, and resolved by constitutional means “to direct the affairs of the country in view of the occupation which has taken place”. From the outset, the King and Government have thus had and still have the direction of all the affairs of the country, and the conditions, as far as Denmark is concerned, for establishing anything analogous with the exile Governments of the aforesaid countries are therefore entirely missing.

M. Kauffmann has undoubtedly himself felt the weakness of having no mandate from the people whose interests he claims to defend. He has therefore endeavoured to obtain the adherence of Danes living abroad, but even if this adherence may be felt as a moral support by M. Kauffmann personally, it is evident that it is of no significance from the point of view of constitutional law; for how can the attribution to M. Kauffmann of Government authority, the exercise of which presupposes all the elements which according to universally-recognized opinion enters into the conception of a State, be based on the mere presence of a strictly limited number of partisans or adherents? These adherents are, moreover, largely persons who have acquired another nationality and who are not only under a formal obligation to their new country, but may also be presumed to share the sympathies prevalent there.

The fact that M. Kauffmann has felt the weakness of acting without any mandate from the King of Denmark appears clearly from the surreptitious inclusion, on his initiative, in the preamble of the so-called Greenland Agreement of April 9, 1941, of a passage to the effect that he acted “on behalf of His Majesty the King of Denmark in His quality of Sovereign over Greenland.” This pa,ssage was inserted by M. Kauffmann not only without the existence of any trace of authorization, but even directly against his better knowledge of being guilty of an abuse of the King’s name. By this action it became clear that M. Kauffmann from the occupation of Denmark on April 9, 1940, had adopted an attitude directly contrary to the policy laid down by the King and Government.

M. Kauffmann having no other authority than that which he had received from the State Department, it was a fiction to speak of “negotiations” in connection with the conclusion of the Greenland Agreement. Article 10 in particular of the Agreement concerning its duration has evidently been drafted in such a way that the Government of the United States of America will be in a position unilaterally to decide, and therefore indefinitely postpone, the date of an eventual conference for the amendment or termination of the Agreement.

The Agreement having thus been concluded without the participation of the Danish Government it has been a reassurance to this Government to receive – directly irrespective of the Agreement – the promise of the American Government that Greenland will be restored, but the fact that Denmark has to see its policy and its interests, insofar as the United States of America and Greenland are concerned, placed in the hands of a man whose only title is based on his own act of usurpation, fills the Danish Government with profound anxiety as to future developments.

The Danish Government fails to understand that the American Government, in spite of all that has taken place, not only does not refuse its recognition of M. Kauffmann but even considerably extends that recognition.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs requests the American Chargé d’Affaires in Copenhagen to communicate the above to the State Department in Washington.


851.33/206: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France

Washington, December 12, 1941 — 2 p.m.

914. 

Your 1523, December 11, 7 p.m.

We have noted the statement made by Admiral Darlan to you to the effect that with regard to naval ships in French colonial ports in the Western Hemisphere the Admiral stated that they have no intention of leaving port and that they are disarmed.

You should see Marshal Pétain or Admiral Darlan immediately and say that your Government has taken note of this statement and that in view of the fact that the United States is at war, all necessary measures must accordingly be taken by this Government, particularly in the defense areas off our shores and in the Caribbean region. This Government will undertake to safeguard the French colonial possessions in this area as part of our general defense operations. Because of the necessity of carrying out our defense plans, we cannot permit the movement of other than American or associated naval or air units operating in these areas. We must, therefore, request, as an evidence of the friendly attitude of France toward this country, that the measures of disarmament of naval or air units, which are now being undertaken by the French Government with respect to any ships or aircraft now stationed in the Caribbean or French colonial territories, be carried out to an extent satisfactory to the United States. In order to insure this degree of demobilization of naval or air units, we request that American naval survey parties be permitted to inspect the state of disarmament and immobilization which has been or is to be carried out with respect to the naval units and aviation units in these areas. Inspection parties have already been organized and are ready to proceed and we request that the French authorities in the Antilles and French Guiana be duly informed and authorized to grant the necessary facilities to the American inspection parties.

HULL


740.0011 Pacific War/1075a: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in the United Kingdom

Washington, December 12, 1941 — 5 p.m.

5842. 

The Thai Minister here received this morning a telegram from the Thai Foreign Minister at Bangkok, stating that Thailand and Japan had entered into an offensive and defensive alliance. It is understood that the Thai Minister here is today making public a repudiation on his own responsibility of the above-mentioned alliance. Yesterday, the Minister stated to the press that he intended to work for the re-establishment of an independent Thailand.

You may wish to communicate the above to the British Foreign Office and, in your discretion, to your Thai colleague.

Further developments will be telegraphed to you.

HULL


851.85/384a: Telegram

The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in France

Washington, December 12, 1941 — 11 p.m.

920. 

The following press release is being issued today:

As a measure of necessary protection to the crews and vessels, arrangements have been made to remove the French crews of all French vessels now in United States ports. This action does not preclude return of the crews to any vessel the resumption of service of which may be determined.

It has been explained to the French Embassy that this measure was determined as necessary for the safety not only of the ships but of the crews themselves and that it does not apply to any of the vessels which may be engaged in supply service to the French West Indies. It was further pointed out that should the North African service be resumed, the crews of the Leopold L. D. and the Île de Ré could promptly be returned to that vessel.

You may wish to convey the foregoing promptly to the French Foreign Office.

HULL


851.33/211: Telegram

The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State

Vichy, December 12, 1941 — 11 p.m.
[Received December 13 — 11:30 a.m.]

1531. 

My 1523, December 11, 7 p.m.

We called on Rochat this evening who officially delivered to us three memoranda containing the replies to the question[s] I delivered yesterday [to] Marshal Pétain in the form of three memoranda. He said that:

The Marshal has been happy to give you complete satisfaction and assurances on all the questions which you raised.

The following is a translation of the first memorandum dealing with the points raised in Department’s 898, December 6, 4 p.m.:

Referring to the note handed by Admiral Leahy to Marshal Pétain and Admiral Darlan on December 11, the French Government renews the assurances that the French Fleet will not be utilized against Great Britain except in the case of hostile action on her part and that French territory will not be used as a base for operations by German Armed Forces.

It also renews the assurance that the departure of General Weygand did not entail any change in the political position of France in North Africa or any modification of the status governing these territories.

On the other hand, it confirms the agreement concluded on March 10 between the Embassy of the United States at Vichy and the French Government on the basis of the memorandum drawn up following the conversation of February 26, 1941, between General Weygand and Mr. Murphy.

It hopes that the renewal of these assurances will cause the American Government to resume the program of supply for North Africa. It would be happy to receive confirmation thereof.

After handing us these notes, Rochat said that he was particularly glad that we had brought up the possibility of continuing our economic assistance to North Africa at this time. While he understands that as a result of our entry into war the possibility of our giving economic assistance to North Africa, as originally envisaged, may have to undergo drastic change, he said that the continuation of our economic assistance to North Africa will strengthen at the present time France’s hand in resisting German demands there. He went on to say that if we resume sending supplies to North Africa, the French will be in a position to argue with the Germans that any additional material concessions to them insofar as North Africa is concerned will lead to the discontinuation of our program and will create:

…a serious situation very disadvantageous to the Germans insofar as North Africa is concerned.

We asked him whether he really believed the French Government could resist a German demand or ultimatum for the withdrawal of code privileges and the departure of our consulates from North Africa. He replied with embarrassment that he could not answer this question. He went on to say that France would resist German demands in this regard with every possible argument but only the future can tell what the final decision will be. He stated that up to the present time no demands have been received from the Germans insofar as this mission or any of our consulates are concerned.

Repeated to Algiers for Murphy.

LEAHY


851.33/211: Telegram

The Ambassador in France to the Secretary of State

Vichy, December 12, 1941 — 11 p.m.
[Received December 13 — 11:30 a.m.]

1531. 

My 1523, December 11, 7 p.m.

We called on Rochat this evening who officially delivered to us three memoranda containing the replies to the question[s] I delivered yesterday [to] Marshal Pétain in the form of three memoranda. He said that:

The Marshal has been happy to give you complete satisfaction and assurances on all the questions which you raised.

The second memorandum dealing with the question of the carrier Béarn and other naval vessels reads as follows:

The President of the United States has asked the Marshal to issue orders to Admiral Robert not to allow the departure of any French naval ship from Martinique or from any other port in the Western Hemisphere.

The French Government has the honor to inform the Government of the United States that it is sending the said order. These instructions, moreover, are but a confirmation of those which were sent last year to Admiral Robert following the agreement reached between the two Governments in order to maintain the status quo of French possessions in the Western Hemisphere. The French Government does not doubt that the American Government continues to give, under present circumstances, its full value to this agreement. It would be happy to receive confirmation thereof.

The third memorandum states that:

As a result of the declaration of war by Germany and Italy against the United States, the French Government intends to maintain an attitude of neutrality during this conflict.

LEAHY


Press Release
December 12, 1941

An exchange of telegrams between the President of the United States and the President of the Philippine Commonwealth follows:

December 9, 1941

I have just arrived from Baguio the summer capital of the Philippines where I was when the war between the United States and Japan was declared. I have covered the country by automobile and I am happy to report that everywhere the people are loyal to America and determined to stand by her in testimony of their gratitude to you, to the Government of the United States and to the American people and because of their devotion to the cause of Democracy and freedom. I am proud therefore that the reiterated assurance I have given to you: to the effect that you can count upon us was no empty word.

MANUEL L. QUEZON

December 11, 1941.

Your renewed assurances of the devotion and loyalty of the Philippine people to the United States and to democracy are particularly appreciated in this grave hour. The hearts of all Americans are deeply touched by the fortitude and gallantry being shown by your people in this present ordeal. We are at one with you in our faith in the ultimate triumph of our common ideals.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT

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U.S. Navy Department (December 12, 1941)

Communiqué No. 4

Naval forces continue to coordinate their efforts with the Army on land, sea and in the air against heavy Japanese attacks on the island of Luzon. There is no confirmation of the alleged occupation of Guam by the Japanese. The resistance of Wake and Midway continues. No further air activity over Hawaii has been reported. The situation in the Atlantic remains unchanged.

The above is based on reports up to noon today.


The Pittsburgh Press (December 12, 1941)

War Department offers 18-64 draft bill

Women ‘deferred’ –
Full survey of manpower in U.S. asked

Only those from 19 to 45 face actual call, Rayburn says

Washington (UP) –
The War Department today presented to Congress legislation that would require all men in the United States between the ages of 18 to 64, inclusive, to register with the Selective Service System.

Only those from 19 to 45, Speaker Sam Rayburn said, will be liable for military service.

The broad registration will be for the purpose of getting an accurate survey of American manpower.

Chairman Andrew J. May (D-KY) of the House Military Affairs Committee introduced the War Department’s legislation shortly after the House convened at noon.

Reviewed at conference

The legislation was reviewed in a conference at Mr. Rayburn’s office also attended by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, Selective Service Director Lewis B. Hershey, House Majority Leader John W. McCormack (D-MA), Rep. James Wadsworth (R-NY), co-sponsor of the original Selective Service Act, Rep. Walter G. Andrews (R-NY), ranking minority member of the Military Affairs Committee, and War Department and Selective Service aides.

Men who have already registered will not be required to do so again.

The new registration will take in all unregistered men who have reached the age of 18 and have not reached the age of 65.

New registrants may be called up for military service ahead of those who were entered in the past two registrations.

The bill provided that alien residents of the United States holding citizenship in neutral nations may apply for exemption for registration for military service under the American flag but if they do, they are forever barred from becoming citizens of this nation.

Mr. May announced that hearings in the bill will start tomorrow and that Gen. Hershey will be the first witness.

Selective Service officials said they had no intention at this time of seeking authority to register women.

Mr. May said his bill will not change the existing system of classifying Selective Service registrants.

Mr. Hershey disclosed that a proposal was now under consideration to establish some sort of government support if married men and other with dependents, who are now deferred, were found to be needed.

Million already available

Mr. Hershey told the conferees that an additional million men can probably be combed out of present registrants between 21 and 27 and that 1,200,000 men reach the age of military service annually.

He said:

We may need a lot of men and we’ve got to find out now where we can get them.

Gen. Hershey told reporters yesterday that he favored a long-range registration of the 40 million men between 18 and 64 years. He estimated that 10 million could be made available to the Army and Navy for actual service. Registration of women, he said, would be handled by such agencies as the Office for Civilian Defense.

The first phase of the program probably will be to draw upon the 17,500,000 men in the already registered 21-35 age group. Only about 800,000 inductions have been made to this class, but Gen. Hershey believes this could be increased to four million men.

Immediate reclassification of the 10 million registrants in the 21-27 age bracket is possible and legislative action may be sought to make available the 7,500,000 men in the 28-35 age group.

Gen. Hershey suggested that lowering selection standards in the 21-27 group would yield more than a million men to the current million in Class 1-A, and that “fully a million able-bodied men” might be obtained from the 28-35 group, now exempted.

The Army is expected to notify Selective Service headquarters at once of its needs for January and February quotas. They have been averaging about 65,000 per month recently. Gen. Hershey indicated that they would be…

…doubled or tripled.

That might mean that 500,000 men would be called to the colors during the next two months.

Loopholes sought

Authorities are seeking to close loopholes on occupational deferments. Conferences with defense manufacturers have been held recently, and Gen. Hershey believes 200,000 men may be made available for military service from defense industry workers.

Selective Service headquarters have notified local draft boards to reclassify ex-servicemen who were deferred in Class 4-A. They were told that the provision permitting deferment from service in peacetime no longer applies.

Men who had served three years in the Army, Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps, National Guardsmen with two years service in the militia and one in federal service, National Guards with six years service, the reserve officers with six years service were in that category.


Connally shies from phrase in war resolution

‘World conquest’ allusion deleted from draft of State Department
By Marshall McNeil, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
If the State Department suggestion had been followed, Congress would have acknowledged formally that Germany and Italy are working together on a plan for world conquest.

But at the insistence of Senator Connally (D-TX), Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the declarations of war against the Axis powers contained no such preambles as the Department suggested.

Confusion over whether to accept the State Department version accounted for the interruption in Senate proceedings between the reading of the President’s war message and the Senate’s unanimous vote to declare war.

Confer on floor

During this interruption, Senator Connally conferred on the Senate floor with Rep. Bloom (D-NY), Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, and House Majority Leader McCormack (D-MA).

One Senator said in a stage whisper:

Sol and Tom are having a joint session of Congress right here on the floor.

Before calling the Foreign Relations Committee to meet at 11:30 a.m. yesterday, Senator Connally had conferred with Secretary Hull. He went back to the Capitol, and said the State Department was drafting a proposed war resolution. At the same time, his office put the legislative drafting service to work on a similar resolution.

Preamble opposed

The Department’s proposal made known both to Senator Connally and House leaders, started this way:

Whereas Germany is pursuit of a plan of world conquest has committed repeated acts of war against the government and the people of the United States, and has now declared war on the United States…

Senator Connally wouldn’t accept this. He said it was true the Nazis have a plan of world conquest, and that they have committed repeated acts of war against us. But we have known these things for months, he said, without declaring war. Moreover, he wanted the full support of his committee on both resolutions of war.

So, he and the Committee deleted this preamble.

House leaders agree

Rep. Bloom and McCormack, who were prepared to accept the State Department preamble, heard that the Senate was not, and hurried over to find out the facts. The Senate, without formality, suspended its business; Messrs. Connally and Bloom held their “joint session” in the center aisle; the House leaders were informed the Senate was not accepting the State Department preamble; they agreed and the war declarations were speedily approved.

Following the signing of the declarations by the President later in the afternoon, Senator Glass (D-VA) related how Mr. Roosevelt commented to legislators at the signing ceremony that some members of the Connally Committee had wanted to phrase the declarations in a manner to spare the feelings of Axis civilians.

Mr. Glass told the President:

Hell, we not only want to hurt their feeling, we want to kill them!


Plane-vs.-ship case reopened by sea losses

Reappraisal of value of aircraft and vessels due in Congress
By Charles T. Lucey, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
The destruction of naval vessels by airplanes in the Pacific appeared likely today to bring a reappraisal by Congress of the relative importance of aircraft and warships.

Senator Walsh (D-MA), Chairman of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee, commented that this week’s events seemed to indicate a new shift of strength from surface vessels to aircraft.

He pointed out that he had stressed repeatedly the importance of aircraft in naval warfare, and expressed a belief that his committee would reexamine the old controversy of plane-vs.-battleship in the light of the new developments.

Sinkings provide test

Senator Wiley (R-WI), a member of the Walsh Committee, went further. He said:

Recent events show that the navies of the air are more significant than the naves of the sea.

Mr. Wiley said the record of Norway and Crete, as well as this week’s news from the Pacific, had demonstrated the growing supremacy of aircraft.

Senator Lucas (D-IL), also a Committee member, said:

I certainly would think that some more emphasis should now be given to the bombing plane.

He said the sinking of British capital ships by the Japanese, and of Japanese ships by U.S. fliers, presented a much fairer test than the Honolulu engagement Sunday, where planes attacked ships which were apparently tied up in harbor.

Too early for answers

There was less inclination among members of the House Naval Affairs Committee to accept the plane-battleship tests on the Pacific as indicating a need for greater emphasis on aircraft.

Rep. Mass (R-MN), the Committee’s ranking minority member warned against jumping at conclusions. He said a navy must be strong both in the air and on the surface, and pointed out that German aviation had not been able to bring defeat of England.

But Rep. Cole (R-NY), also a Naval Affairs Committee member, said that:

Developments have caused all of us to question the military usefulness of the battleship.

But it is still too early to get a final answer, he said.


$10-billion war bill placed before Senate

Congress moves to gear U.S. Armed Forces for long, hard struggle

Washington (UP) –
The Senate votes today on a $10-billion supplemental national defense appropriation – the first step since the declaration of war against the Axis to gear the Armed Forces for a “long, hard war.”

The Senate Appropriations Committee will send the bill to the floor at noon after adding nearly $2 billion in cash and contract authorizations, including $500 million for naval warplanes, to the House-approved version.

The bill, boosting the war program to more than $69 billion, was approved by the committee yesterday only a few hours after the declaration of war against Germany and Italy.

Called first in series

Acting Committee Chairman Kenneth McKellar (D-TN) said the bill was the first of what may be an extensive series:

…necessary to supply the implements and arms for a long and hard war against three foes.

Rear Adm. John H. Towers, Chief of the Bureau of Naval Aeronautics, asked the committee to increase funds for naval fighting planes from a House-approved total permitting construction of an additional 2,020 airplanes. McKellar did not reveal the type or number of fighting craft to be constructed from the $500-million fund.

Votes power program

In an effort to provide power necessary “to make aluminum needed for the defense of the country,” the committee added a power facility program embracing four additional dams in Tennessee. Initial construction costs provided in the bill total $25 million for the dams located on the Watauga River, near Elizabethtown; the Holston Rover near Bristol; at Dole Hollow on the Obed River, and at Center Hill on the Caney Fork River.

Other items added by the committee include: Another $7 billion for Army and Civil Aeronautics Administration land fields raising the total for this purpose to $57 million; $100 million for the President’s emergency blank check fund, and increased appropriations for government buildings in the District of Columbia.

Transfers funds

The committee transferred $1,500,000,000 of funds set aside by the House for Lend-Lease purposes to the general War Department account. McKellar declared that this move indicated no innovation in Lend-Lease administration, adding that it was considered advisable by War Department officials to lump the Lend-Lease monies with general War Department appropriations:

…to free the department’s hands in spending.

Other expenditures include $742 million for feeding and clothing Army personnel; $269 million for vessel construction and machinery; and $33 million for the Interior Department for defense construction purposes.

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WAR BULLETINS!

British, Reds to map strategy

London, England –
Important British-Russian negotiations, it was learned tonight, will be held shortly to deal with political collaboration and the grand strategy of the war against the Axis.

Japs gain near Hong Kong

Singapore –
British forces held off the Japanese attack on Malaya today but Hong Kong reports admitted some Japanese penetration of the outer mainland defense of that island fortress. British reports said the Japanese strengthened their hold on the Kota Bharu Airdrome close to the Malay-Thai border. Japanese artillery was reported to be shelling Stonecutters Island which lies off Hong Kong Island.

Chiang offers all-out aid

Washington –
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, in a message to President Roosevelt has offered on behalf of China:

…all we are, and all we have, to stand with you until the Pacific and the world are freed from the curse of brute force and endless perfidy.

Planes strafe Jap barges

London, England –
The Air Ministry reported today that Royal Air Force and Australian Air Force planes attacked and set afire to between 50 and 60 Japanese power-driven boats and barges in the first stages of the Japanese attack on Kota Bharu, Malaya.

British sub hits cruiser

London, England –
The Admiralty said today that a British submarine torpedoed and probably sank an enemy cruiser in the Central Mediterranean. The date of the attack was not given.

Marines still hold Wake Island

Washington –
The small U.S. Marine garrison is still holding Wake Island against Japanese attacks, President Roosevelt said today. He told his press conference that the Marines at Wake Island – a lonely station in the mid-Pacific – is small and has done a magnificent job in withstanding Japanese assaults. Last night, it was announced that the Marines had sunk a Japanese light cruiser and a destroyer in air action from Wake.

Japs seize 1,000 American workmen

Washington –
The American Federation of Labor said today it has been advised by the Navy that more than 1,000 American workmen were “captured and taken prisoner” at Midway and Guam Islands in the Pacific. The men were all members of the AFL’s Building Trades Union, and were sent to the island to construct military facilities. The Navy did not specifically say whether Midway or Guam had fallen into the hands of the Japanese.

Haiti joins U.S. against Axis

Port-au-Prince, Haiti –
Haiti today declared war on Germany and Italy. A declaration of war against Japan was made last Monday.

Slovakia declares war on U.S.

1024px-War_ensign_of_the_First_Slovak_Republic.svg

London, England –
The official German news agency broadcast a Bratislava dispatch today saying that Slovakia had declared war on the United States and Great Britain.

Indian leader arrested

New Delhi, India – (Dec. 11, delayed)
Sarat Chandra Bose, brother of Subhas Chandra Bose, former Mayor of Calcutta and former president of the All-India Nationalist Congress, has been arrested at Calcutta because of his “recent contacts with the Japanese,” it was announced today. Subhas Chandra Bose fled last January and is reported in Germany.

Nazis claim four sinkings

Berlin, Germany – (by Berlin radio)
German submarines in the Atlantic have sunk four British ships totaling 27,700 tons, the High Command said today.

The ships included a tanker. In addition, two patrol vessels and a tanker were damaged by torpedo hits.

Vichy declares neutrality

London, England –
Radio Tokyo said this morning that the Vichy government has informed the Japanese ambassador that France will maintain strict neutrality in the war between the United States and Japan.

San Diego blacked out

San Diego, California –
San Diego was blacked out for an hour early today and Los Angeles was placed on “alert” when the Fourth Interceptor Command reported unidentified aircraft offshore.

Here the Command said the planes were heard off Point Loma at the entrance to San Diego Bay. At Los Angeles, the Command said merely that they were “probably offshore.”

Australia has air-raid alarm

New York –
The British radio reported today that Port Darwin on the north coast of Australia had an air-raid alarm during the night, the first in the Commonwealth. No details were given.

Japan, Indochina sign pact

London, England –
The official German news agency reported from Tokyo today that Japan and French Indochina concluded a military alliance Monday.

The Berlin broadcast attributed the report to Japanese Imperial Headquarters.

Brussels University closed

Stockholm, Sweden –
The newspaper Dagens Nyheter reported from Berlin today that German military authorities had closed the University of Brussels to its 3,000 students and arrested 10 of its officials. The University board refused to accept five German appointments to the faculty.


Companies reject air-raid insurance

New York (UP) –
Insurance companies refused today to insure property in the United States and its territories against air-raid damage although demands were heavy and increasing.

The companies could not agree on a standard rate.

To determine what course to take, the Executive Committee of the General Brokers’ Association of the Metropolitan District, Inc., appointed a committee to confer with federal and state authorities.

Another group of insurance men was reported to be already in Washington, trying to find out whether the government is willing to take complete assumption of war risks as the government of Britain did when the Germans were air-raiding the British Isles.


Practice blackouts urged

Chicago, Illinois –
Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia of New York, director of the Office of Civilian Defense, said today he believed Chicago and all major cities of the United States should have practice blackouts soon.

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U.S. bans casualty lists as giving aid to enemies

Washington (UP) –
No more casualty lists will be issued by the War and Navy Departments.

President Roosevelt explained to his press conference today that the Army and Navy felt that publication of lists of men killed or wounded in action would provide information of aid to the enemy, enabling the enemy to determine where and when large numbers of American soldiers and sailors suffered losses.

He said the Army and Navy would notify next of kin of the casualties immediately by telegram. The government will release for newspaper publication only total figures on casualties.

The President asked that press associations, newspapers and radio stations refrain from compiling their own casualty lists from the notices sent to next of kin.

Newspapers, he said, should confine themselves to brief stories that the next of kin – wife, mother, or whatever the case may be – of a given man in the paper’s individual areas has been notified by Washington. This information from next of kin, the President felt, should not be made into the form of lists covering even a given community.

All belligerents in the war, prior to the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and the United States, followed the policy of not making casualty lists public, the President said. They have notified next of kin, and from time to time made public figures on total casualties.

The War Department has issued three casualty lists – one each Wednesday, yesterday and today. The Navy had not released any casualty list up to the time of today’s decision. The Navy is now preparing figures on the dead and seriously wounded to date.

A Navy announcement said:

The Navy Department today announced that for military reasons no list of names of casualties will be released to the public. The next of kin and dependents of naval casualties are being notified and are being asked not to divulge the names of the ship or station to which the relative was attached.

To requests for additional information on the Japanese attack against Hawaii, the President replied that further statements must await the return or report of the Secretary Frank Knox, now in Honolulu.

The President said strongly that no one should publish anything about the Hawaiian attack or present conditions there until the government has heard from Mr. Knox. He added, in response to a question, if such stories are published the government will remember well the people who did it.

He was asked about the propriety of reporting statements made in Congress, giving purporting details of the situation in Hawaii. Correspondents referred particularly to statements made in the Senate yesterday and told the President they had no choice but to print them.

The President agreed that such reports from Congress could not be ignored, but said they should be characterized as not entirely factual.

The President said one Senator yesterday made certain statements about Hawaii with knowing a thing about the situation.

This Senator, the President said, reported somebody’s gossip and made his report as a statement of fact which he had no right to do.

Senator Charles W. Tobey (R-NH) told the Senate yesterday that there had been a “debacle” at Pearl Harbor and charged that the defenses of Pearl Harbor were unprepared.

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Mowrer: Keep a close eye on Hitler for surprise

Nazis still main show, and Atlantic may be next background
By Edgar Ansel Mowrer

Washington –
Repel the Japanese but keep your eye on Hitler – this is the policy being followed today by the American administration, the Army and the Navy.

The sinking of a Japanese battleship, a cruiser and a destroyer makes it just that much easier. People here are convinced that in preparing for Japan the magnificently audacious plan that the Nipponese carried out so effectively (and treacherously) last Sunday, the Germans wanted to create a diversion serious enough to force the American authorities to strip the Atlantic and rush to repair the damage in the Pacific and avenge it.

Since the work of avenging has begun without any reinforcements from the Atlantic – for the main route to the Philippines is now largely in the hands of the Japanese, there will be less temptation to forget that, outside of the main area of Singapore, Hitler and his Nazis are still the main show.

In order to induce the Japs to go all out and risk their precious material, Hitler, it is believed here, must have promised them powerful support. What people here intend to find it – and expect Hitler to reveal soon – is what form this support is going to take.

Several things are open to the Nazis, now that they have admitted they cannot take Moscow this winter and must wait until spring. A Russian announcement claiming that they now have control of the air over the front suggests strongly that the Germans have withdrawn a portion of their air force from that region. This might take the form of a new air onslaught against Great Britain, and/or an intensified airplane, plus submarine, plus surface, campaign in the Atlantic.

Defeated in his frantic effort to reach the oil of the Caspian, Hitler’s marshals, by shortening their lines and withdrawing divisions from Russia, may amass a powerful mass for a campaign all along, or in special parts of the Mediterranean.

This might mean a smash at Turkey, with the idea of reaching the Caucasus along the southern shore of the Black Sea, or turning down toward Iraq and eventually Iran, or driving straight south on Syria, Palestine and the Suez Canal. It may mean an intensified effort to cross the Mediterranean and get into North Africa in time to reinforce Gen. Erwin Rommel’s battered divisions before they have to give more ground. For this purpose Hitler desperately needs the French fleet.

Pessimists in Washington believe that Japan’s success at Pearl Harbor may have been the final argument in convincing the men of Vichy that Americans are blunderers anyway. Without this fleet, and a fine French base like Bizerte or Oran to land at, the Germans and Italians will have some difficulty sending reinforcements across the British-controlled Mediterranean.

Spain a pushover

They can, however, take over Spain and Portugal anytime they choose. A somewhat sinister statement from Madrid that Spain will soon announce its position toward the war with the United States leads people here to believe that the Franco Spaniards, despite more than generous handling from the United States, have decided to proclaim non-belligerence favorable to the Axis and allow German troops to pass freely.

This would mean a siege of Gibraltar and the unquestioned crossing of the straits there by at least some German troops. It would mean the taking over of French Morocco, probably of Algeria as well. It might mean an attempt to take over Dakar, though Dakar is a long walk from the Straits.

In any case, many possibilities are open to Hitler, and those who have given most attention to studying the man and his works are convinced that he will not wait long to act.


Latin America rallies to U.S. support in war

War declarations and assurances of solidarity are issued

Buenos Aires, Argentina (UP) –
Latin America rallied strongly to the support of the United States today with four nations having already declared war against Germany and Italy and others expected to follow soon.

Nine Latin American countries declared war on Japan after Sunday’s attack on Hawaii and four followed yesterday with declarations against Germany and Italy.

Cuba went to war with the three major powers at midnight when President Fulgencio Batista signed a declaration that had been passed by the Senate, 50–0, and by the House of Representatives, 222–0. Cuba declared war on Japan Tuesday.

Mexico breaks relations

Costa Rica, the first Latin American nation to enter World War II with a declaration against Japan, declared war on Germany and Italy yesterday. Guatemala and Nicaragua, both already at war with Japan, also declared war against Germany and Italy.

Mexico broke diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy, severing all ties with the Axis powers and becoming an ally of the United States in everything short of an actual war declaration.

Mexico ordered the freezing of German and Italian funds, as it had frozen Japanese funds, and continued movement of troops to its west coast to protect Baja California.

Solidarity reaffirmed

Argentina reaffirmed its solidarity with the United States and sent a message to the American Congress condemning the “treasonable” Axis action. It was expected to proclaim the United States “non-belligerent” as regards Germany and Italy today, paralleling a similar declaration as regards Japan. The action permits U.S. warships to enter Argentine ports without risking internment under neutrality regulations.

Sources at the Foreign Office said German and Italian funds would probably be frozen today.

San Salvador, already at war with Japan, and Bolivia have already blocked Axis funds. The Bolivian order was regarded as a major blow to Axis operations in Latin America, because most Bolivian business is controlled by German, Italian or Japanese interests. The Bolivian decree also applies to non-belligerent Axis allies, the Finance Ministry said.

Will buy arms from U.S.

In Uruguay, which had also declared the United States non-belligerent in its war with Japan, the Senate passed a bill authorizing a $17-million purchase of arms in the United States.

President Getúlio Vargas of Brazil reaffirmed his nation’s solidarity with the United States in view of the spread of the war. He ordered six infantry companies to guard strategic air bases.

Peru, Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic also assured the United States of their support.

President Manuel Prado of Peru cabled President Roosevelt a few moments after the German and Italian declarations:

I reaffirm the principle of solidarity which emanated from the inter-American pacts. Peru reiterates at this opportunity, its firm decision to omit no effort in favor of common defense of the continent.

Oil lines protected

In Venezuela, the world’s third largest petroleum producer, President Isaías Medina said:

The aggression against the United States places a tragic threat at the very doors of America and makes it imperative that each country of the New World fully assume its responsibilities.

He said the government was “cooperating fully” with petroleum companies for the protection of oil fields, pipelines, refineries and other facilities.

In Washington, Generalissimo Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, strongman of the Dominican Republic, said his country, already at war with Japan, would declare war against Germany and Italy. He said:

The land, sea and air of the Dominican Republic are available to the land, naval or air forces of the United States at any time they may desire to use them.


Mikado to be given despite Pacific War

Washington (UP) –
Performances of the Gilbert & Sullivan operetta, The Mikado, will be presented here next week as schedule, it was announced today, but the printed program will carry an explanatory note, saying, in part:

Almost three-score years have passed since William Gilbert wrote this, depicting the Japanese in the light that history now records – sly, wily and deceitful, unconscionably corrupt and treacherous.

The operetta satirizes British characters who are given Japanese names.

An employee of the Gilbert & Sullivan Opera Co. yesterday announced that three local performances at the National Theater had been cancelled because Baltimore audiences Monday received the production coolly, particularly its opening song “We are Gentlemen of Japan.”


U.S. and Axis reporters expected to return home on ‘truce’ ships

By the United Press

American newspapermen in Axis countries were under arrest or police supervision today and were unable to communicate with the United States.

It was understood that the U.S. State Department was arranging for the exchange of the newspapermen for Axis reporters under arrest in this country. The correspondents would leave Axis countries with U.S. diplomatic personnel and would return to America on a “truce ship” guaranteed safe passage of the Atlantic. Axis diplomats and reporters would return home by the same method.

German and Italian journalists detained in America were being kept at hotels rather then locked up, and were being well-treated. Information from abroad indicated that American correspondents were receiving the same treatment. They were barred from filing news dispatches since early Wednesday.

When American correspondents in Berlin appeared at the Foreign Office press conference Wednesday, they were asked to leave the room and go to their apartments because Axis correspondents in the United States had been arrested. Wednesday midnight, they were rounded up and placed under arrest. They were first taken to Alexanderplatz Police Station and then confined in a private villa.

The offices of American press associations and newspapers were closed Thursday afternoon, according to a Berlin dispatch of the Swedish newspaper Tidningens of Stockholm, after the heads of the bureaus had been allowed to cable the U.S. State Department protesting against the arrest of German correspondents in Washington and New York.

It was understood, Tidningens said, that this cable was approved by the chargé d’affaires at the U.S. Embassy.

A broadcast of DNB, the official German news agency, said the American correspondents in Paris were barred from official press conferences yesterday and asked to go to their homes. Later, they were also placed under arrest.

DNB said that, in Rome, working American newspapermen were put under police surveillance or arrested. The agency said that four American correspondents were arrested and two others ordered to remain in their apartments.

It was not revealed whether any action was taken against employees of American press associations or newspapers who are citizens of Axis countries.

The names of American correspondents arrested were not announced by the authorities, but the only exception reported was Guido Enderis, Berlin correspondent of The New York Times. Tidningens said that he had been exempted and allowed to remain at the hotel. In New York, The Times said it knew of no reason why an exception was made in the case of Mr. Enderis, but that he was not being allowed to work.

Tokyo reported that three or four unidentified British and American newspapermen were detained:

…as a precaution and for their protection and well-being.

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