The Admiral at Pearl Harbor was cashiered. He requested a court martial so he could clear his name. Why do you suppose that the Roosevelt Admin refused?
My own theory is that they wanted a clearly identified scapegoat and feared that the court martial process would publicize the names of others who also failed in their duties before the attack but for whatever reasons were retained in the USN (Admiral Stark came in for strong criticism in the 1944 report, but found Kimmel and Short had not deserved to be removed from command).
First off, welcome to the circus!
The two men were not court-martialed, but were subject to a court of inquiry (one step down in seriousness, but still can result in penalties.). Both men were found derelict in 1942 (when fall-guys were needed), and then Kimmel (and by implication, Short) not - given the information available to them at the time, by a second court of inquiry in October 1944.