Why did the Japanese constantly underestimate the United States?

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Well, they dit not. In the beginning of the war the corretcly assessed what was possibly. At Guadalcanal they won a stunning naval victory as they rightly estimated their superiority at Night, and that the US Navy would be sleeping.

At least Yamamoto did not underestimate the US industrial might, and he was aware that the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor, without a declaration of war, created a fury and motivation that would be deadly in the long run. I guess no one, on either side, in 1941or early 1942 could estimate what US was able to producere when production came at full capacity.