Globalisation- causes and effects in the 20th Century


#1

The current phenomenon of “Globalization” is not a new concept in human history, dating back to pre-Roman civilizations. What was different about it since the late 1890’s was its effects magnified by technology, mercantilism, economics, cultural change, political ideas, and philosophy changes.
I had taken some ideas and categorized them to follow these effects up to WWI, between the Wars, WWII, the Cold War and post-communist world.
Is there interest in breaking these into smaller pieces for discussion?

A Treatise on War, Globalization, and the Events of the 20th Century

Robert Torn, MBA

“War is regarded as nothing but the continuation of state policy with other means.” Carl von Clausewitz

The tumultuous events of the 20th century can be traced back to pre-World War I philosophies that were found predominantly in the rulers of Europe. As the European world was transitioning from the Mercantile and autocratic rulers of the 18th century, this age of Enlightenment that affected so many facets of society and civilization began to emerge. Carl Clausewitz, the noted Prussian military leader and philosopher was a major influence on the rationalization of war, economy, and society. As this enlightenment philosophy tried to quantify and organize man’s actions in a more rational basis, Clausewitz opined that the state policy used many different forms to get maximized results including warfare. None of these thoughts were revolutionary of themselves but the concept of combining different here to for unrelated topics such as economy, trade, colonialization, warfare, etc. had not been done in those contemporary times. Furthermore other later economists and philosophers whose theories came out during this age of imperialism of the 19th century later combined into the start of the 20th century resulting in two world wars, decline of colonization, a Cold War between Allied victors, and an eventual upheaval in many communist led governments by the end of that 20th century.

I. Globalization

A. Concept

  1. Domination and cross flowing of economy, ideas, and wealth

  2. Brief history of globalization in ancient cultures

  3. Changes to society in the Mercantile and age of Enlightenment Europe

B. Colonization

  1. Rise of imperialism

  2. Captive market development/mercantilism

  3. Securing raw materials

  4. Strategic locations

  5. Outsourcing control of the colonies

  6. Expanding industrial revolution

C. Technology changes

  1. Warfare and weapons

  2. Transportation and communications

  3. Command-and-control

  4. Research and development

  5. Mass production and interchangeable parts

D. Governments and rulers

  1. Changes in national governance – democracy versus autocracy

  2. Rise of the Mercantile class and their influence in government

  3. Changes in the population – place in society, political power, influence of new ideas, religious beliefs, change of status, methods of effecting change, longevity, national identity

II. Progress of globalization

A. Late 19th century until 1910

  1. European imperial powers

  2. Rise of the USA in post Spanish-American war

  3. Rise of Japan in Russo Japanese wars

  4. Expansion and consolidation of global colonies

  5. The rising power of corporations and diminished personal accountability by business leaders

B. Entering World War I

  1. Entangling alliances

  2. Modernization and expansion of Russia

  3. Rise of nationalism and independence movements

  4. Use of colonies to support war efforts

  5. Shift from colonial military actions to widespread warfare.

C. Post-World War I until 1920

  1. Effects on allies economy

  2. Rebuilding efforts in Europe

  3. Optimism for world peace

  4. Changes in strains on governments in politics

  5. Versailles Treaty and effects in Europe

  6. Changes in Asia

  7. Wilsonian ideas on nations and governance

D. 1920 until 1930/great depression

• refer to between the wars series on the great war

E. Great depression years until 1939

  1. Consolidation and retrenchment of manufacturing industries

  2. Effects of the finance market on the economies

  3. Continued rising nationalism and demands for self-governance

  4. Popular involvement in political movements and warfare on a global scale

F. World War II and wartime economy

  1. Shifting popular sentiment from appeasement and pacifism to engaging in wartime

  2. Shifting economic output to accommodate belligerent powers

  3. Use of economic sanctions as weapons of preventing war/punishing belligerents

  4. Use of neutrality to protect and expand markets and to support friendly nations

  5. Mobilizing the home front and bringing minorities and women into the workforce large-scale

  6. Mobilizing, training, equipping, deploying, and leading huge armies on a global basis

  7. Information technology as tools of war

  8. Diplomacy and recruiting allies on both sides to fight wars directly and by proxy

  9. Widespread use of clandestine warfare on an organized basis

  10. Genocide and war against humanity

  11. Accountability and the use of the judicial system during and after the war

  12. Effects of mass production on weapons and philosophy on weapon designs and tactics

G. Post-World War II until 1950

  1. Treatment of the vanquished by the victors

  2. Avoiding the problems and mistakes of the Versailles Treaty

  3. Independence and national movements in the former colonies

  4. Establishment of the United Nations

  5. Demobilization and changes and domestic economies

  6. Bretton Woods agreement and dominance of the United States as a global power

  7. A return to the status quo in the victors government system

H. 1950s until 1990/Cold War

  1. Truman doctrine – start of the Cold War

  2. United Nations and the Korean War

  3. Establishment of NATO and the Warsaw Pact

  4. Shifting roles of militaries on a strategic and tactical basis

  5. Optimism in righteousness

  6. Rise of proxy wars

  7. Race to the Moon

I. Mr. Gorbachev tear down this wall and post Soviet Union world

III. Effects of globalization

A. Economic systems

B. Political beliefs

C. Cultural changes

D. Concepts of warfare