Election 1940: Republican National Convention (6-24-40 – 6-28-40)



I know that I am way too late (I was busy with the colorization and there’s another reason which lies in the last article of the very last post) - but leaving that out of the way, here’s what happened at the RNC '40 from June 24 to 28, 1940. I’ll make similar posts about the DNC '40 as soon as possible.

Indy talked about the results of this convention back in Ep. 44 - Hitler :heart: Paris (6-29-40), but here’s the entire story of what happened at the convention itself.

This collection of posts is made in the context of the times (spot the differences in writing style). I also included the Republican Party Platform of 1940 in its entirety not only for the sake of immersion, but also to help understand the political goals and ambitions of the G.O.P. at the time. I used newspaper reports from Jun/Jul 1940 to tell the story (Hint - read the last news article for the “other reason”). I will also be adding a few more pictures and articles in this post to spice it up a bit, so expect a lot of edits.

I know this is a very long topic (trust me, it’ll be the same case for the DNC), but members of the TimeGhost Army and others could easily take the time to read through the entire thing and hopefully create further understanding of the situation among the Republicans in a world at war.

To be or not to be, that is the question.


Venue: Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


The candidates:


Chairman (en) of the Republican National Committee:

John Daniel Miller Hamilton (KS), 1936-40

Rep. Joseph William Martin, Jr. (MA), 1940-

Lewiston Evening Journal (June 24, 1940)

Philadelphia (AP) –

Here is the program for the Republican National Convention:


  • Call to order at 10 a.m. (EST).
  • Singing of “America.”
  • Prayer, the Rev. Albert J. McCartney of Washington.
  • Welcoming address, Mayor Robert E. Lamberton of Philadelphia.
  • Roll call, election of temporary officers, selection of committees.
  • Recess until 8 p.m. (EST).
  • Prayer, Dennis Cardinal Dougherty of Philadelphia.
  • Singing of “Ballad for America.”
  • Keynote address, Gov. Harold E. Stassen of Minnesota.


  • Call to order at 10 a.m. (EST)
  • Prayer by the Rev. Dr. Paul H. Andreen, Lutheran Church of Cokato, Minn.
  • Singing of the national anthem.
  • Report of credentials committee.
  • Address by Permanent Committee Chairman, Rep. Joseph W. Martin Jr. of Massachusetts.
  • Recess to 7:45 p.m.
  • Prayer by Bishop John Andrew Gregg of Kansas City.
  • Singing of “God Bless America.”
  • Address by former President Herbert Hoover.


  • Call to order at 1 p.m. (EST)
  • Prayer by Rabbi Michael Aaronsohn of Cincinnati.
  • Report of Resolutions Committee and adoption of platform.
  • Nominating and seconding speeches for presidential candidates.


  • Call to order at 9 a.m. (EST)
  • Prayer
  • Nominating and seconding speeches for six more presidential aspirants.
  • Balloting on presidential nominations until one candidate gets 501 of the 1,000 votes.

The Gettysburg Times (June 24, 1940)

Republicans Open National Convention
Convention Hall, Philadelphia, June 24 (AP) –

The 22nd quadrennial national convention of the Republican Party, called to nominate a 1940 presidential ticket and adopt a platform, was rapped to order at 10:43 (EST) today by National Chairman John D. Hamilton.

Philadelphia, June 24 (AP) –
Support for Wendell Willkie for the presidential nomination developed today among delegates from five western Pennsylvania counties, but the entire state delegation, at a caucus an hour later, unanimously adopted a resolution to back Governor Arthur H. James as long as he has a chance.

The big hall was still filled with the noise of delegates pushing through crowded aisles to locate marked seats by state standards. Many simply stood and talked. And a band from a stand in a niche high up near the roof drew down splashes of music. Few gallery seats were filled and many whole sections of the gallery tiers held no spectators.

Delegates Serious

Even the stir of ambitious candidates, however, did not entirely wipe out the serious mien which delegates brought into their convention hall. The impact of the wars abroad had made itself felt not only upon the leaders, worried over a platform, but upon the rank and file of delegates.

Some of the delegates wore red carnations, the Taft emblem. Supporters of Dewey, Willkie and a half dozen other aspirants also were early arrivals.

Senator Bridges, of New Hampshire, one of these candidates, pushed his way through to the press stand to inquire about the latest from the European war front.

The first gavel crack came at 10:17 a.m. (EST). Chairman John Hamilton ordered delegates to be seated and instructed the sergeant at arms to clear the aisles. Few paid any attention. Looking over the confused scene, Hamilton laid down the gavel and marched back to find a seat.

Landon Gets Ovation

Alf M. Landon, 1936 nominee, was given an ovation by the Oklahoma delegation as he walked up the aisle to the Kansas section. One delegate shouted: “You’re liable to be the nominee before we get out of here.”

It quickly developed that an important battle of the convention would be a contest between the air-conditioning system and a heat-dispensing battery of lights suspended above the middle of the hall. Beaded brows gave early indication that the lights would win. The noise of bands seemed to join on the side of the lights.

The convention convened three quarters of an hour late after Hamilton finally obtained order and asked the entire audience to rise while they sang “America” to the accompaniment of a piano.

Welcome by Mayor

The assemblage remained standing while the Rev. Albert Joseph McCartney, pastor of the Covenant First Presbyterian church of Washington, D.C., prayed that a “spirit of charity” preside over the convention and that it be dedicated “anew upon the altar of our nation’s welfare.”

Mayor Robert E. Lamberton welcomed the convention to Philadelphia. He told the delegates that “from a political viewpoint,” they would “be among friends.”

“The city,” Lamberton said, “has not elected a Democratic mayor within my memory and Pennsylvania in that time has elected a Democratic governor but once.”

Keynote Address Tonight


The convention rushed through the routine formalities of approving the temporary roll of delegates and electing temporary officers, including Gov. Harold E. Stassen of Minnesota, as temporary chairman and keynote speaker. Stassen’s keynote address will be heard at tonight’s session.

One by one, Hamilton recognized a series of delegates to offer the routine motions creating the various standing committees – on credentials, permanent organization, rules and order of business, and resolutions.

Mrs. Alice Roosevelt Longworth, tall, smiling broadly, attired in black, offered one. Bridges became the first candidate whose name was mentioned in the convention when he was called to his feet to offer another.

When a recess was taken at 11:29 a.m. (EST), until tonight’s session at 8:30 p.m., when the keynote address will be heard. the horseshoe-shaped galleries still were only half-filled.


While the convention was in session, former Senator Daniel O. Hastings, of Delaware, called on Willkie downtown and afterward told reporters the utilities executive would have “100 or more” votes on the first ballot. He said three of Delaware’s six delegates would be Willkie’s on the first.

At Least 10 Candidates
Philadelphia, June 24 (AP) –

As the Republican National Convention opened today indications were that the names of at least 10 presidential candidates would be presented when nominations are made Wednesday afternoon.

All 10 are already in Philadelphia. Each of them either has announced his candidacy or has some delegates pledged to him. Here they are:

Senator Styles Bridges, of New Hampshire; Senator Arthur Capper, of Kansas; District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey, of New York; Frank E. Gannett, New York newspaper publisher; Governor Arthur H. James, of Pennsylvania; Senator Charles L. McNary, of Oregon; Hanford MacNider, of Iowa; Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, of Michigan, and Wendell L. Willkie, of New York.


Governor Raymond E. Baldwin, Connecticut’s favorite son, announced here Sunday night he would second the nomination of Willkie and it was indicated he would not be placed in nomination. Another holder of delegates who will not be nominated was State Senator J. Emmett Seawell, of California. His state delegation was pledged to him only to fulfill California requirements that delegates be pledged nominally to a particular candidate.

Women Take Prominent Part In Convention
Philadelphia, June 24 (AP) –

Unashamed shines decorated patrician noses today as Republican women buttonholed national convention delegates in the final hours before the big test: The first ballot on the presidential nomination.

Mrs. Ruth Hanna McCormick Simms followed the pattern of her president-maker father, Mark Hanna. She let her candidate, Thomas Dewey, of New York, take on all corners in a hotel ballroom reception while she held down a little back hall corner, whispering tensely to a chosen few delegates, many of them sons of the men who worked with her father.


Her closest friend – Mrs. Alice Roosevelt Longworth – held other whispering conferences five blocks away in Senator Robert A. Taft’s headquarters. Working harder for Taft than ever, she told reporters:

“I’m against intervention in Europe. Sales to the allies are all right. We’re acting legally under international law.”

She was off in a rush. She had seen a delegate.

Mrs. Taft, the senator’s wife, is the only woman here who has held a formal press conference. One questioner asked why she thinks her husband should be President.

Mrs. Taft had a ready answer: “His brains, character and experience.”

Little blonde Mrs. Wendell Willkie arrived just in time Sunday to perspire under the klieg-lights with her husband at “What-a-man-Willkie” mass meeting. She waved her white gloved hand good-naturedly to the crowd.

Back of the scenes a widely known Republican woman – Mrs. Worthington Scranton, of Scranton, Pa. – played the part of “America’s Hostess No. One,” as she is billed at the Republican headquarters. It is her duty to keep wives and women delegates happy with teas, cocktails, and luncheons. She has a thousand women helping her.

Just in case Mrs. Scranton’s committee fails to reach everyone, the Taft women’s division has set up a two-hour daily bridge session. The women will be lectured on leading through their partner’s hand while their husband’s struggle with national and world problems.

More Convention News (6-24-40) –
The gadget-minded visitor to the Republican National Convention could have a field-day on a round of candidates’ headquarters. He could get a long Indian feather at the Dewey camp; a red carnation at the Taft camp; a red-white-and-blue “We Want Willkie” button, and a “Get on the Van Wagon” button from the Vandenburg headquarters, and so on down the line. Some cautious delegates are reported to have one of each – just in case.

Philadelphia youngsters have developed a new racket – taking fistfuls of lapel insignia from candidates’ headquarters and peddling them on the streets at a penny apiece.

President Roosevelt spent 35 minutes in Philadelphia the Republican convention city, today on his special train en route from Hyde Park back to Washington. Railroad employees said the President apparently remained asleep.

An active behind-the-scenes group of workers at the convention are the Young Republicans of Pennsylvania. More than 250 from throughout the state are serving as sergeants-at-arms, messenger boys and helpers-in-general. The president, Frank C. Hilton, of Berks County, says they are solidly behind Governor James for President.

The Gettysburg Times (June 25, 1940)

Convention Hall, Philadelphia, June 25 (AP) –

Representative Joseph W. Martin, of Massachusetts, took command of the Republican convention today and called upon his party to rally against “a steady drift toward governmental absolutism.”

A convention torn by the conflict of opposing candidates cheered wildly as the blunt New Englander took up the gavel to pound the way to a platform decision and a presidential candidate.

The nomination fight tightened with a statement from Thomas E. Dewey’s manager and from former Gov. Henry J. Allen, of Kansas, denying delegates were falling away from Dewey and with Wendell Willkie moving from delegation to delegation in a personal effort to counter “Stop Willkie” talk.

Headquarters of Frank E. Gannett, New York publisher, claimed a bloc of 25 votes, after early balloting for Hanford MacNider, of Iowa, from Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota and South Dakota.

The supporters of Senator Taft, of Ohio, had in no way slowed their drive. Each delegate found a Taft carnation in his seat this morning when he came to the hall.

‘Impressed’ by James
Philadelphia, June 25 (AP) –

One of the largest southern delegations to the Republican National Convention – the 23-member North Carolina group – visited Governor Arthur H. James at his hotel suite today and a spokesman said later the delegates were “very favorably impressed” with Pennsylvania’s chief executive. Collin G. Spencer, of Carthage, North Carolina, emphasized that the delegation is “entirely unpledged and open minded” but added: “Governor James has retrieved the heart of the Republican Party in Pennsylvania. Our delegation feels very kindly toward him.”

Downtown, evidences of controversy in drafting the 1940 platform, centered on the important foreign policy plank, developed when Chairman Herbert K. Hyde announced his resolutions committee would be unable to report to the convention tonight.

Martin told the convention that every ideal of Americanism was imperiled by those who would make the government and nation tools to be manipulated by one man at the head of an unelected political bureaucracy.

The convention, he said, should rally all patriots to a crusade for Americanism.

“For seven anxious years we have seen this march toward one man government,” the stocky chairman said. “The record is a somber story of failure and futility and broken promises.”

“We want America at peace with the world: an America untainted by hatreds and fears.”

“We must preserve our country from the schemes and treachery of those unsympathetic to our constitutional republic and who would destroy it.”

Hoover to Speak

Many important officials of the Hoover administration are on the scene, and the former President arrives late today to deliver a convention speech at 8:30 p.m. (EST) which his advocates hope will touch off a burst of enthusiasm and take him into the nomination.

Mr. Hoover’s address, expected to deal primarily with foreign policy, will be the third big one of the convention.

Opportunity for the second was provided this morning by the induction of Rep. Joseph Martin, of Massachusetts, as permanent chairman. The first was Governor Stassen’s keynote Monday night.

The 33-year-old Minnesotan told the crowded convention hall that these times call for a frank approach to problems if democracy is to live.

“We must have a united people with each citizen willing to make sacrifices and ready to stand shoulder to shoulder in the interests of national defense,” he said.

The audience gave loud applause when he termed the cabinet nomination of Henry L. Stimson and Frank Knox, prominent Republicans, “a politically timed appointment on the eve of this convention” and one by which “the President made an eleventh hour confession of failure in his national defense administration.”

Criticizes New Deal

Stassen criticized President Roosevelt’s proposal for compulsory national training, along with a wide variety of New Deal actions. When he asked if the nation dare continue for the next four years under such leadership, the crowd roared back: “No.”

He denounced fifth column activities and said they reached into the United States Capitol. In dealing with them, he said, “First and foremost, there must be the determination that no one supporting communism, Nazism or fascism shall be permitted on the public payrolls of this nation.”

Touching on foreign policy, Stassen told the delegates that “future welfare cannot best be served by simply burying our heads in the sand.”

“We cannot permit an armed force, aggressive in nature, with a philosophy foreign to ours, to establish itself upon this hemisphere,” he added.

Nominations Start Wednesday

“Neither can we allow subversive elements linked to alien aggressors to undermine government anywhere on this hemisphere. It is essential that we plan in advance and take decisive steps to establish hemisphere defense.”

Stassen’s address was the sole business of the Monday afternoon session. Afterward the credentials and platform committees worked far into the night trying to complete their work. Although this morning’s meeting was devoted to routine business, the delegates are scheduled to adopt the platform after Mr. Hoover speaks tonight.

That will bring them to the start of their major task – selection of presidential and vice presidential nominees. Nominating speeches probably will require all of Wednesday, leaving the balloting to start Thursday.

Philadelphia, June 25 (AP) –

Republican platform builders were putting into final shape today planks ranging from a sharp admonition that no President “should wittingly or unwittingly render war inevitable” to a carefully-phrased bid for Wagner Labor Act amendments.

Drafting committee members worked until nearly 2 a.m. to prune away some of the 2,300 words of the first rough draft, but wound up without considering any alteration of the all-important foreign policy plank.

Thus the full resolutions committee faced the problem of determining the final wording of this plank, represented as being clearly “non-interventionist.”

As tentatively drafted, the foreign affairs plank advocated that the President “use all honorable means to maintain peace with honor,” adding that he “should not either wittingly or unwittingly render war inevitable contrary to the will of Congress and the wishes of the people.”

Clarification Expected

Some Resolutions Committee members said there undoubtedly would be a clarification of the original language on aid to “oppressed peoples.”

The tentative draft said that “the government in the future as in the past, acting as a neutral and not as an aggressor, will extend sympathy and aid and will permit aid and comfort to be extended to such peoples insofar as is consistent with the law of nations and the law of the land.”

While there was said to be no major disagreement on principle, some members contended that this portion of the plank should define more clearly the party’s position on government aid to belligerents.

Considerable time was understood to have been devoted to a statement that the party would favor making some concessions to employers in the Wagner Act, preserving craft and industrial unions without prejudice to either.

There was no disagreement on the general principles of the farm plank, members said. In general terms, it was understood to pledge continued benefit payments “without regimentation.”

Mrs. Taft, Widow of President, Doing Bit for Son at Convention
Philadelphia, June 25 (AP) –

The widow of a President was doing her bit today toward winning the Republican nomination for her son.

Mrs. William Howard Taft missed the convention that nominated her husband in 1908, but she will be here if the same honor goes to her son, Senator Robert A. Taft, of Ohio.

She is crowding 80, but she turned the convention hall platform into an impromptu reception before Monday evening’s session opened.

Her white head held proudly high, she walked on to the platform leaning on her daughter’s arm. She wore her son’s campaign color – cattle red. Her evening dress was a deep red metal cloth, and over it was a brilliant red velvet cape. There was a red paper. Taft carnation pinned among the five strands of pearls around her neck.

Courtly Charles (Hell 'n Maria) Dawes, former Vice President, was the first to bow to her. He seated himself beside Mrs. Taft’s daughter, Mrs. Fred Manning, dean of Bryn Mawr College.

The little, white-haired Mrs. Taft still shows the political perspicacity she displayed in forwarding her husband’s career. She said:

“Tomorrow? I might not come. But Wednesday? Yes. I want to be here when Bob is nominated.”

She smiled mischievously at her own assurance. She was asked about the burdens that her son might have to bear.

“Work? Bob’s always worked hard. No job was too hard for him.”

Behind sat her daughter-in-law, the hard-working Mrs. Robert A. Taft who had just finished a marathon reception where she greeted thousands.

Down in the Ohio delegation sat Charles Taft, another son of the former President.

The Ohio section had another White House alumna, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, who is working for Senator Taft. In the New York delegation was another alumnus, Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., who gives a good imitation of his President-father’s famous smile.

More Convention News (6-25-40) –
The first mix-up over seats at the Republican National Convention involved the Pennsylvania delegation. The 72 delegates found only 60 seats – between the Ohio and Virginia sections – and had to double up. That put Percy A. Brown, of Wilkes-Barre, almost in the lap of Joseph Pew, of Philadelphia.

There’s a greater shortage of tickets at this convention than any in the party’s recent history. “I’ve never seen anything like it,” said James L. E. Jappe, secretary to the last three conclaves. “Delegates can’t even get extra tickets for a friend. I can’t get tickets for my office force.”

Roslyn Wells, who says she helped write Wendell Willkie’s campaign song, is wearing a Robert A. Taft button. Asked how come, the prima donna of the Ziegfeld Follies explained that the song is flexible and added: “We call it the Willkie song, but we’ll give it to whatever candidate wins.”

Some spectators brought along sunglasses to protect their eyes from the glare of floodlights which banked each side of the auditorium near the platform at Convention Hall Monday night.

A belle at the convention hid shyly in the Minnesota section. Mrs. Harold E. Stassen, wife of the keynote speaker, looks like a plump, dark-eyed college girl bursting with concern for her husband. She had read his speech in advance and sat nearly breathless during the hour of delivery, color coming and going in her cheeks.

Gene Tunney was one of Thomas E. Dewey’s visitors. The former world heavyweight champion spent almost an hour with the candidate.

Liberty Bell’s peals were heard from coast-to-coast on a radio broadcast in connection with the convention program. The bell ringer was Margaretta Sergeant Duane, 11, direct descendant of Benjamin Franklin.


The Gettysburg Times (June 26, 1940)

Republican Platform May Be Submitted to Convention Late Today
Philadelphia, June 26 (AP) –

A platform demanding that national defense requirements be placed ahead of aid to “oppressed peoples” of the world was being polished up today for submission to the Republican National Convention.

Approved by the resolutions committee last night the platform had to be polished up today by a small group, just ten days after a special committee started work on it.

Herbert K. Hyde of Oklahoma, resolutions committee chairman, said the platform would be given to the convention as soon as technical details of drafting could be completed, probably during the late afternoon.

Revision on Floor Hinted

A possibility developed that the Massachusetts delegation might try to open the platform for revision from the floor. At a private caucus, it was learned, objections were raised to one undisclosed sentence of the defense plank.

It includes a foreign policy plank criticizing the Roosevelt administration’s defense record, pledging an anti-war stand, and calling for aid to oppressed peoples. Chairman Herbert Hyde said that the committee report was unanimous.

Landon, chairman of the subcommittee which drafted the plank, said the language would not prevent the party’s nominee from taking such future action as might be needed to meet the challenge of changing events.

Several of the planks followed along the lines of Mr. Hoover’s speech.

In it, he declared that the breakdown of various European democracies into totalitarian states was started along the way by “totalitarian liberals” who he said “were the spiritual fathers of the New Deal.”

Experience With "Liberals"

“These so-called liberals shifted the relation of government to free enterprise from that of umpire to controller,” he said.

“Out of the miseries of the people there grew pressure groups – business, labor, farmers, demanding relief or special privilege. Class hate poisoned co-operation.”

“Frustrated and despairing, these hundreds of millions of people voluntarily voted the powers of government to the man on horseback as the only way out.”

“We have had eight years of experience with our own totalitarian liberals. Battling against all the natural forces of recovery, they have succeeded in stabilizing depression.”

“Certainly the New Deal has not been allergic to power. And now, fed fat on power, they demand a third term for Mr. Roosevelt. That is not a mere violation of tradition. It is a violation of a fundamental restraint on power in this republic.”

“But we Republicans would welcome Mr. Roosevelt as a candidate. For this battle must be fought out under the guns of debate.”

Calls Isolation Impossible

In a section dealing with foreign policy, prepared later than other portions of his address, Mr. Hoover asserted that “there is no such thing as our isolation from wars which envelop two-thirds of all the people in the world.”

However, he said, “the most vital realism in all our relations requires that we keep out of these wars unless the Western Hemisphere is attacked.”

Mr. Hoover discussed providing materials and munitions to these nations who are fighting for their freedom," saying:

“My belief is that we should facilitate them in every way subject to two limitations. First, that it involves no action which takes us to war, and second, that as liberty lives by law we must act within the law.”

Mr. Hoover told the delegates that “the first responsibility of the President of the United States is to abate war, not to stimulate it.”

Platform Covers Many Topics

“It is not the province of the President of the United States to create hate,” he added. “Irresponsible talk in explosive times may bring danger.”

Running nearly 3,000 words, the platform deals with a wide range of subjects, from proposed changes in the Wagner Act to a newly-coined phrase for farm benefits. This later was a proposal that farmers be given a “profits price,” analogous to the current “parity” price, for their crops. Soil conservation payments would be continued.

Keynoter Stassen Says He Will Vote for Willkie

While Hoover talked to reporters, Governor Harold E. Stassen of Minnesota, the convention keynoter, told his state delegation that his vote would be cast for Wendell Willkie. The Minnesota group, which came to Philadelphia uninstructed and has held no caucus on candidates, has 22 votes. It had been considered friendly to Vandenberg.

Simultaneously, an Alabama caucus voted to yield the state’s first position in the convention roll call to New York for the nomination of Thomas E. Dewey.

This procedure would put the name of the 38-year-old district attorney before the delegates prior to those of Willkie, and Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, two of his major rivals.

Hoover Leaves Door Wide, Asks ‘Open’ Convention
Philadelphia, June 26 (AP) –

Herbert Hoover left himself available for a possible presidential nomination today by declining to say whether he would accept the Republican leadership if it were offered by the 1940 national convention.

Following his convention plea of last night for the party to “save America for free men,” the former President held a press conference three hours before the afternoon session of the convention was scheduled to open.

Hoover said that he was not seeking public office. But he said also there should be no “interference” with the selection of a nominee in a free and open manner.

Thus it was indicated that the door was left open for an effort in his behalf without the active seeking of such a move.

Asked directly whether he would accept the nomination, Hoover declined to say. But the only living ex-President declared that he would support the 1940 nominee – whoever that might be.

Looking down at notes on a table, Hoover said he had advocated an “open convention because of the seriousness of the times and the shifting problems.”

And he predicted that the delegates “will come to their own conclusion. Whomever this convention selects I shall support.”

Glory for 12 Candidates Nomination for One
Philadelphia, June 26 (AP) –

This is the big day for “the man who–” at the Republican National Convention. Eleven or twelve candidates will be placed in nomination for the presidency.

Even though only one eventually can win a majority of the delegates, each will have his hour of glory.

When the roll of states is called, perhaps not until tonight or tomorrow, an orator will extol each candidate. Carefully conforming to tradition, he will not mention the name until the end of his speech. Then there will be a demonstration, with bands, songs and waving banners.

Secondary speeches for each man have been limited to four, and will be of five minutes’ duration. Even so, balloting is not expected to start until Thursday.

Here are the 11 men whose names will go formally before the convention:


Styles Bridges, 41, Senator from New Hampshire; former Governor; banker-insurance man.


H. J. Bushfield, 57, Governor of South Dakota.


Arthur Capper, 74, Senator from Kansas; once Governor; publisher of newspapers and farm magazines.


Thomas E. Dewey, 38, New York District Attorney; Republican nominee for Governor of New York in 1938.


Frank E. Gannett, 63, newspaper publisher; was active in national campaigns against Roosevelt governmental and Supreme Court reorganization plans.


Arthur H. James, 56, Governor of Pennsylvania; formerly judge of the Pennsylvania State Superior Court and Lieutenant-Governor; worked in coal mines in his youth.


Charles L. McNary, 66, Senator from Oregon and Senate Minority Leader; lawyer; once on Oregon Supreme Court.


Hanford MacNider, 50, of Iowa, former national commander of the American Legion; first United States Minister to Canada.


Robert A. Taft, 50, Senator from Ohio; son of President William Howard Taft; lawyer; former state legislator.


Arthur H. Vandenberg, 56, Senator from Michigan since 1928; newspaper editor.


Wendell L. Willkie, 48, president of Commonwealth and Southern Corporation.

Several other party leaders are expected to get some votes, although plans have not been made for nominating speeches. They include former President Herbert Hoover and Rep. Joseph W. Martin, Jr., of Massachusetts, Minority Leader in the House of Representatives.


The Gettysburg Times (June 27, 1940)


Republican Party to Nominate Standard Bearer From This List
(List includes names submitted before 3 p.m. today)

Thomas E. Dewey, New York.
Frank E. Gannett, New York.
Wendell L. Willkie, New York.
Senator Robert A. Taft, Ohio.
Hanford MacNider, Iowa.
Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, Michigan.
Senator Styles Bridges, New Hampshire.
Senator Charles L. McNary, Oregon.
Governor Arthur H. James, Pennsylvania.
Governor H. J. Bushfield, South Dakota.

Philadelphia, June 27 (AP) –

By mid-afternoon, the Republican National Convention had placed ten names in nomination for President. The convention adjourned until 3:30 this afternoon when it will begin balloting. If after two ballots no candidate has received the necessary 501 votes, the convention will adjourn until 7:30 this evening.

MacNider’s nomination was seconded by former Governor Frank F. Merriam, of California; Mrs. Fred P. Mann, Devils Lake, North Dakota, and Sherman Grindstaff, Elizabethton, Tennessee.

Representative Woodruff Nominates Vandenberg

Rep. Roy O. Woodruff, of Michigan, nominated Vandenberg as a man of “character and capacity,” in whom “wisdom and experience” were “linked with vigor and vitality.” Vandenberg’s “presidential stature,” he said, “has been universally recognized for years.”

“By instruction from the united Republicanism of Michigan, and with the prayers of millions of our fellow countrymen from coast to coast, I invite you to the vanguard which shall lead to victory,” Woodruff said.

Harry McDonald, of Detroit, came to the speakers’ desk and, with the help of the auditorium pipe organ, led the crowd in singing “God Bless America”, “Battle Hymn of the Republic,” and the stirring University of Michigan song “Hail to the Victory.”

Sleepy after a late session last night which was marked by a tremendous demonstration both for and against Willkie, Republicans trampled wearily into the convention hall. But even earlier, Hoover, reported by some to be the spearhead of an anti-Willkie movement, was up and busy.

“Draft Hoover” buttons were seen in hotel lobbies for the first time, but the former President had no elaboration on his statement that he was not “seeking” public office.

Among those who have talked with Hoover were Thomas E. Dewey of New York and Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, both of whom were placed in nomination last night, and Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg of Michigan whose name was to be presented today.

Asserting they had not pledged their support to Hoover, members of the Nevada group nevertheless told reporters that all western delegations wanted his advice. Clarence Pugh of Reno, Nev., said he asked the former President “a blunt question” concerning Willkie, but would not detail what either he or Hoover had said.

Chairman Martin called the convention to order at 9:50 a.m. and Dr. Frank F. Bunker of the Christian Science committee of publication of the District of Columbia, led the assembly in the Lord’s Prayer.

Hanford MacNider Named

First to be placed in nomination was Hanford MacNider of Iowa, one-time Assistant Secretary of War and former national commander of the American Legion.

Verne Marshall, Cedar Rapids, editor, urged MacNider’s selection. Praising his war record, Marshall said:

“He is the answer to the earnest prayers of millions of Americans who see their country’s danger. These millions will enlist in his service for the duration of this battle against totalitarianism, if he desires it.”

“They are waiting for you to give them such a man, to rid them of parasites who have spread dissension, corruption and intolerable debt over the land.”

Platform Puts U.S. First; States Campaign Planks
Philadelphia, June 27 (AP) –

Abandoning earlier talk of making domestic issues paramount, the Republican Party started a campaign today to convince the voters that it had the best program to build adequate defenses and keep out of war.

In a platform speedily and noisily approved by the national convention yesterday, the Republicans designated themselves as the party of “Americanism, preparedness and peace.”

Asserting that “men who put America first” must be put in high positions, the 3,000-word campaign document advocated the extension of aid to “all peoples fighting, for liberty, or whose liberty is threatened.”



The Republican Party, in representative Convention assembled, submits to the people of the United States the following declaration of its principles and purposes:

We state our general objectives in the simple and comprehensive words of the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States.

Those objectives as there stated are these:

To form a more perfect Union; establish justice; insure domestic tranquility; provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity.

Meeting within the shadow of Independence Hall where those words were written we solemnly reaffirm them as a perfect statement of the ends for which we as a party propose to plan and to labor.

The record of the Roosevelt Administration is a record of failure to attain any one of those essential objectives.

Instead of leading us into More Perfect Union the Administration has deliberately fanned the flames of class hatred.

Instead of the Establishment of Justice the Administration has sought the subjection of the Judiciary to Executive discipline and domination.

Instead of insuring Domestic Tranquility the Administration has made impossible the normal friendly relation between employers and employees and has even succeeded in alienating both the great divisions of Organized Labor.

Instead of Providing for the Common Defense the Administration, notwithstanding the expenditure of billions of our dollars, has left the Nation unprepared to resist foreign attack.

Instead of promoting the General Welfare the Administration has Domesticated the Deficit, Doubled the Debt, Imposed Taxes where they do the greatest economic harm, and used public money for partisan political advantage.

Instead of the Blessings of Liberty the Administration has imposed upon us a Regime of Regimentation which has deprived the individual of his freedom and has made of America a shackled giant.

Wholly ignoring these great objectives, as solemnly declared by the people of the United States, the New Deal Administration has for seven long years whirled in a turmoil of shifting, contradictory and overlapping administrations and policies. Confusion has reigned supreme. The only steady undeviating characteristic has been the relentless expansion of the power of the Federal government over the everyday life of the farmer, the industrial worker and the businessman. The emergency demands organization—not confusion. It demands free and intelligent cooperation—not incompetent domination. It demands a change. The New Deal Administration has failed America.

It has failed by seducing our people to become continuously dependent upon government, thus weakening their morale and quenching the traditional American spirit.

It has failed by viciously attacking our industrial system and sapping its strength and vigor.

It has failed by attempting to send our Congress home during the world’s most tragic hour, so that we might be eased into the war by word of deed during the absence of our elected representatives from Washington.

It has failed by disclosing military details of our equipment to foreign powers over protests by the heads of our armed defense.

It has failed by ignoring the lessons of fact concerning modern, mechanized, armed defense.

In these and countless other ways the New Deal Administration has either deliberately deceived the American people or proved itself incompetent longer to handle the affairs of our government.

The zero hour is here. America must prepare at once to defend our shores, our homes, our lives and our most cherished ideals.

To establish a first line of defense we must place in official positions men of faith who put America first and who are determined that her governmental and economic system be kept unimpaired.

Our national defense must be so strong that no unfriendly power shall ever set foot on American soil. To assure this strength our national economy, the true basis of America’s defense, must be free of unwarranted government interference.

Only a strong and sufficiently prepared America can speak words of reassurance and hope to the liberty-loving peoples of the world.

National Defense
The Republican Party is firmly opposed to involving this Nation in foreign war.

We are still suffering from the ill effects of the last World War: a war which cost us a twenty-four billion dollar increase in our national debt, billions of uncollectible foreign debts, and the complete upset of our economic system, in addition to the loss of human life and irreparable damage to the health of thousands of our boys.

The present National Administration has already spent for all purposes more than fifty-four billion dollars;—has boosted the national debt and current federal taxes to an all-time high; and yet by the President’s own admission we are still wholly unprepared to defend our country, its institutions and our individual liberties in a war that threatens to engulf the whole world; and this in spite of the fact that foreign wars have been in progress for two years or more and that military information concerning these wars and the re-armament programs of the warring nations has been at all times available to the National Administration through its diplomatic and other channels.

The Republican Party stands for Americanism, preparedness and peace. We accordingly fasten upon the New Deal full responsibility for our un-preparedness and for the consequent danger of involvement in war.

We declare for the prompt, orderly and realistic building of our national defense to the point at which we shall be able not only to defend the United States, its possessions, and essential outposts from foreign attack, but also efficiently to uphold in war the Monroe Doctrine. To this task the Republican Party pledges itself when entrusted with national authority. In the meantime we shall support all necessary and proper defense measures proposed by the Administration in its belated effort to make up for lost time; but we deplore explosive utterances by the President directed at other governments which serve to imperil our peace; and we condemn all executive acts and proceedings which might lead to war without the authorization of the Congress of the United States.

Our sympathies have been profoundly stirred by invasion of unoffending countries and by disaster to nations whose ideals most closely resemble our own. We favor the extension to all peoples fighting for liberty, or whose liberty is threatened, of such aid as shall not be in violation of international law or inconsistent with the requirements of our own national defense.

We believe that the spirit which should animate our entire defensive policy is determination to preserve not our material interests merely, but those liberties which are the priceless heritage of America.

The New Deal’s failure to solve the problem of unemployment and revive opportunity for our youth presents a major challenge to representative government and free enterprise. We propose to recreate opportunity for the youth of America and put our idle millions back to work in private industry, business, and agriculture. We propose to eliminate needless administrative restrictions, thus restoring lost motion to the wheels of individual enterprise.

We shall remove waste, discrimination, and politics from relief—through administration by the States with federal grants-in-aid on a fair and nonpolitical basis, thus giving the man and woman on relief a larger share of the funds appropriated.

Social Security
We favor the extension of necessary old age benefits on an ear-marked pay-as-you-go basis to the extent that the revenues raised for this purpose will permit. We favor the extension of the unemployment compensation provisions of the Social Security Act, wherever practicable, to those groups and classes not now included. For such groups as may thus be covered we favor a system of unemployment compensation with experience rating provisions, aimed at protecting the worker in the regularity of his employment and providing adequate compensation for reasonable periods when that regularity of employment is interrupted. The administration should be left with the States with a minimum of Federal control.

Labor Relations
The Republican Party has always protected the American worker.

We shall maintain labor’s right of free organization and collective bargaining.

We believe that peace and prosperity at home require harmony, teamwork, and understanding in all relations between worker and employer. When differences arise, they should be settled directly and voluntarily across the table.

Recent disclosures respecting the administration of the National Labor Relations Act require that this Act be amended in fairness to employers and all groups of employees so as to provide true freedom for, and orderliness in self-organization and collective bargaining.

A prosperous and stable agriculture is the foundation of our economic structure. Its preservation is a national and non-political social problem not yet solved, despite many attempts. The farmer is entitled to a profit-price for his products. The Republican Party will put into effect such governmental policies, temporary and permanent, as will establish and maintain an equitable balance between labor, industry, and agriculture by expanding industrial and business activity, eliminating unemployment, lowering production costs, thereby creating increased consumer buying power for agricultural products.

Until this balance has been attained, we propose to provide benefit payments, based upon a widely-applied, constructive soil conservation program free from government-dominated production control, but administered, as far as practicable, by farmers themselves; to restrict the major benefits of these payments to operators of family-type farms; to continue all present benefit payments until our program becomes operative; and to eliminate the present extensive and costly bureaucratic interference.

We shall provide incentive payments, when necessary, to encourage increased production of agricultural commodities, adaptable to our soil and climate, not now produced in sufficient quantities for our home markets, and will stimulate the use and processing of all farm products in industry as raw materials.

We shall promote a co-operative system of adequate farm credit, at lowest interest rates commensurate with the cost of money, supervised by an independent governmental agency, with ultimate farmer ownership and control; farm commodity loans to facilitate orderly marketing and stabilize farm income; the expansion of sound, farmer-owned and farmer-controlled co-operative associations; and the support of educational and extension programs to achieve more efficient production and marketing.

We shall foster Government refinancing, where necessary, of the heavy Federal farm debt load through an agency segregated from co-operative credit.

We shall promote a national land use program for Federal acquisition, without dislocation of local tax returns, of non-productive farmlands by voluntary sale or lease subject to approval of the States concerned; and the disposition of such lands to appropriate public uses including watershed protection and flood prevention, reforestation, recreation, erosion control, and the conservation of wildlife.

We advocate a foreign trade policy which will end one-man tariff making, afford effective protection to farm products, regain our export markets, and assure an American price level for the domestically consumed portion of our export crops.

We favor effective quarantine against imported livestock, dairy, and other farm products from countries which do not impose health and sanitary standards equal to our own domestic standards.

We approve the orderly development of reclamation and irrigation, project by project and as conditions justify.

We promise adequate assistance to rural communities suffering disasters from flood, drought, and other natural causes.

We shall promote stabilization of agricultural income through intelligent management of accumulated surpluses, and through the development of outlets by supplying those in need at home and abroad.

Tariff and Reciprocal Trade
We are threatened by unfair competition in world markets and by the invasion of our home markets, especially by the products of state-controlled foreign economies.

We believe in tariff protection for Agriculture, Labor, and Industry, as essential to our American standard of living. The measure of the protection shall be determined by scientific methods with due regard to the interest of the consumer.

We shall explore every possibility of reopening the channels of international trade through negotiations so conducted as to produce genuine reciprocity and expand our exports.

We condemn the manner in which the so-called reciprocal trade agreements of the New Deal have been put into effect without adequate hearings, with undue haste, without proper consideration of our domestic producers, and without Congressional approval. These defects we shall correct.

The Congress should reclaim its constitutional powers over money, and withdraw the President’s arbitrary authority to manipulate the currency, establish bimetallism, issue irredeemable paper money, and debase the gold and silver coinage. We shall repeal the Thomas Inflation Amendment of 1933 and the (foreign) Silver Purchase Act of 1934, and take all possible steps to preserve the value of the Government’s huge holdings of gold and re-introduce gold into circulation.

Jobs and Idle Money
Believing it possible to keep the securities market clean without paralyzing it, we endorse the principle of truth in securities in the Securities Act. To get billions of idle dollars and a multitude of idle men back to work and to promote national defense, these acts should be revised and the policies of the Commission changed to encourage the flow of private capital into industry.

Public spending has trebled under the New Deal, while tax burdens have doubled. Huge taxes are necessary to pay for New Deal waste and for neglected national defense. We shall revise the tax system and remove those practices which impede recovery and shall apply policies which stimulate enterprise. We shall not use the taxing power as an instrument of punishment or to secure objectives not otherwise obtainable under existing law.

Public Credit
With urgent need for adequate defense, the people are burdened by a direct and contingent debt exceeding fifty billion dollars. Twenty-nine billion of this debt has been created by New Deal borrowings during the past seven years. We pledge ourselves to conserve the public credit for all essential purposes by levying taxation sufficient to cover necessary civil expenditure, a substantial part of the defense cost, and the interest and retirement of the national debt.

Public Spending
Millions of men and women still out of work after seven years of excessive spending refute the New Deal theory that “deficit spending” is the way to prosperity and jobs. Our American system of private enterprise, if permitted to go to work, can rapidly increase the wealth, income, and standard of living of all the people. We solemnly pledge that public expenditures, other than those required for full national defense and relief, shall be cut to levels necessary for the essential services of government.

Equal Rights
We favor submission by Congress to the States of an amendment to the Constitution providing for equal rights for men and women.

We pledge that our American citizens of Negro descent shall be given a square deal in the economic and political life of this nation. Discrimination in the civil service, the Army, Navy, and all other branches of the Government must cease. To enjoy the full benefits of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness universal suffrage must be made effective for the Negro citizen. Mob violence shocks the conscience of the nation and legislation to curb this evil should be enacted.

Un-American Activities
We vigorously condemn the New Deal encouragement of various groups that seek to change the American form of government by means outside the Constitution. We condemn the appointment of members of such un-American groups to high positions of trust in the national Government. The development of the treacherous so-called Fifth Column, as it has operated in war-stricken countries, should be a solemn warning to America. We pledge the Republican Party to get rid of such borers from within.

We favor the strict enforcement of all laws controlling the entry of aliens. The activities of undesirable aliens should be investigated and those who seek to change by force and violence the American form of government should be deported.

We pledge adequate compensation and care for veterans disabled in the service of our country, and for their widows, orphans, and dependents.

We pledge an immediate and final settlement of all Indian claims between the government and the Indian citizenship of the nation.

Hawaii, sharing the nation’s obligations equally with the several States, is entitled to the fullest measure of home rule; and to equality with the several States in the rights of her citizens and in the application of our national laws.

Puerto Rico
Statehood is a logical aspiration of the people of Puerto Rico who were made citizens of the United States by Congress in 1917; legislation affecting Puerto Rico, in so far as feasible, should be in harmony with the realization of that aspiration.

Government and Business
We shall encourage a healthy, confident, and growing private enterprise, confine Government activity to essential public services, and regulate business only so as to protect consumer, employee, and investor and without restricting the production of more and better goods at lower prices.

Since the passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act by the Republican party we have consistently fought to preserve free competition with regulation to prevent abuse. New Deal policy fosters Government monopoly, restricts production, and fixes prices. We shall enforce antitrust legislation without prejudice or discrimination. We condemn the use or threatened use of criminal indictments to obtain through consent decrees objectives not contemplated by law.

Government Competition
We promise to reduce to the minimum Federal competition with business. We pledge ourselves to establish honest accounting and reporting by every agency of the Federal Government and to continue only those enterprises whose maintenance is clearly in the public interest.

Free Speech
The principles of a free press and free speech, as established by the Constitution, should apply to the radio. Federal regulation of radio is necessary in view of the natural limitations of wave lengths, but this gives no excuse for censorship. We oppose the use of licensing to establish arbitrary controls. Licenses should be revocable only when, after public hearings, due cause for cancellation is shown.

Small Business
The New Deal policy of interference and arbitrary regulation has injured all business, but especially small business. We promise to encourage the small business man by removing unnecessary bureaucratic regulation and interference.

Stock and Commodity Exchanges
We favor regulation of stock and commodity exchanges. They should be accorded the fullest measure of self-control consistent with the discharge of their public trust and the prevention of abuse.

We condemn the New Deal attempts to destroy the confidence of our people in private insurance institutions. We favor continuance of regulation of insurance by the several States.

Government Reorganization
We shall re-establish in the Federal Civil Service a real merit system on a truly competitive basis and extend it to all non-policy-forming positions.

We pledge ourselves to enact legislation standardizing and simplifying quasi-judicial and administrative agencies to insure adequate notice and hearing, impartiality, adherence to the rules of evidence and full judicial review of all questions of law and fact.

Our greatest protection against totalitarian government is the American system of checks and balances. The constitutional distribution of legislative, executive, and judicial functions is essential to the preservation of this system. We pledge ourselves to make it the basis of all our policies affecting the organization and operation of our Republican form of Government.

Third Term
To insure against the overthrow of our American system of government we favor an amendment to the Constitution providing that no person shall be President of the United States for more than two terms.

A Pledge of Good Faith
The acceptance of the nominations made by this Convention carries with it, as a matter of private honor and public faith, an undertaking by each candidate to be true to the principles and program herein set forth.

We earnestly urge all patriotic men and women, regardless of former affiliations, to unite with us in the support of our declaration of principles to the end that “government of the people, by the people and for the people shall not perish from this earth.”


Philadelphia, June 27 (AP) –

Governor Arthur H. James of Pennsylvania was presented to the Republican Convention late this afternoon as a man who defeated the “political tyranny” of the New Deal in “one of the most significant state political campaigns in our national history.”

Placing James’ name in nomination for President, U.S. Senator James J. Davis took as his battle cry the governor’s own campaign slogan: “Arthur James licked the new deal in Pennsylvania in 1938; he can do it again in 1940.”

The senator referred to James again and again as “the red-haired breaker boy” as he proclaimed him a man of “unusual gifts of mind and character” and declared that he “has demonstrated that the Republican way of life is the American way.”

James’ nomination was seconded by Mrs. Worthington Scranton, national committeewoman and official hostess to the convention; Frank Hilton, head of the Pennsylvania Young Republicans and Andrew Hourigan of Wilkes-Barre, James’ former law partner in Luzerne County.

Reviewing James’ successful fight for Governor two years ago. Davis said the New Deal had developed a political organization in Pennsylvania that “stopped at nothing” but that the governor challenged “the coercion, bureaucracy, propaganda and political tyranny.”

“When New Dealers suggested that the President of the United States should enter the campaign in Pennsylvania,” Davis added. "Arthur James dared him to take up the issue. The only reply was more figures of the President.

Mrs. Worthington Scranton Seconds

Mrs. Scranton said the women of Pennsylvania “proudly, joyously second the nomination” because “we are tremendously proud of the splendid record he has achieved.”

“Despite the huge expenditures of the New Deal opposition,” she added, “and despite the fact that the chief political big bad wolves of Washington personally campaigned in Pennsylvania against him. Arthur H. James made a clean sweep of his fight then.”

Many Speeches Put Ten Candidates Before G.O.P.
Convention Hall, Philadelphia, June 27 (AP) –

The prospects of Wendell Willkie and new conferences in Herbert Hoover’s hotel suite framed a big question mark over this Republican National Convention today as delegates assembled for more hours of nominating speeches before balloting on their 1940 standard bearer.

With the platform out of the way about 5 p.m. Wednesday, the convention went directly into the oratorical flourishes needed to induct the candidates formally into the race for the nomination. Delegates straightened up in their seats and galleries were jammed for the first time.

The following candidates were put in nomination for the presidency at the convention last night:
Thomas E. Dewey, by John Lord O’Brian.
Frank E. Gannett, by Representative James W. Wadsworth.
Wendell L. Willkie, by Representative Charles A. Halleck.
Senator Robert A. Taft, by Grove Paterson, of Toledo.

Besides the candidates offered last night the following were named today:
Iowa nominated Hanford MacNider.
Michigan produced Senator Vandenberg.
New Hampshire, Senator Bridges.
Oregon, Senator McNary.
Pennsylvania, its Governor James.
South Dakota, its Governor Bushfield.

Philadelphia, June 27 (AP) –

A survey of Republican state delegations showed this probable line-up today on the first ballot for the presidential nomination.

Alaska – Caucus agreed on 2 votes for Senator Taft and 1 for Thomas Dewey.

Alabama – Probably 7 for Dewey, 6 for Taft. Swing to Wendell Willkie likely later if any change made.

Arizona – 6 for Frank Gannett. Chairman says may go to Willkie if Gannett is eliminated.

Arkansas – 12 votes, distribution uncertain.

California – 44 votes uninstructed. Wednesday night, 6 marched in Dewey demonstration, 7 in Taft’s, 6 in Willkie’s, and 1 seconded Gannett’s. Senator Vandenberg and Hanford MacNider expected to get several votes. If Hoover movement develops, majority likely to go to him.

Colorado – 12 votes. 6 for Taft, 1 or 2 for Willkie, and other scattered.

Connecticut – 15 for Governor Baldwin and 1 for Willkie or all 16 for Willkie.

Delaware – Willkie 3, Rep. Martin 1, Taft 1, Vandenberg or Dewey 1. May switch to Willkie later.

District of Columbia – 3 complimentary votes expected for Senator Capper, of Kansas.

Florida – 12 votes. In doubt, but probably Dewey 6, Vandenberg 2, Taft 1, MacNider 1, others undecided. Willkie likely to gain later.

Illinois Scattered

Georgia – 14 votes divided among Dewey, Gannett, Vandenberg and Taft, with Willkie sentiment picking up.

Hawaii – Unannounced.

Idaho – 8 instructed for Dewey.

Illinois – 58 probably scattered.

Indiana – Willkie 16, Taft 8, Vandenberg 4. Willkie slated to gain later.

Iowa – 22 expected for MacNider.

Kansas – 18 for Capper.

Kentucky – 22 votes, majority to Dewey.

Louisiana – Taft 5, Dewey 5, MacNider 2. Might switch to Willkie later.

Maine – 13 votes. In doubt but at least 9 expected for Bridges.

Maryland – 16 votes. Instructed Dewey on first ballot. 3 to Vandenberg on second or third. Others likely to go the Willkie later.

Massachusetts – 34 votes. Most probably for Martin unless released, then Willkie likely to get bulk.

Michigan – 38 for Vandenberg.

Minnesota – 2 scattered.

Mississippi – Taft 9, Dewey 2.

Missouri – 30 votes. Probably majority for Dewey, with 6 or 8 for Willkie. Probably most go to Willkie later.

Montana – Probably 8 for Dewey on first. May switch to Taft later.

Nebraska – 14 votes instructed for Dewey. Scattered on later ballots.

New York for Dewey

Nevada – 6 in doubt.

New Hampshire – 8 for Bridges. Taft, Bridges and Willkie later.

New Jersey – 32 votes. Split between Dewey and Willkie probable.

New Mexico – 6. Expected to be split, with Willkie getting 3 and others going to Taft and Dewey.

New York – 92 votes. On the basis of rival claims, 58 to 67 for Dewey, 15 to 18 for Willkie, 9 to 15 for Gannett, 3 for Hoover and 1 for Vandenberg. Later Willkie may draw some of Dewey and Gannett strength.

North Carolina – 23 votes. Dewey, Taft, Vandenberg and Willkie expected to get some.

North Dakota – 8 probably split among five candidates. Indications of swing to Vandenberg later.

Ohio – 52 expected to stick to Taft as long as he has chance.

Oklahoma – 22 probably for Dewey on first two ballots.

Oregon – 10 for Senator McNary until released. 1 for Willkie on second ballot.

Pennsylvania – 72 votes. All but one bound by caucus to support Governor James while he has chance. Other for Willkie. If James weakens, Taft may get bulk.

Philippines – Unannounced.

Puerto Rico – Unannounced.

Rhode Island – 8 votes. At least 6 probably for Willkie.

South Carolina – Agreed cast 10 for Dewey. Not bound by unit rule after first ballot.

South Dakota – 8 for Governor Bushfield.

Tennessee – 18 votes divided among five candidates, with Dewey and Taft likely to gain on second ballot.

Texas – 26 votes in caucus for Taft.

Utah – 8 votes. Probably 5 to Dewey with rest to Vandenberg, Willkie and Taft.

Taft in Vermont

Vermont – Doubtful, but expected to give 5 to Taft with other 4 split between Dewey and Willkie. Favorite son vote for Senator Austin a possibility.

Virginia – 16 votes. Caucus gave 11 to Dewey and 3 to Taft. 1 likely for Vandenberg. If Dewey eliminated, Vandenberg may get majority.

Washington – 16 votes. Caucus gave 11 to Dewey and 3 to Taft. 1 likely for Vandenberg. If Dewey eliminated, Vandenberg may get majority.

West Virginia – Dewey supporters claim 9, with 7 split Willkie and Taft.

Wisconsin – 24 pledged to Dewey.

Wyoming – 2 for Dewey, with 4 split among Willkie, Vandenberg and Taft.

Spotlights on Republican Convention Reveal Interesting Personalities
Philadelphia, June 27 (AP) –

The Republican National Convention has set a new high in the use of women delegates for parades – so high, in fact, that one woman rode on a parader’s shoulders.

It started with the Dewey demonstration last night.

In a burst of unbridled enthusiasm, two paraders grabbed the first lady marcher they saw. It happened to be petite and pretty Mrs. J. C. Rainer of Wisconsin. Mrs. Rainer didn’t seem to mind. While she yelled “we want Dewey!”, the delegates hoisted her off the floor. Making a litter out of a colored lithograph of their candidate, they bore her about the convention hall.

Then came the Taft parade. In an effort to outdo the Dewey demonstration, a strapping Ohioan grabbed the first woman he saw, Miss Marian Wherry of Nebraska. He hoisted her into his arms and galloped as best he could across the crowded floor.

Next was the Willkie walkathon. While some state groups were scrapping over joining the parade, two delegates clutched a woman parader, who declined to give her name, and set off around the floor. In three strides they had her on their shoulders. “My, my,” laughed Henry P. Fletcher, former chairman of the Republican National Committee. “At this rate, if we had 20 candidates, someone would have to feature a lady on a flying trapeze.” The women must have something to do with the demonstrations because, to put it mildly, they were lively.

From a group of old timers came the most lavish comment of former President Hoover’s speech. Former Senator George H. Moses, of New Hampshire, who presided over the 1928 convention at Kansas City, which first nominated Mr. Hoover, said “it is a brand new Hoover who spoke to us Tuesday night.” Former Senator David Reed, of Pennsylvania, called it a “great speech by a great man.”

Governor Arthur H. James donned a white coal miner’s cap marched ten blocks in an old-fashioned political parade promoting him for the Republican presidential nomination, and sang “God Bless America” to the music of a string band. The paraders wore badges on which were suspended one-inch models of the Liberty Bell. “Pennsylvania rang the Liberty Bell in 1776 – ring it again in 1940 with Arthur H. James,” the badges proclaimed.

Thomas E. Dewey has been getting about four hours’ sleep nightly. He laughingly says that he thereby is “drawing the only dividend that comes from being 38 years of age.” Dewey has remained close to his hotel suite, interviewing delegates and other visitors for hours at a stretch.

Mrs. Paul W. Houck, widow of the former Schuylkill County Republican chairman, took the advice of a physician today to “take it easy for a day” after a motor mishap in which she received minor bruises. Heading toward Philadelphia for the Republican National Convention, she was injured when her car hit a bridge near Ambler. She was driving alone.

To Will H. Hays, the movie “czar,” the convention is “just like a college reunion.” Hays was national chairman of the party from 1918 to 1921 and now is a delegate from Indiana.

Governor Luren D. Dickinson, of Michigan, 81-year-old critic of modern morals, took a quick look at the Republican Convention and pronounced it: “Safe, sinless and sexless.” But he’s taking no chances. He is staying at a hotel in Camden, New Jersey, across the Delaware River, so he “won’t have to hear any of these midnight goings.”

Former President Herbert Hoover clutched the edge of the speaker’s stand during his address to the convention Tuesday night. He had his speech printed on a series of big cards, colored a light brown to offset the glare of convention hall lights.

No glamour girl is having more fun at the Republican Convention than the dowager queen of the party, Mrs. Benjamin Harrison, widow of the 23rd President. On her first day here she took her 82-year-young enthusiasm around to a lunch, five candidates’ headquarters, a dinner, and the long night session. When she finished visiting the various headquarters, her lively eyes sparkled. “They are all fine candidates,” she said. "I’ve known four generations of Tafts, I knew the President’s father when he was at Yale.

Former Senator David A. Reed, urging the delegates not to weaken the state’s position as he said the New York delegation has done – by dividing its allegiance among several candidates, declared “Pennsylvania can be a decisive force in this convention. We have reason to believe that Governor James will get many votes on the second ballot.”

General Edward Martin, the state’s Adjutant General, told a Pennsylvania caucus: “I don’t always agree with our candidate, but that makes no difference. We have a splendid opportunity of nominating Governor James for the presidency of the United States, but if word is going out that some of us are not going to support our governor it is going to be difficult to get declarations from other states.”

When Wendell Willkie dashed away from a conference with Herbert Hoover, a friend inquired how he was holding up under the strain of conferences lasting all day and far into the night. “Anybody got any wildcats?” asked Willkie, looking about the elevator he was riding down to the street. “I’ve got a 15-minute interval and I’ll take 'em on.”

Joseph N. Pew, Jr., Pennsylvania oil executive and political leader, was standing on the fringe of a milling throng during the demonstration for Wendell Willkie at Convention Hall last night. A man approached him and inquired, “Who’s it going to be?”

“It looks like General Grant to me,” Pew wisecracked.

Thomas E. Dewey walked across Broad Street from his hotel headquarters for a lengthy conference with former President Hoover. As he threaded his way through the crowds, only two women recognized him and called a greeting.

New political slogans are flowering in downtown hotel lobbies and in the Republican Convention Hall.

Here are some of the latest:

If there’s a Willkie, there’s a way.
No glamour, no sarong. Just a man who won’t go wrong – Bob Taft.
Dewey want Dewey? We do.


The official tabulation of votes for presidential candidates by roll calls at the Republican National Convention:

Can’dates: 1 2 3 4 5 6 before shifts 6 after shifts
Willkie 105 171 259 306 429 656 998
Taft 189 203 212 254 377 319
Dewey 360 338 315 250 57 9
Vandenberg 76 73 72 61 42
James 74 66 59 56 59 1
Martin 44 26
MacNider 34 34 28 26 4 1
Gannett 33 30 11 4 1 1
Hoover 17 21 32 31 20 8
Bridges 28 9 1 1
Capper 18 18
McNary 13 10 10 8 9
Bushfield 9
LaGuardia 1
Scattering / Blank 40 29 11 11 11 5 2

The Gettysburg Times (June 28, 1940)

Philadelphia, June 28 (AP) –

Wendell Willkie, the businessman who mussed his hair and turned into a politician overnight, won the Republican presidential nomination today after the wildest balloting sprees of any recent convention.

He wrested the title from whooping delegates on the sixth ballot shortly after midnight. Thomas E. Dewey of New York, his forces badly battered, and Senator Vandenberg of Michigan had freed their supporters to join the mad rush toward the blunt-speaking New York utilities executive.

Senator Taft of Ohio, his lines crumbling in the stampede, finally, fell before the onrush. Then the result was declared unanimous.

Only the vice presidential nomination and the closing convention formalities remained to be disposed of this afternoon by the delegates, weary from the late night session and hoarse from two days of shouting.

Willkie Makes Brief Statement

The 48-year-old Willkie, never before a candidate for public office, learned of his nomination in his hotel suite, crowded with enthusiastic friends.

“I am very appreciative. I’m very humble, and very proud,” he said.

“I intend to give everything I have to bring about American prosperity, building an adequate national defense and restoring national unity.”

One by one, Willkie bowled over the “favorite sons” in the early balloting. Then his drive went into the camps of the men who three weeks ago had been favored to win the nomination.

First, Dewey’s lines began to tremble and crack. Dewey released his delegates on the fifth ballot, and there was a drive for Taft, with the workers of Herbert Hoover aiding in the path. But it failed.

The thousands in the galleries, hoarse from hours of shouting “we want Willkie,” took up the chant again. Delegations that hesitated or turned against Willkie were booed; then cheered to a rafter-shaking echo when they turned back to him.

Wins on Sixth Ballot

His nomination went over in the middle of the sixth roll call of the longest nominating fight the Republicans have had since Warren G. Harding was nominated in 1920. Once, as the lines tightened, a delegate sought to move a recess. But chairman Martin drove them ahead.

Willkie said he expected to have a series of conferences before the day is out concerning the selection of a chairman for the Republican National Committee. He said, however, that he thought the selection of a vice presidential nominee was “a job for the convention.”

How Pennsylvanians Voted on Last Ballot
Philadelphia, June 28 (AP) –

Forty-three members of Pennsylvania’s delegation to the Republican National Convention were recorded for Wendell Willkie in secret caucus just before the final ballot that gave the utilities executive the nomination early today.

The other 29 were recorded on the official check list of the caucus as standing by their favorite son, Governor Arthur H. James, although the delegation’s vote was announced as 72 for Willkie.

Those recorded for Willkie were:
Delegate at large – Mrs. Marlon Scranton.

District delegates and alternates – MacNeille, Willard, Cooke, Louchiem, Garman, Phila.; Witkin, Richard P. Brown, Greer, McCracken, and Loftus, all Phila.; Weidemann, upper Darby; Sprague, Swarthmore.

Ritter, Allentown; Pepper, Devon Dunlap, Lancaster; Rosser, Scranton; Eberly, Mohnton; Lee, Reading; Mills, Athens; Tiffany, Brooklyn; Huber, Haverford; Pew, Ardmore; Brobston, Nazareth; Byron, Mercersburg; Garver, Roaring Spring; Kurtz, Altoona; Bradshaw, New Brighton.

Jones, Johnstown; Irving, Big Run; McMurray, Youngwood; Collins, Erie; Miller, Meadville; Robertson, Pittsburgh; Flinn, Sharpsburg; Whitten, Wilkinsburg; Hill, Tarentum; Foster. Conley, Herron and Reed, all Pittsburgh; Harris, Crafton; Duff, Carnegie.

Governor James Laughs With Crowd

Governor James, smiling broadly despite the results, mounted the rostrum and announced he was “happy to nominate (second) the nomination of Mr. Wendell L. Winkel.” The crowd roared at the mix-up of words and mispronunciation and James laughed, too.

“It’s kind of hard,” he jested, “for a Welshman to get it out, but I got it out, anyhow.”

James received 70 of his delegation’s 72 votes on the first ballot. The trend to Willkie cut this down to 65 on the second, 57 on the third, 53 on the fourth, and 51 on the fifth. He received 29 in the caucus after the fifth ballot but none was cast for him.

The predicted help for James from other states failed to materialize. On the first ballot, Florida gave him two, Missouri one and Tennessee one. Next time around, only the Tennessee vote was cast for him, the third ballot brought him a Tennessee and a Maryland vote. He got those two plus an Illinois vote on the fourth. Illinois gave him six on the fifth.

George Wharton Pepper, who threw off his coat, climbed on a chair and whipped up the chant “we want James” at the afternoon session, was the first of the old-line Republican leaders to pay heed to the Willkie trend. The former U.S. Senator cast his lot with the New Yorker on the third ballot.

It was not until the secret caucus after the fifth ballot that he was joined by Jay Cooke, Mrs. Worthington Scranton, Richard P. Brown, James’ Secretary of Commerce, and Morton Witkin, Philadelphia County Commissioner.


The Republican National Convention resumed sessions in Philadelphia this afternoon to select a vice presidential nominee. The name of Senator Charles McNary, of Oregon, was put in nomination at 2:30 o’clock this afternoon. A ballot was taken immediately and an unofficial count shows that Senator McNary had received 892 votes, 391 more than the necessary 501. The other ballots were scattered complimentary votes.

Washington, June 28 (AP) –

Senator McNary (R-Ore.) this afternoon told leaders of the Republican National Convention that he would accept the nomination on the Republican ticket for vice president.

The senator, is reported on high authority in Philadelphia to be Presidential nominee Wendell Willkie’s choice for second place on the ticket. He said today “he would be a good soldier” and accept the nomination.

Republican leaders generally argued that the Oregon senator’s farm and public power records made him ideal for the place. They expressed the belief that he might be prevailed upon to accept as a contribution to party harmony.

It was pointed out that McNary comes from the far west, and thus would balance Willkie’s New York residence.

Can’date: Votes
McNary 892
Short 108
Bridges 2

Here Is How Willkie’s Publicity Started
Philadelphia, June 28 (AP) –

Wendell Willkie emerged with the Republican presidential nomination from a campaign built, in the words of one of his own close supporters of “march sticks and chewing gum.”

It was a campaign unique in American political history, one which had no beginning that you could put your finger on yet in the late pre-convention days swept the country with amazing power.

In the spring, Willkie, busy with the affairs of Commonwealth and Southern Corporation, pictured himself only as a dark horse contender for the nomination.

Russell Davenport, then managing editor of the magazine Fortune, but now affiliated with Willkie, sought from the public utilities magnate an article which would outline his beliefs. It was published in the April issue.

“The response,” says Davenport, “was a deluge of requests for reprints. It got out of hand.”

Finally, an organization was set up to get out these reprints. That, Davenport believes, was step no. 1 in putting together the pieces of a campaign.

It was Davenport who pinned the “match sticks and chewing gum” designation on the entire effort for Willkie. Davenport found his job at Fortune handicapped him. The magazine is non-partisan. He soon found he wasn’t. He resigned.

Through the spring months work for Willkie moved forward on an increasing scale, and then, says Davenport, came “quite a turning point,” one which took Willkie out of the dark horse category and put him on a popular basis.

Oren Root, Jr., resigned from the law firm with which he was affiliated and opened up an office. Root is only 27, and a political tyro. But he rallied a large group of enthusiastic young college men and they went to work with vigor to show up accepted ways of handling a campaign.

Willkie clubs sprang up and grew to between five and six hundred in number. His opponents said so much activity couldn’t be spontaneous, that it obviously was synthetic with hidden sources for money. The Willkie supporters were emphatic that such wasn’t the case.

“Why,” says Davenport, “at one time I had to demand that some of the Hollywood-minded boys, who had not actual connection with us but wanted to have, call off their fundraising plans.”

“That was when I got my title.”

“I’m ‘the man who has Willkie’s confidence.’ You see, we had to have some way of persuading people to stop doing things they shouldn’t. But I’m not Mr. Willkie’s manager.”

So that Davenport could handle such situations, Willkie had written a letter describing him as a man who had his confidence.

The clubs started a newsletter and began exchanging ideas.

“One man thinks of something and pretty soon 500 others know about it,” Davenport said. “That’s the way it spreads.”

“That keeps up day after day.”

Davenport, a week or so before the convention, thought that maybe $30,000 had been spent, but said he had no way of estimating the amount accurately. Of that sum, he added, he had spent about $3,000 of his own money.

Davenport couldn’t say how much the clubs had spent, and he wasn’t sure about an independent mailing committee which had operated in New York. He didn’t think anybody else could make an accurate estimate, either.

Mrs. Willkie Says: "Do I Have To?"
Philadelphia, June 28 (AP) –

Mrs. Wendell Willkie, “a little bit numb” at the idea that her husband will contend for the Presidency, said today she would help in the campaign if his co-workers don’t “think she’s excess baggage.”

There is one thing she won’t do: She won’t make speeches.

She sat through the entire exciting day at Convention Hall yesterday.

She had sent a friend out to buy a big hat under which she hid, and she borrowed a friend’s ticket for a seat in the balcony.

Then Mrs. Willkie went to the Warwick Hotel near the fashionable Rittenhouse Square, where she was waiting, with a few women friends when her husband came in. He stepped quickly across the room and kissed her. Neither said anything.

There was a question of her speaking on the radio. She opened her blue eyes wide at her husband and said, “Do I have to?”

“Not if you don’t want to,” he said.

“Oh, so he’s boss,” a friend teased.

“There is no boss,” said Mrs. Willkie. “But I do depend on his viewpoint a great deal. He is a lot bigger than I am in every way.” He is nearly a foot taller than she is.

Theirs was a World War wedding. They married on Jan. 14, 1918. She says she’s “forty plus” now. They have one son, aged 20.

Willkie Will “Accept” From Old H.S. Steps
Philadelphia, June 28 (AP) –

Wendell Willkie indicated today that he would like to deliver his speech accepting the Republican presidential nomination from the steps of the high school building in his native town of Elwood, Ind.

Asked whether he would try to arrange to make the address there, he said “I think so.”

He had promised as much last May when by telephone from New York, he addressed a “Willkie For President” rally in the town where he was born and reared.


The Gettysburg News (June 28, 1940)

Brokers Claim Willkie Nomination Aids Markets
New York, June 28 (AP) –

Leading stocks, paced by utilities, ran up 1 to more than 4 points in today’s early market dealings. Brokers said the nomination of Willkie as the Republican presidential candidate brought in buyers.

Chicago, June 28 (AP) –

Wheat prices advanced fractionally in early dealings today. Pit brokers said strength in securities attributed in part to the Willkie nomination as well as peace talk and continuation of hot weather in the southwest were bullish factors.

The Gettysburg News (June 29, 1940)

Says That He Is Without Pledge or Promise
Philadelphia, June 29 (AP) –

Wendell L. Willkie indicated today he would delay until after the Democratic National Convention his formal acceptance of the Republican presidential nomination.

The Republican candidate told newsmen he and his advisers came to no conclusion at a lengthy meeting last night on whether to retain John D. Hamilton as chairman of the national committee.

He said he hoped to talk soon with Senator Charles L. McNary of Oregon, his running mate.

Willkie appeared yesterday for a brief talk before the shouting, hand-clapping Republican delegates to promise “a crusading, aggressive, fighting campaign to bring unity to America.”

Willkie was accompanied by his wife, who appeared cool and composed despite the glaring spotlights beating down upon the stage. She retired to the rear of the platform after hearing Chairman Joseph Martin introduce her as “the next mistress of the White House.”

After the cheers for Mrs. Willkie died down, her husband stood before the big speaker’s desk and declared emphatically:

“I want to say to the members of this convention that as your nominee I stand before you without a single pledge, promise or understanding of any kind except for the advancement of your cause and the preservation of American democracy.”

“Forty-eight days ago, and only 48 days ago, I started out to preach to the American people the doctrine of unity, the doctrine of the destiny of America, and that fact that I am the nominee of this convention at this time proves conclusively how appealing is this simple doctrine to the American people.”

Willkie emphasized in his talk a demand for national unity and pledged his best efforts to obtain it.

With a toss of his head, he concluded by saying, “now I am going to sleep for a week.” That brought a roar from the crowd.

After his talk, Willkie surprised Philadelphia newspaper editors by calling at their offices to express his appreciation for “the fair treatment you have given me.”

Willkie, who announced that he would resign as president of the Commonwealth and Southern Corporation to devote his whole time to the Republican campaign, kept his future plans indefinite.

Those attending last night’s strategy conference made it plain that Willkie would make numerous speeches and would start organizing his campaign at once.

Among his late-hour conferees last night were Governor Harold E. Stassen of Minnesota, his convention floor leader; Governor Raymond E. Baldwin of Connecticut and representative Charles Halleck of Indiana, also Willkie leaders; Samuel F. Pryor, Connecticut national committeeman, and Martin.



Prominent Democrats Attack the GOP Candidate
Washington, June 29 (AP) –

Will it be Roosevelt versus Willkie?

If so, who will be the President’s running mate to balance the Republican selection of Senator McNary?

These were the two big questions in Washington today, as Democrats sought to gauge the strength of the Republican ticket headed by Wendell L. Willkie, New York utilities executive, and looked ahead to their own convention in Chicago two weeks hence.

The answer to the first query rested with President Roosevelt but he has kept mum on his intentions regarding a third term. Ardent third-termers, however, have been more insistent than ever of late that the turn of events abroad make it imperative he run again.

There is no dispute that Mr. Roosevelt commands sufficient convention delegates for the nomination. He had 707 1/2 votes pledged to him when the last tabulation was made, and only 548 are required to nominate. Even anti-third-termers concede the nomination is the President’s – if he wants it.

The unanimity is not so complete on the vice presidential nomination Senator Byrnes (D-S.C.), staunch administration supporter, has been spoken of highly as a likely contender for second place on a third term ticket. But there also has been talk of another Roosevelt-Garner slate. Other running mates mentioned have ranged from Secretary of State Hull to Fiorello H. LaGuardia, New York’s fusion mayor.

President Roosevelt had an opportunity to comment on Willkie’s nomination yesterday when reporters at his press conference inquired whether he had anything to say on politics. He replied that he thought not.

Asked whether he would have any trouble getting together with Willkie on foreign affairs, he said he would be willing to get together with Willkie at any time.

The President and Willkie are known to held similar views on the questions of aid to the allies and other foreign policy matters.

Elsewhere these expressions were forthcoming:

Senator Norris (Ind.-Neb.), a third-term advocate – “Willkie is Insull the second. I don’t believe there is a ghost of a chance of Willkie being elected.”

Democratic Chairman Farley – “What sets of forces, economic and social, are to conduct our government – the historic American processes, or some new and somewhat foreign methods of concentrated control?”

Speaker Bankhead – The issue is whether “the voters wish to place the executive in the control of forces which are somewhat foreign to our usual American way of life.”

Secretary of Interior Ickes – “Franklin D. Roosevelt will be renominated and re-elected.” If it isn’t Roosevelt versus Willkie, who will it be?

Those mentioned as possible standard bearers include Vice President Garner, Postmaster General Farley, Speaker Bankhead, Senator Tydings of Maryland, Senator Wheeler of Montana, Senator O’Mahoney of Wyoming, Secretary of State Hull and Security Administrator Paul V. McNutt.

As for the actual convention, the final preliminaries are underway. Postmaster Farley, Chairman of the Democratic National Committee is due in Chicago Monday and the party’s arrangements committee will join him July 8.

New York, June 29 (AP) –

Buying demand faltered in today’s stock market and many traders stepped aside to await further developments in politics, business and the European war.

Wall Street generally retained much of its optimism engendered by the Willkie president nomination but it was realized the campaign had a long way to go. Business news remained a sustaining factor but even here mild skepticism was in evidence.

Among restraining influences listed in brokerage quarters were possibility of a nearby devastating German blast at England, chances of an early peace involving important alternations in the nature of American export trends, and practical certainty of a thorough revision of the federal tax structure before the end of the year.

Newark Sunday Call (June 30, 1940)

Women Republicans Seek Willkie Speech
Philadelphia, June 30 (AP) –

The National Federation of Women’s Republican Clubs will ask Wendell L. Willkie, the party’s Presidential nominee, to make the keynote address at the second annual convention, September 18-25.

Mrs. Joyce Arneill of Denver presided at a meeting of the advisory board yesterday which will select the convention site after Willkie’s campaign schedule has been arranged.

The Federation pledged “unanimous support” to the Presidential and Vice Presidential nominees.

The Gettysburg News (July 1, 1940)

Demand for Willkie Exceeded That for Taft
Harrisburg, July 1 (AP) –

Governor Arthur H. James, Pennsylvania’s “favorite son” candidate for the Republican presidential nomination, was described by his closest office associate today as “not especially disappointed” that Wendell L. Willkie – and not Arthur H. James – was selected at last week’s convention.

J. Paul Pedigo, secretary to the Governor, returned to the capital today, saying that James, like Willkie, was interested in “some rest” before plunging into his executive duties.

“We got mighty little sleep and rest,” said Pedigo, referring to their stay in Philadelphia for the Republican Convention.

Pedigo said he “wouldn’t be a bit surprised” if James made “a few speeches” for the ticket in the November campaign.

“I can see where Willkie could pile up a tremendous majority for the Republican Party,” the secretary said.

He said he believed the Pennsylvania bloc could reach more definite conclusions over the nominee after Willkie’s acceptance speech, defining his personal views on the paramount issues.

“There was always some sentiment for Willkie in the Pennsylvania delegation,” Pedigo said. “I don’t believe the governor could at any time, as they say politically, turn in 72 votes for Senator Taft.”

Broadcasting Magazine (July 1, 1940)


TELEVISION AUDIENCES for the first time in history viewed a national political convention on their receivers when NBC and Philco sent television crews and equipment to the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia. Philco served the Philadelphia territory, while MBC used coaxial cable facilities to pipe its pickups to New York for transmission in that area via W2XBS, atop the Empire State Bldg., and relay to the upstate Schenectady-Albany area via GE’s television facilities.

The Gettysburg News (July 2, 1940)

Three Managers Will Run Willkie Campaign
New York, July 2 (AP) –

A new type of setup for a national political campaign was under consideration today by Wendell L. Willkie, the Republican nominee for president, who was reported to be ready to name a committee of three men to head up his activities.

One man, it was understood, would be the campaign manager, another would be the national chairman of the party, and a third Willkie’s personal representative.

Willkie himself declined to discuss the situation at a morning press conference. But it was considered likely one of the third men would be John D. Hamilton, present head of the Republican National Committee, and another, Russell Davenport, former managing editor of Fortune who quit his job to work for Willkie’s nomination.

Reading Eagle (July 11, 1940)

Police Commissioner of New York Discloses Phila. Discovery
Tells Sleuths He Fears World’s Fair Blast Is 'Just the Beginning’
Harrisburg, July 11 (UP) ―

Pennsylvania Motor Police and other authorities found evidences of a bomb plot near Convention Hall in Philadelphia during the Republican National Convention the week of June 24, sources who requested their names not be used told the United Press today.

They said Motor Police believed one of the bombs was intended for Governor Arthur H. James, one of the aspirants for the presidential nomination.

Deputy Police Commissioner Cecil Wilhelm conceded “there is something to the reports,” but added: “Perhaps not as much as some think.”

He refused further comment, referring questions to Motor Police Commissioner Lynn G. Adams, who was not immediately available.

New York, July 11 (AP) ―

Two powerful dynamite bombs were found near Convention Hall during the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia two weeks ago, it was learned from a high police authority today after Police Commissioner Lewis J. Valentine disclosed a number of bombs were found during the meeting.

Valentine did not say how many bombs were found nor where they were discovered, but other sources said seven or eight were located, some of them in a hall frequently used for Communist meetings.

Valentine made the disclosure in a talk to his detective force in which he asserted that the bomb explosion at the World’s Fair July 4th, which killed two detectives, “is just the beginning.”

The voice of the veteran and hardened peace officer choked with emotion as he spoke of the two victims of the bomb and declared that the Department was out to “get” the perpetrators of the plot, convict them and “have them sentenced to their proper punishment – electrocution.”

Seven Bombs Found

It was learned from another high police source that about seven bombs were found in various places in Philadelphia and that some of the bombs discovered were under construction in a meeting hall where Communists gathered.

“Lieutenant James Pyke (head of the bomb and forgery squad) went to Philadelphia while the Republican convention was in session,” Valentine said. “Some bombs were found there, and he opened two of them.”

He spoke to 675 detectives – one-third of the detective force – assembled at police headquarters and planned to hold two other meetings with the rest of the force later today.

The commissioner had difficulty in controlling his emotions as he spoke of Detectives Joseph J. Lynch and Ferdinand A. Socha, bomb-squad members killed when the bomb removed from the British pavilion at the Fair exploded shortly thereafter.

Referring to the unknown perpetrators, Valentine said:

If we had had them there (at the Fair), it was in our hearts to take them on and tear them limb from limb. We have got to get them. Your professional reputations are at stake…

Valentine originally intended his remarks about the bombs in Philadelphia to be confidential, and not for publication, but later changed his mind and permitted reporters to use the material.

Bomb Found on Opening Day
Philadelphia, July 11 (AP) –

A crude time-bomb was found here June 24, the opening day of the Republican National Convention, in a pile of rubbish on the second floor of a central city building.

Lieutenant Albert A. Granitz and six detectives of the police radical squad raided the Workers’ School, which Granitz said was Communist-operated, and discovered the bomb in an ante-room outside the women’s restroom.

They arrested two men, who later were placed under $3,500 bail each on charges of sedition and possession of bombs. Granitz said the men were Adolph Heller, 36, an attorney, and Bernard Rish, 30, a salesman. They denied the charges.

The bomb was described by Granitz as a wooden box containing one stick of dynamite, an alarm clock, a detonator, gunpowder, and gun cotton. The clock was not attached to the detonator, he said.

If the bomb had exploded, the lieutenant said, it would have had “the same effect as a three-inch shrapnel shell.”

At a hearing for the accused men, counsel for the Workers School objected vigorously to Granitz’s assertion that the school was a Communist organization.

The Philadelphia Inquirer of June 27 said that detectives had uncovered “a widespread Red bomb plot” involving the planting of bombs near Convention Hall, site of the Republican convention. Eight home-made bombs filled with nuts and bolts were used in the “plot,” the newspaper asserted. Police denied the story.

James H. (Shooey) Malone, Director of Public Safety, is on a cruise to the Bahamas and could not be reached for comment on the statement of Lewis Valentine, New York police commissioner, that several bombs had been found here during the G.O.P. convention. Before leaving Philadelphia, Malone denied that any organized bomb plot had been discovered.

John F. Sears, chief local agent of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, said he had no knowledge of the discovery here during the convention or of a plot.


Senator Norris (Ind.-Neb.), a third-term advocate – “Willkie is Insull the second. I don’t believe there is a ghost of a chance of Willkie being elected.”


That’s quite the insult (no pun intended).


Sen. Norris was comparing Willkie to the late Sam Insull the entrepreneur. Just for clarification. :wink:


That’s what I meant… also for clarification.


Apparently, Insull (as well as Hearst) were inspirations for Orson Welles’ Citizen Kane.


At this time, you definitely see Landon becoming far more globally minded and looking to nominate Willkie as a globally-minded politician. This maneuvering by Landon would radically reorient the GOP’s foreign policy as later non-interventionists like Howard Buffet and Bob Taft would find themselves in the minority on foreign policy.

Note the contrast between Henry Cabot Lodge I and Henry Cabot Lodge II on globalism.

Landon would become the most globally-minded politician in the country, voting for LBJ over Goldwater and possibly voting for John Anderson over Reagan, although I find conflicting sources regarding this. Reagan was fairly globally-focused and spoke highly of Landon.


There really wasn’t a chance of Willkie winning. The industrial base, much of which was poorly educated and first-generation immigrant, lived in a totally different culture from which the patrician Republicans understood. Many urban voters had to drop out of school to support their families and never learned the significance of a president seeking a third-term or the creation of government bureaucracies that would rarely answer to any branch. Additionally, Willkie’s staunch support of Free Trade would have scared any potential industrial vote that he had because it would have threatened their jobs; Republicans historically used job protectionism as a way to win votes.

One trend that has been constant since the New Deal Era up through today is that when Republicans win industrial workers, they usually win the election.

Still, it was probably a good thing he lost in hindsight because he and his running-mate, McNary, both died in 1944. This would have likely caused a Constitutional Crisis given that the 25th Amendment hadn’t been written yet. Since the Supreme Court at the time was really flexing its muscles, had the president(Willkie) and vice-president(Cary) both died in 1944, leaving Sam Rayburn nominally as president, the Court may have essentially taken over in the midst of the War, appointing a new vice president. The US government would have radically transformed in ways we cannot comprehend.


It is often speculated that Dewey would win the 1944 election in this scenario, basically keeping Truman out of the White House. This also makes it unlikely Eisenhower runs in 1952 because he was really only picked by desperate Republicans who feared losing a 6th presidential election in a row. Taft might well have gotten the nomination in 1952 allowing for Stevenson to win. This would affect Kennedy’s chances in 1960 and perhaps Nixon might win that one against Hubert Humphrey and Kennedy doesn’t come up until 1964. No LBJ in the White House.

I love speculation but it’s all moot, I guess.:grinning:


We’ll have to ask whatifalthist or Cody from AlternateHistoryHub to make a Youtube video about it. Dewey would have been politically hit hard on his right flank from Harold Stassen, and Truman would have been hit hard on his left flank from Henry Wallace.


:rofl: You got me there!

And thensome. Pulitzer, Northcliffe, Howard Swope and Harold McCormick also come to mind.


Conflicting sources like:

The Los Angeles Times (February 1980)

Landon made it clear that he considered Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan the front-runners.

I don’t know where the idea that he voted for Anderson came from.


I got the claim from an old interview with Margaret Chase Smith, but I’m looking for it again and can’t find it.


Speaking of Margaret Chase Smith, as of July 30*, she is a House Representative (Maine 2), taking over following Clyde Smith’s death. She will be running for election in the House this year.

*1940, not 2019. Obviously.


Actually, the Presidential Succession Act of 1886 was still in effect so the next person in line would be whoever Willkie picks as Secretary of State—the Speaker of the House of Representatives & President pro tempore of the Senate were only put ahead of the Cabinet in 1947. That Secretary of State would be President for 3 ½ months, then hand over the office to whoever won the 1944 election. As McNary died in February of that year & the convention was in June, Willkie will have a new running-mate. Since Willkie died a month before election day, I would imagine the Republicans would try to replace him with the new running-mate. If the Republicans won, but couldn’t agree on a new running-mate, the Democratic majority in the Senate might just elect their VP candidate instead.

  1. My mistake about Presidential Succession at the time. Oh well, I’d rather be confused about succession lines in the past than forget the succession rules of the present like Alexander Haig once did.

  2. The rules for replacing nominees in presidential and vice-presidential elections, as of 2019, are state-by-state and are often not officially allowed come October. (https://ballotpedia.org/State_laws_and_party_rules_on_replacing_a_presidential_nominee)

  3. There’d still be tons of political chaos that would be a serious wartime problem and difficulties filling cabinet posts.

  4. I suspect the electors would be able to negotiate enough to give somebody a majority in the EC for Vice-President, but your scenario would happen otherwise.


Don’t forget to decide - who will be the leader of the free world in 1941?