Decision 1940! ROOSEVELT WINS!

The Pittsburgh Press (November 5, 1940)

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POLL FOR TIMEGHOST ARMY

33 STATES PICK GOVERNORS IN TODAY’S VOTING

GOP Wages Hot Campaign To Swell Gubernatorial Holdings

New York, Nov. 5 (UP) –

36 states select governors today.

Republicans gave put on a furious campaign to increase the 18 states of which the governors are Republican.

Voter of 17 states choose between gubernatorial incumbents and challengers. Five of the incumbents are Democrats, 12 Republicans.

In two states, Democratic gubernatorial candidates virtually are unopposed. Spessard L. Holland of Florida has no opposition and Georgia’s Eugene Talmadge’s opponents are small party candidates who have no chance.

In Minnesota, youthful Harold E. Stassen, the Republican incumbent, is opposed by Hjalmar Peterson (Farmer-Laborite) and Ed Murphy (Democrat). Gov. Stassen, keynoter at the Republican Convention in June, is considered presidential timber for 1944 but he must win today.

Farmer-Laborites Weakened

The Farmer-Labor Party, for many years dominant, has been weakened. Senator Ernest Lundeen, its leading member, was killed recently in an airplane accident and Senator Henrik Shipstead, up for re-election, has become a Republican.

Wisconsin is the scene of a desperate battle by the La Follettes to maintain their Progressive Party. Orland S. Loomis is their choice against the Republican incumbent, Julius P. Heil, who in 1938 had a five-to-one majority. The Democratic candidate is Francis E. McGovern.

Davey Back Again

Ohio will choose between Republican incumbent John W. Bricker and Democratic challenger Martin L. Davey, a former governor.

Luren B. Dickinson, Michigan’s 81-year-old “dry” crusading governor, and a Republican is seeking re-election. Murray D. Van Wagoner, state highway commissioner, is his Democratic opponent.

Two states, Louisiana and Maine, held their gubernatorial elections in April and September respectively. The former elected Sam Houston Jones, a Democrat who fought the remnants of the Huey Long machine, and the latter Sumner Sewall, a Republican.

Other states electing governors today are: Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Mexico, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, New Hampshire, New Jersey and North Carolina.


PRESIDENCY MAY HINGE ON LABOR’S VOTE

Effect of Lewis’ Support Of Willkie May Be Deciding Factor

Washington, Nov. 5 (UP) –

The labor vote may be a determining factor in today’s balloting.

The consensus of labor leaders here was that the labor vote holds the key to whether it will be President Roosevelt again or Wendell L. Willkie. They thought that the outcome depends on how many of the CIO’s four million members follow President John L. Lewis into the Willkie camp.

Mr. Lewis staked his CIO leadership on his ability to divert a majority on his ability to divert a majority of his members to Mr. Willkie, having promised that he would regard Mr. Roosevelt’s re-election as a vote of no-confidence and resign.

His endorsement of Mr. Willkie touched off a battle within the CIO. Many CIO locals and union leaders – Philip Murray of the Mine Workers and Steel Workers, R. J. Thomas of the Automobile Workers among them – chose to remain loyal to Mr. Roosevelt.

CIO’s arch rival, the American Federation of Labor, maintained its customary air of non-partisanship. AFL President William Green said that “no alleged labor leader can deliver the labor vote to any one candidate” and contended that Mr. Lewis “has shown the seeds of disintegration of the CIO.”

Virtually everyone at AFL headquarters has given the impression during recent weeks that Mr. Green, now in Coshocton, Ohio, would vote, for Mr. Roosevelt, and that a considerable majority of the union’s 4,247,443 members would do likewise. But some AFL leaders, such as William Hutcheson of the carpenters, are active Willkie supporters.

The New Deal appeal to labor has been citation of its labor record over seven years – the Wagner Act, the Wage-Hour Act, Social Security with old age benefits and unemployment insurance and other reforms.

Mr. Willkie promised that he would retain these labor advances and would give an opportunity for more benefits.

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CAMPAIGN CASH EXPENDITURES FACE SCRUTINY

Both Parties May Undergo Searching Congressional Probe

By Charles T. Lucey, Scripps-Howard Staff Writer

Washington, Nov. 5 –

Whatever the outcome of today’s election, there are certain to be demands for a Congressional investigation of reported huge expenditure and campaign irregularities in both parties.

It is considered possible that these may lead to proposals for election-law reforms, including further tightening of the Hatch Act, and to renewed agitation for financing national campaigns from the federal treasury as a means of controlling expenditures.

Pending more complete surveys, officials are withholding estimates of amounts spent in the current campaign, but they are known to be large – perhaps greater than in many years.

The Hatch Act placed a limit of three million dollars on the amount that a national committee could spend, but many committees have been at work in the presidential campaign aside from the Republican and Democratic National Committees.

Evidence Claimed

Chairman Guy M. Gillette (D-IA) of the Senate Campaign Expenditures Committee has announced that “evidence of expenditures of very large sums of money throughout the nation in connection with the present campaign” impels him to ask this committee to consider a full-dress Congressional investigation.

Alleged election-law violations of many kinds are being reported to the Senate Committee – political activity by postmasters and other federal employees, the placing of slips of a political nature in pay envelopes, meetings of Agricultural Adjustment Administration committeemen for political purposes, warnings by company executives to employees, and dismissals for supposed political reasons.

Purchase of radio time has been one of the greatest expense items for both Republicans and Democrats. Expenditures by the two parties with the National Broadcasting Co., Columbia Broadcasting System and Mutual Broadcasting have been estimated at $1,350,000 by Broadcasting Magazine. Of this, $750,000 was reported spent with the two NBC networks, $450,000 with CBS and $150,000 with Mutual.

Networks Run High

Final totals may exceed these earlier estimates.

A single national network may cost from $10,000 to $20,000 an hour, depending on the number of stations used. To blanket all three chains – as in the case of John L. Lewis’ speech for Wendell L. Willkie – may cost $50,000 to $60,000. President Roosevelt’s Oct. 23 broadcast was estimated to have cost about $75,000, much of which went to pay radio performers he displaced on regular programs.

No accurate estimate of the amounts spent in the interest of the national campaign on state and local chains is available, but one official estimated it might equal the sum spent with the national chains.

Large amounts have been spent on billboard and newspaper advertising and for campaign literature. expenses of presidential campaign trains, hall rental and hundreds of smaller items must be taken into account.

Senator Gillette has taken the position that his committee is limited to investigation of senatorial, presidential and vice presidential campaigns, and has expressed hope that the committee would recommend a joint Senate-House committee with authority to study all election expenditures and, perhaps, propose remedial legislation.

Among complaints made to the Senate Committee is one concerning letters sent California post office employees signed by J. Walter Kays, state finance director for the Democratic National Committee. The Republican National Committee charged that in connection with solicitation of funds the letter states:

If circumstances do not permit you to be of assistance, please write me a personal letter and maybe I can help you.

The complaints charged that this could have two possible interpretations – that some other method or evidence of indebtedness could be utilized instead of cash, or that the person solicited might be placed in a better financial condition to contribute.

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JOHN L. LEWIS INELIGIBLE TO CAST VOTE FOR WILLKIE
Alexandria, Va., Nov. 5 –

John L. Lewis, who has announced that he would resign as president of the CIO if President Roosevelt is re-elected, was not eligible to cast his own ballot today.

Mr. Lewis had taken the precaution to pay the $1.50 Virginia poll tax but he had not registered the required month before the election. Local election officials said that this barred him from voting.

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’Save America’ – Willkie
By William H. Lawrence, United Press Staff Writer

New York, Nov. 5 –

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Here’s a vote for Wendell Willkie – by Wendell Willkie.

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The Republican presidential nominee is shown as he gripped the lever of a voting machine in his polling place at 86th St. and Madison Ave. New York. He voted at 9:42 a.m.

Wendell L. Willkie closed his campaign before more than 1,000 cheering enthusiasts early today with a declaration that his candidacy for President on the Republican ticket must be successful “to save America and preserve the liberties of this great beloved country of ours.”

Smiling, his hair disheveled, Mr. Willkie bade farewell to the wars with a hearty handshake for the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee, Alfred E. Smith, a Willkie backer, and retired to his 1010 Fifth Ave. apartment to sleep before voting at Public School No. 6 at 86th St. and Madison Ave., where Democratic State Chairman James A. Farley also votes.

As Mr. Willkie cast his own ballot, he called upon all other Americans to vote before the polls close.

Cheered by Crowd

He walked into the polling booth amid cheers from a crowd of about 200 and cast his ballot at 9:42 a.m. (EST), one minute after Mrs. Willkie voted.

As he left the red brick school building, he turned to reporters and said:

I urge every citizen to vote irrespective of how he votes. The right to vote is both a duty and a privilege and should be exercised by every American. I want to express my thanks to all the people of the country for the generous reception given to me wherever I have been in this crusade.

Curtain String Breaks

As Mr. Willkie stepped into the voting booth and jerked the level which controls the curtain, the string on the curtain broke and it had to be pushed across the front of the booth by two policemen.

John V. Curry, former leader of Tammany Hall, shook hands with Mr. Willkie just as the Republican presidential nominee left his apartment to vote.

After voting, Mr. and Mrs. Willkie went for a 45-minute auto ride. They drove through the north end of Central Park, up Riverside Drive to West 140th St., and back to their home.

Mr. Willkie went into his apartment to rest for an hour and a half before returning to his headquarters at the Commodore Hotel.

In his final appeal before a Ritz Theater crowd and a nationwide radio audience, Mr. Willkie said that a “free way of life can be preserved in America only if we become a united people.”

Wants End of Discord

For 7½ years, we have had discord and we are having discord at a time when we look across the seas and see that it was discord and weakness from within that caused the democracies of Europe to collapse before totalitarianism.

I can’t say anything to you about how well I have led this crusade, but I can say this to you: That no man in all the history of time has ever felt a deeper dedication or sense of obligation to the cause that he has led than I feel to this cause that I lead.

And we must win, we must win this cause… I call upon you and the millions of other Americans…to carry this crusade to the point where we then can begin to save America and preserve the liberties of this great beloved country of ours.

Smith on Stage

Mr. Smith, whose name used to be placed in nomination before Democratic conventions by Franklin D. Roosevelt as the “Happy Warrior,” was one of several Democratic notables who sat on the date with Mr. Willkie and participated in the final midnight to 1 a.m. broadcast today. CIO President John L. Lewis, an ardent Roosevelt supporter in 1936, spoke before Mr. Willkie and asserted that the President’s re-election for a third term “will result in this nation’s involvement in war.”

Mr. Willkie will be in his personal headquarters on the 14th floor of the Commodore tonight when the votes are counted. From time to time, he may join more than 7,000 Willkie Club workers who will be in the hotel’s ballroom, but most of the time he will be alone, beside news service teletypes and radio in his own suite.

In his final campaign address at 10:15 p.m. over CBS, he again charged that Mr. Roosevelt had refused to debate campaign issues.

He called upon all Americans to vote, even in inclement weather, in order to preserve democracy and declared that the secrecy of the ballot should guard voters from being “high-pressured.”

WILLKIE AND FARLEY VOTE IN SAME BUILDING
New York, Nov. 5 (UP) –

Wendell L. Willkie and James A. Farley, voted today in the same building – Public School No. 6. They did not meet, since both voted from different precincts and their election boards were at opposite ends of the building.

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I would have been for Willkie just because I wouldn’t have liked a president seeking a third term.

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TO BE UPDATED WITH COMPLETE RETURNS

Presidential Election Results

EV Roosevelt EV Willkie EV Thomas Other Margin State total
Alabama 11 250,726 11 42,184 __ 73 886 71% 293,869
Arizona 3 95,267 3 54,030 __ 0 742 27% 150,039
Arkansas 9 109,785 9 27,876 __ 0 0 60% 137,661
California 22 1,834,662 22 1,305,273 __ 16,456 23,178 17% 3,179,569
Colorado 6 265,364 __ 278,855 6 1,861 1,936 -2% 548,016
Connecticut 8 417,621 8 361,825 __ 0 2,062 7% 781,508
Delaware 3 74,599 3 61,300 __ 115 220 10% 136,234
Florida 7 359,498 7 126,158 __ 0 0 48% 485,656
Georgia 12 246,900 12 41,631 __ 0 808 71% 289,339
Idaho 4 127,842 4 106,653 __ 468 260 9% 235,223
Illinois 29 2,149,934 29 2,047,240 __ 10,914 9,847 2% 4,217,935
Indiana 14 874,063 __ 899,466 14 2,075 7,143 -1% 1,782,747
Iowa 11 578,800 __ 632,370 11 0 4,260 -4% 1,215,430
Kansas 9 364,725 __ 489,169 9 2,347 4,056 -14% 860,297
Kentucky 11 557,222 11 410,384 __ 1,014 1,443 15% 970,063
Louisiana 10 319,751 10 52,446 __ 0 51 72% 372,248
Maine 5 156,478 __ 163,951 5 0 411 -2% 320,840
Maryland 8 384,546 8 269,534 __ 4,093 1,944 17% 660,117
Massachusetts 17 1,076,000 17 939,700 __ 4,091 6,680 7% 2,026,471
Michigan 19 1,032,991 __ 1,039,917 19 7,593 5,428 0% 2,085,929
Minnesota 11 644,196 11 596,274 __ 5,296 5,112 4% 1,250,878
Mississippi 9 168,267 9 7,364 __ 99 0 92% 175,730
Missouri 15 952,566 15 860,377 __ 2,203 1,997 5% 1,817,143
Montana 4 137,778 4 93,575 __ 1,307 1,044 19% 233,704
Nebraska 7 268,094 __ 354,408 7 0 0 -14% 622,502
Nevada 3 31,669 3 21,041 __ 0 0 20% 52,710
New Hampshire 4 125,292 4 110,127 __ 0 0 6% 235,419
New Jersey 16 1,016,404 16 944,876 __ 2,823 10,111 4% 1,974,214
New Mexico 3 105,031 3 82,754 __ 140 97 12% 188,022
New York 47 3,264,119 47 3,012,899 __ 18,948 3,250 4% 6,299,216
North Carolina 13 609,015 13 395,382 __ 0 0 21% 1,004,397
North Dakota 4 116,183 __ 146,229 4 1,191 810 -11% 264,413
Ohio 26 1,733,139 26 1,586,773 __ 0 0 4% 3,319,912
Oklahoma 11 474,313 11 348,872 __ 0 3,027 15% 826,212
Oregon 5 258,415 5 219,555 __ 362 2,614 8% 480,946
Pennsylvania 36 2,171,035 36 1,889,848 __ 10,967 6,864 7% 4,078,714
Rhode Island 4 181,746 4 138,432 __ 0 313 14% 320,491
South Carolina 8 95,470 8 4,360 __ 2 0 91% 99,832
South Dakota 4 89,273 __ 125,372 4 0 0 -17% 214,645
Tennessee 11 351,601 11 169,153 __ 440 1,525 35% 522,719
Texas 23 840,151 23 199,152 __ 722 1,128 62% 1,041,153
Utah 4 154,277 4 93,151 __ 195 187 25% 247,810
Vermont 3 64,269 __ 78,371 3 0 422 -10% 143,062
Virginia 11 235,961 11 109,563 __ 282 1,001 36% 346,807
Washington 8 462,145 8 322,123 __ 4,060 4,408 18% 792,736
West Virginia 8 478,175 8 352,574 __ 0 0 15% 830,749
Wisconsin 12 704,821 12 679,206 __ 14,793 6,306 2% 1,405,126
Wyoming 3 58,399 3 52,102 __ 144 167 6% 110,812

Senate Results

Winner Party Votes Vote %
Arizona McFarland D 101,495 71%
California Johnson R 2,238,899 83%
Connecticut Maloney D 416,740 53%
Delaware Tunnell D 68,294 51%
Florida Andrews D 323,216 100%
Idaho (spec.) Thomas R 124,535 53%
Illinois (spec.) Brooks R 2,045,924 50%
Indiana Willis R 888,070 50%
Kentucky (spec.) Chandler D 561,151 58%
Maine Brewster R 150,149 59%
Maryland Radcliffe D 394,239 65%
Massachusetts Walsh D 1,088,838 56%
Michigan Vandenburg R 1,053,104 53%
Minnesota Shipstead R 641,049 53%
Mississippi Bilbo D 143,431 100%
Missouri Truman D 930,775 51%
Montana Wheeler D 176,753 73%
Nebraska Butler R 340,250 57%
Nevada Pittman D 31,351 60%
New Jersey Barbour R 1,029,331 55%
New Mexico Chávez D 103,194 56%
New York Mead D 3,274,766 53%
North Dakota Langer R 100,647 38%
Ohio Burton R 1,602,498 52%
Pennsylvania Guffey D 2,069,980 52%
Rhode Island Gerry D 163,927 55%
Tennessee McKellar D 295,440 71%
Texas Connally D 978,095 94%
Utah Murdock D 155,499 63%
Vermont Austin R 93,283 66%
Vermont (spec.) Aiken R 87,150 62%
Virginia Byrd D 274,260 93%
Washington Wallgren D 404,718 54%
West Virginia Kilgore D 492,413 56%
Wisconsin La Follette PRO 605,609 45%
Wyoming O’Mahoney D 65,022 59%

Democrats have now 66 seats, keeping their majority in the Senate, even with the loss of three seats to the Republicans.

House Results:

Total seats Change Seat percentage Vote percentage Popular vote
Democratic Party 267 +5 61% 51% 24,227,821
Republican Party 162 –7 37% 46% 21,490,392
Progressive Party 3 +1 0.6% 1% 477,435
American Labor Party 1 __ 0.2% 0.7% 338,770
Farmer–Labor Party 1 __ 0.2% 0.6% 298,250
Independents 1 +1 0.2% 0.2% 113,497
Communist Party 0 __ 0% 0.2% 95,173
Prohibition Party 0 __ 0% 0.1% 62,504
Socialist Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 19,782
Socialist Labor Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 6,403
Fifteen Dollar Pension Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 2,418
Liberal Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 2,256
Fusion Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 2,014
No Wage Tax Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 864
Workers Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 411
Buono Food Plan Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 375
Peace Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 341
States’ Rights Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 270
Keep America Neutral Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 128
Roosevelt New Deal Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 98
The American Way Party 0 __ 0% <0.1% 65
Others 0 __ 0% <0.1% 5,578

Democrats win 267 seats, a swing of 2.7% from the 1938 election, maintaining their majority in the House.

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’In Full Confidence’ – Roosevelt
By T. F. Reynolds, United Press Staff Writer

Hyde Park, N.Y., Nov. 5 –

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President Roosevelt, alone in a green-curtained election booth for 68 seconds, voted today for the third term and four more years of life for his New Deal.

Seeking to end the two-term tradition that has persisted for a century and a half, Mr. Roosevelt cast his vote in the Hyde Park town hall, polling place for the third Hyde Park voting district.

He became the first President of the United States ever to vote for a third term as he walked into the polling booth at 12:20 p.m. and the green curtain clicked behind him.

Sees 'Vindication’

After spending half an hour at the town hall, the President drove back to Hyde Park House to await America’s verdict on his effort to succeed himself for a third and final term.

He awaited that verdict, he said, "in full confidence of vindication of the principles and policies on which we have fought the campaign.

Relaxed and smiling and apparently relieved that the bitter campaign was over, the President drove to the Town Hall with his wife, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, and his 86-year-old mother, Mrs. Sara Delano Roosevelt.

Roosevelt the Squire

Mr. Roosevelt came to the polling place not as President but simply as Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the squire of Hyde Park House.

“Your name, please?” asked Mrs. Emma Crapser, chairman of the 3rd District election board.

“Franklin D. Roosevelt,” the President replied.

“Sign here, please – your number is 292,” said Mrs. Crapser, and Mr. Roosevelt signed the poll book.

’Let’s Go and Vote’

He was the 292nd person on his district to use the voting machine today; his mother was 293rd and Mrs. Roosevelt was 294th.

Flash guns of cameramen were popping around the bare hall.

After a few minutes of posing for photographs, the President said:

Let’s go and vote.

While his wife and mother watched, the President walked into the little booth. He emerged with a broad grin on his face, to pose again with his wife and mother.

Oops! Mrs. Roosevelt Forgets

As the party was about to leave, Mrs. Roosevelt suddenly discovered that she had become so interested in watching the proceedings she had neglected her own vote.

“Haven’t you voted?” the President asked.

“Not yet” she said, and hurried over to Mrs. Crapser to identify herself, sign the poll book and vote.

After voting, the Roosevelts walked to another booth to register for next year’s election.

“You have a long day ahead of you – the polls are open until 9 o’clock, aren’t they?” Mr. Roosevelt remarked to Mrs. Crapser as he left.

She smiled affirmatively, and he added:

Get me a report as soon as you can.

Photographers again importuned the President for pictures.

“Give us a wave to the crowd,” one asked.

“I only wave to trees with leaves on them,” the President replied with a grin.

At Hyde Park House, the stage was set for another election night watch. The big dining room table was stripped of its linen, and electoral vote tables and popular vote charts were spread across it. In the smoking room which opens off the dining room, teletypes of the press associations had been installed.

Ends Speech With Prayer

Mr. Roosevelt concluded his campaign just before midnight with a nationwide radio speech which he ended with this prayer:

Almighty God, who hast given us this good land for our heritage, we humbly beseech Thee that we may always prove ourselves a people mindful of Thy favor and glad to do Thy will. Bless our land with honorable industry, sound learning, and pure manners. Save us from violence, discord, and confusion; from pride and arrogance and from every evil way. Defend our liberties and fashion into one united people the multitudes brought hither out of man kindreds and tongues.

Endow with the spirit of wisdom those to whom in Thy name we entrust the authority of government. That there may be justice and peace at home, and that, through obedience to Thy law, we may show forth Thy praise among the nations of the earth. In the time of prosperity, fill our hearts with thankfulness, and in the day of trouble, suffer not our trust in Thee to fail. Amen.

Mr. Roosevelt said it was a “very old prayer.” It is from the Episcopal book of common prayer and its authorship is attributed to George Washington.

In his last word to the voters before the polls open the President contrasted the peace of the United States with the war conditions of Europe. Today, he said, Americans vote as free men with no “Storm Troopers” watching how they mark their ballots.

In every political campaign, the question on which we all finally pass judgment through the ballot box is simply this: Whom do I think is the candidate best qualified to act as President, or Governor, or Senator, or Mayor, or Supervisor, or County Commissioner during the next term?

It is that right, the right to determine for themselves who should be their own officers or government, that provides for the people the most powerful safeguard of our democracy. The right top place men in office, at definite, fixed dates for a specific term, is the right which will keep a free people always free.

Last Trip as Candidate

In Poughkeepsie and in five other short speeches to the Hudson Valley “home folks” who have known him since childhood, the President gave every evidence that a third term would be his last.

He repeated time and again – that he was on a sentimental journey retracing campaigns of past years and that he never again would appear in these towns on Election Eve as a candidate.

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VOTERS RUSH TO POLLS
Record Turnout Likely In Nation

WAR ISSUES SHARES MAJOR INTEREST WITH THIRD TERM

Congressional Control Also at Stake; Extremely Close Vote Anticipated

60 Millions Registered
By Lyle C. Wilson, United Press Staff Writer

New York, Nov. 5 –

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Lines of citizens stood before almost every polling placed in Allegheny County today, waiting their turns to cast their ballots. Rain, which fell intermittently, failed to discourage the voters. Even a tiny baby did not keep Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Roberts, shown near the left in the above picture, from doing their duty as citizens. They took their son, Edgar, age 3½ months, with them to the polling place for the 19th District of the Fourth Ward, located in a garage in Parkview St.

The unprecedented issue of a third term went to the people today.

They are choosing between Franklin D. Roosevelt and Wendell L. Willkie for President of the United States.

Stirred by political dispute as it has not been since 1916, the nation has registered 60 million voters and the largest poll in history is expected.

President Roosevelt himself went to the polls in Hyde Park, N.Y., Town Hall and cast his ballot at 12:20 p.m. (EST). He was preceded by a few hours by Mr. Willkie. The Republican candidate cast his vote at a public school polling place in New York City at 9:42 a.m. (EST).

Weather Aids Vote

Most early returns were from normally Republican territory and could not be regarded as significant.

Summer weather throughout the country, with only occasional showers in some sections, helped swell the vote.

“I urge every citizen to vote, irrespective of how he votes,” Mr. Willkie told reporters as he entered his precinct polling place with Mrs. Willkie. His voice was hoarse and she showed the strain off one of the most strenuous campaigns in the country’s history.

The President signed the Hyde Park poll book as No. 292 and became a little impatient when photographers kept popping their flash guns around him.

Sharon, N.H., First

“Let’s go and vote,” Mr. Roosevelt said, moving away with his wife and mother. Mrs. Roosevelt was No. 294 in the balloting and the aged Sarah Delano Roosevelt was No. 293.

Sharon, New Hampshire, was the first town to report its results. It went for Mr. Willkie, 24 to 7.

Republicans are battling not only to win the White House but the House of Representatives. Some political forecasters believe the Presidential election may go one way and the Congressional choice another.

There are 36 United States Senators to be elected, but it is a mathematical certainty – because of Democratic strength in Southern states – the Republicans cannot win the Upper House.

All House Seats Up

The seats of all 435 members of the House were at stake this year. Maine elected her three-member delegation last September so that 432 seats are to be filled today. The representatives from Maine are Republicans.

35 gubernatorial elections were carded but Maine and Louisiana already have made their choices, leaving 33 to be elected today.

The presidential contest promises to be the closest in popular vote since 1916 when Woodrow Wilson defeated Charles Evans Hughes by a plurality of approximately 600,000 votes. But the electoral vote could be lopsided either way despite a close popular vote.

_Roosevelt Favored

Polls and surveys have demonstrated as nearly as they can that the big industrial states of the middle East and lake regions are a battleground where the election will be won or lost.

The final betting odds favored Mr. Roosevelt, evidently because most observers believed he could drop one or more of the big states – even New York with its 47 electoral votes – and still win with his backlog of Solid South support. Mr. Willkie probably mist take all the industrial states to win.

This angriest campaign in recent times shortly after midnight with Mr. Willkie’s final appeal for support, broadcast from coast to coast.

Closes With Prayer

President Roosevelt had just left the air. He had spoken from his Hyde Park, N.Y. home.

From both came solemn promises to safeguard the nation’s peace and pleas for national unity in a world aflame. Both are voting today, part of the vast polling army.

President Roosevelt closed his campaign with a prayer:

Almighty God…bless our land with honorable industry, sound learning and pure manners. Save us from violence, discord and confusion; from pride and arrogance and from every evil way. Defend our liberties…justice and peace at home…obedience to thy law…in time of prosperity, fill our hearts with thankfulness, and in the day of trouble, suffer not our trust in thee to fail. Amen.

Pledges No Fourth Term

He had pledged again that he would not seek a fourth term and in the last hour of the last day before the election, he sat at home with his family and reminded the people that they are at peace, free to live their ordinary lives, to do and say and worship as they please.

Tomorrow of all days, they will be free to choose their own leaders. In our polling places there are no storm troopers or secret police to look over our shoulders as we mark our ballots.

After the ballots are counted, the real rulers of this country will have had their say. After the ballots are counted, the United States still will be united. There can be no arguments about the essential fact that in our desire to remain at peace by defending our democracy, we are one nation and one people.

Willkie’s Last Plea

Mr. Willkie spoke during a midnight to 1 a.m. rally at the Ritz Theater here.

I cannot say anything to you about how well I have led this crusade. But I can say this to you, that no man in history has ever felt a deeper sense of obligation to the cause he has lead than I do at this time.

We believe this cause is the most sacred cause in the world, the preservation of the free life in America. And that free way of life can be preserved only if we become a united people. We must win, we must win this cause. I call upon you and the millions of other Americans to carry this crusade to the point where we can again preserve the liberties of the country.

Willkie Gets First Votes

Mr. Willie was making his last bid for support of the people and his appeal overlapped the first election returns. Representative Joseph W. Martin Jr., Chairman of the Republican National Committee, checked the G.O.P. program for a moment to announce the tabulation of the first little bundle of votes. Sharon, N.H., with polls open at the stroke of midnight had completed and tabulated the canvas in five minutes.

The first returns:
Willkie, 24; Roosevelt 7.

Sharon has gone Republican before:
Hoover 11; Roosevelt 1 in 1932.
Landon 13; Roosevelt 3 in 1936.

But the tiny New England community apparently properly reflected the nation’s determination to cast more votes this year than ever before. Forty years ago, the presidential poll aggregated approximately 14,000,000 votes. Four years ago, nearly 45,500,000 were tabulated.

Both Sides Confident

Through the final hours of election eve, the presidential candidates campaigned, expressing confidence of victory and firing last minute salvos of protest against the misrepresentation of the opposition.

Hitting hard at what they believe to be the weak spot in Roosevelt’s defense, Republican campaigners from coast to coast drummed the third term issue and the Democrats drummed right back. There never was such a hookup of radio facilities for political purposes as in the final three hours. The stage and screen, the arts and sciences contributed spokesmen to both sides. Bing Crosby spoke for the anti-Roosevelt forces in Hollywood. Walter Huston was master of ceremonies of those for a third term.

There were pickups here and in Washington with the hot bands of Count Basie and Benny Goodman beating out a Roosevelt tattoo from Carnegie Hall, New York.

Third Term Is Issue

Third term – third term – third term. That was a Republican refrain. From Washington, Senator James F. Byrnes (D-SC) made the Democratic answer.

He told the 10 p.m. to midnight Democratic radio audience:

Far more fundamental than the custom of no third term is the custom that no man shall be elected President without previous experience in state or national public life. This custom is so deeply embedded on our political institutions that prior to this year it has never been challenged.

Before the solemn moment of his final radio appeal as a presidential candidate, Mr. Willkie sharply complained that his political opposition had “attacked me with a smear campaign designed to make you question my record and my motives.”

Roosevelt Complains

Mr. Roosevelt was abreast of that with equally sharp objection to “misrepresentation” which he said Republicans had undertaken to persuade civil servants that legislation would be put forward to jeopardize their pension position.

*Elect Willkie!" urged veteran liberal Senator Hiram W. Johnson, CIO President John L. Lewis, one-time Democratic presidential nominee Al Smith, heavyweight champion Joe Louis, crooner Crosby and Mary Pickford in the G.O.P. radio program.

“Roosevelt!” begged Secretary of State Hull, columnist Dorothy Thompson, poet Carl Sandburg, movie sitar Joan Bennett.

Some of the political rally debaters spoke but briefly, some were bitter.

Said boxer Louis:

I’m for Mr. Willkie because I think he’s going to be good for the colored people of our country… I believe Mr. Willkie’s a regular fellow and a real fighter. He can take it all right – and he can dish it out.

Lewis Fears War

Said labor leader Lewis:

I assert again that the re-election of President Roosevelt will result in the nation’s involvement in war… To the men and women of labor, and to all Americans who have any confidence in my opinion, I say, let us put our own house in order, let us free America from the menace of internal dictatorship.

Brown-derbied Mr. Smith and Lewis W. Douglas, first New Deal budget director, spoke on behalf of Democrats-for-Willkie. The one-time Governor of New York asserted that continuation of New Deal policies would depress government bonds. The administration, he charged, “is doing its best to destroy” the wealth of “tens of millions of ‘forgotten men’.”

Said Mr. Douglas:

I have been a Democrat all my life. I believed in the Democratic Party because for me it was the party of freedom. I no longer can believe it. I do not believe that the present administration is indispensable. There, there is no reason for us to allow one man to overturn a keystone to American democracy by giving him a third term.

Dewey in Cleveland

District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey of New York, defeated by Mr. Willkie in June for the Republican presidential nomination, said in Cleveland that the Chief Executive is “adopting the very arguments of his opposition” and has been employing arguments which are “positively” Republican.

The Hollywood microphone was switched on to pick up Mr. Crosby’s assertion that he is “against the third term and plenty of other people out here are too.” He named Clark Gable, Jimmy Stewart, Frank and Ralph Morgan, and numerous others as screen stars who thought Mr. Willkie should replace Mr. Roosevelt in the White House.

Representing the world of screen and stage on the Democratic program, in addition is to Miss Bennett, Goodman, and Basie, were tap dancer Bill Robinson, author-critic Alexander Woollcott, actors Walter Huston, Melvyn Douglas, and Douglas Fairbanks Jr. and songstress Gertrude Niesen.

McNary Adds Voice

Senator Charles L. McNary, G.O.P. vice presidential candidate, said from his Salem, Oregon home that the fate of the nation for the next four years rests in the hands of the people, and called upon them to consider the gravity of the situation they face, He urged voters to “manifest your faith tomorrow” by “first getting out the vote.”

In Washington, Democratic vice presidential candidate Henry A. Wallace closed his drive for the farm vote and said that re-election of Mr. Roosevelt was essential for American peace.

He said that the New Deal succeeded in saving the farmer after foreign markets were reduced or shutoff and praised the surplus food administration and initiation of the food stamp plan.

Under-Secretary of State Sumner Welles, in a radio speech in Baltimore, termed Republican attacks upon Mr. Roosevelt’s foreign policies “contemptible and unpatriotic.” He vigorously denied Republican assertions that the administration had entered into secret commitments with foreign governments.

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NEW YORKERS VOTE IN HUGE NUMBERS
New York, Nov. 5 –

New York is choosing between its country squire, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and its adopted son, Wendell L. Willkie, voted in huge numbers today.

Indian Summer weather brought voters to the polls in metropolitan districts at the rate of more than 100 an hour. Rural districts, threatened by cloudy skies, also turned out a big vote.

It was estimated that approximately 40 per cent of the state’s 6,960,000 registered voters had cast their ballots by noon.

In New York City, it was estimated about 1,500,000 of the 3,388,741 registrants had cast their ballots by noon.

No election disturbances had been reported by early afternoon, despite the overwhelming vote in such partisan New York City districts as Harlem, Brooklyn and the Bronx.

STUCK WITH WENDELL WILLKIE, BROTHER LOSES VOTE
La Grange, Ill., Nov. 5 –

Edward Willkie lost a chance to vote for his brother for President today when he notified the election board by long-distance telephone from New York that he was “stuck here with Wendell.”

The candidate’s brother gave up the vice presidency of Libby-McNeil Food Products Co., to accompany the Republican standard bearer on his national campaign.

Mrs. Edward Willkie, casting her first vote for a presidential nominee, gave her brother-in-law a ballot.

“I’d surely like to come back home as the sister-in-law to the President,” she said as she boarded a plane for New York.

Election Returns and Extras

The Pittsburgh Press is geared to give fast election returns, both by radio and extra editions.

Radio stations WJAS and KQV of Pittsburgh and WHJB of Greensburg will broadcast returns directly from the news room of The Press. There will be frequent broadcasting periods from the time the polls close, and after midnight broadcasting will be practically continuous.

Election extras early Wednesday morning will give the latest figures for all contests – and Press editions will continue to bring figures up to the minute throughout the day until the final results are known.

LISTEN TO STATIONS WJAS, KQV and WHJB
WATCH FOR PRESS EXTRAS

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CLAPPER’S COLUMN–
Nation Gleans Good In Vicious Campaign

Basic Essentials of Social Gains Safe Regardless of Today’s Winner

By Raymond Clapper

New York –
Out of this campaign, vicious as it has been in some of its aspects, has come some net good to the country.

This campaign has insured perpetuation of the New Deal social reforms in their basic essentials. Controversy over them may continue bit their retention can no longer be in serious question.

The Republicans had to accept them in principle in order to stand a chance in this election. Mr. Willkie made his pledge to keep them. He made it in his Elwood acceptance speech and the repeated it frequently and finally in his closing Madison Square rally, when he accepted these policies as national policies.

For instance, Mr. Willkie said the policy of providing the farmers with a fair share of the national income was a national policy. He said the right of collective bargaining by labor’s own free choice was not a partisan right but a national right. He said the principle of setting a floor under wages was likewise an established principle. It was a national policy, he said, to set a limit to the hours of labor, and whenever those hours are exceeded, overtime must be paid at time and a half. Social security was a national policy, he said, as were old-age pensions. It is, Mr. Willkie said, a national policy to care for the unemployed and to maintain federal relief, to care for the aged, the sick, the physically handicapped, the blind and others who need help.

Betrayal Unthinkable

On these matters Mr. Willkie has committed himself. Any betrayal of those pledges would be unthinkable. It only remains for those elements in the Republican Party who have opposed these measures to acquiesce in the position which the party, through its presidential candidate, has taken.

It will be suicidal for this ultra-conservative group within the Republican Party to attempt to resist through another four years. They have had a long time in which to argue their case, and since their own party leader has taken the order side they should regard the issue as closed and come back into the game and play ball.

In one other respect a readjustment of position seems to be called for. That relates to the powers that the federal government will need in spurring defense. As defense production comes more and more to stain our facilities, more traffic control from Washington will be necessary. Rationing of raw materials, of plant capacity, and control over prices, may very likely be necessary to an increasing degree.

Back to Harding

Recently when authority was sought that the government might commandeer plant facilities for national defense where voluntary co-operation was withheld, a cry went up, led by Mr. Willkie himself, that this was a bald attempt to Sovietize American industry.

Such an attitude toward necessary defense steps will be harmful to our effort. To get the matter straight, we might go back to Warren G. Harding. He was certainly no Communist, and at the time nobody had ever heard of Fascism and Nazism. Problems could be looked squarely in the face without being confused by alien labels borrowed from Europe.

Mr. Harding, in his inaugural address of March 4, 1921, spoke of what should be done if war again threatened us. He said:

I can vision the ideal republic, where every man and woman is called under the flag for assignment to duty, for whatever service, military or civic, the individual is best fitted; where we may call to universal service every plant, agency or facility, all in the sublime sacrifice for the country and not one penny of war profit shall inure to the benefit of private individual, corporation or combination, but all above the normal shall flow into the defense chest of the nation.

New Unity Seen

Out of such universal service will come a new unity of spirit and purpose, a new confidence and consecration which would make our defense impregnable, our triumph assured.

Prolonged and intense defense effort will require something like that if it is to succeed. It doesn’t parties (sic), recognize their necessities and give their support to the necessary measures.

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We, The Women —
GET FUN OUT OF YOUR VOTE BY KEEPING IT REAL SECRET

By Ruth Millett

Women are frequently accused of not having done much with the vote since they got it.

Well, they’ve had fun with it.

At least, wives have. Some wives without any imagination just took the vote when it was given to women and handed it over to their husbands. Their husbands have had two votes instead of one ever since.

But the rest used the vote for all that it is worth – in the way of personal satisfaction.

There is the wife from a Republican family who married a Democrat. In everything else, her husband is head man, but boy, oh boy, he can’t tell her how to vote. And in election year she doesn’t let him forget it.

He argues and tears his hair, but every four years the little woman, submissive in all other things, calmly cancels her husband’s vote.

But the rest used the vote for all that it is worth – in the way of personal satisfaction.

Then there is the wife who sits on the fence at each election, and makes her husband sell her on his choice. Just when he thinks he has her sold, she says, “You know I’ve been thinking…” and he has to find some new arguments.

That woman’s husband pays more attention to her ideas in election year than in the other three years put together. She knows it and uses the election for all it is worth.

But the wife who, perhaps, gets the most fun out of her vote is the woman who just laughs and says, “Secret ballot” when her husband follows her out of the polls and asks, “Well, how did you vote?”

That woman has found a way to be mysterious, even to a husband.

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By Drew Pearson and Robert S. Allen

Washington –
This election will go down in history as one of the most bitter in the past 80 years. Only the campaigns which re-elected Abraham Lincoln in 1864 and Woodrow Wilson in 1916 can compare with it for intense feeling.

Passions have flared, tempers have been close to the surface. There has also been a more vigorous and sometimes scorching scrutiny of the issues and the candidates than in any other recent election.

In fact, some diplomats who have sent recent years in Europe say that this election is comparable to those in France which saw the rise and fall of the Popular Front government.

Real test of this election, no matter who wins, is going to be whether the electorate can forget the present partisanship and settle down to a reasonable degree of unity,. That, in fact, will be the real test of democracy

The next few months are likely to be a period of political cross-currents and cross-firing. If the American people can rise above it, then democracy will be safe. It will be a severe test.

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MAN DIES AFTER VOTE
Glen Falls, N.Y., Nov. 5 (AP) –

William J. Scales cast his general election ballot at 7 a.m. today. Returning home, he noted the event in his diary, he dropped dead from a heart attack.


WORST CAMPAIGN IN HIS MEMORY, THOMAS SAYS
New York, Nov. 5 (AP) –

Norman Thomas, Socialist presidential candidate, cast his vote today with the observation that “this is the worst campaign in all my political memory and that goes for both old parties.”

America still has a job ahead of her keeping out of war and also keeping fascism out of America.


VOTES FROM STRETCHER
Moundsville, W. Va., Nov. 5 (INS) –

Carried to the voting place on a stretcher, 97-year-old Mrs. Jane Miller today voted the straight Republican ticket.

I want to do the last good I can for a real American – Wendell Willkie.


WEEPS AS HE CASTS VOTE
New York, Nov. 5 (UP) –

Joseph Alazraki showed up at his voting place today, and cried as he cast his ballot. He pointed to his wife’s name on the registration sheet below his own.

She died two hours ago.

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LONDON PRESS SEES U.S. VOTING AS 'IMPRESSIVE DEMONSTRATION’
London, Nov. 5 (UP) –

Britons, officials and private life, awaited eagerly today the results of the presidential election in the United States which was hailed as a heartening manifestation of a great free people voting freely.

The news papers, which normally publish little United States news that has no bearing on the war, devoted as much as half of their first pages to it.

Most newspapers emphasized that Great Britain was assured of continued United States aid whether President Roosevelt or Wendell L. Willkie won, though they showed plainly their preference for the President as one who has shown his course by his official acts.

The conservative Daily Telegraph said editorially that an issue which might prove one of the decisive influences in two hemispheres was to be decided.

It is an issue which will be decided not by force of arms but by the free votes of 50,000,000 citizens of the worlds’ largest democracy. The world has been given an impressive demonstration at a moment when it is badly needed of the efficient and unperturbed functioning in most troubled times of the free institutions of a free people.

The mass-circulation Daily Express said in headlines spread across the entire top of its first page:

Odd on Roosevelt now over two to one: Midnight cable – Election eve shows slight swing for Willkie.

On the Daily Express’ first page was a telephone interview by a girl reporter, Hilde Marchant, with Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia of New York.

“Roosevelt will sweep the country,” La Guardia was quoted.

It is a fight between cowards and the strength of America.

Miss Marchant told La Guardia that the anti-aircraft guns of London were just starting their nightly fire.

La Guardia said:

This election has not affected our sympathy for you one scrap. We think you are terrific.

Editorially, the Daily Express, chief organ of Lord Beaverbrook, minister for aircraft production and member of the inner war cabinet, said:

Fifty million out of a population of 130,000,000 go to a secret ballot. No fear compels them, but the fear that they will lose the right to think for themselves. Although the candidates are in agreement on European issues it is natural, and Americans will understand, that the wish of most Englishmen is to see their good friend now in the saddle back in the White House, breaking a tradition of American by taking a third term as President. Like the Mississippi, English people hope he just keeps rolling along.

The Daily Mail, conservative and mass-circulation like the Daily Express, suggested that Italy’s cautious approach in Greece was motivated by a desire not to arouse the antagonism of American voters.


GREECE FOLLOWS VOTING
Athens, Nov. 5 (AP) –

Although Greece has a nine-day-old war on her hands, news of the United States election campaign has been displayed on newspaper front pages along wirh dispatched from the Albanian frontier.


SAYS AXIS NOT INTERESTED
Madrid, Nov. 5 (AP) –

Editorial comment in the Spanish press on the United States election today was headed by an article in the newspaper ABC, which asserted the Axis countries had lost interest because of similarity of the programs of President Roosevelt and Wendell Willkie.

Arriba, the Falange’s organ, merely stated that victory indications were slightly favorable to President Roosevelt.

In general, little space was devoted to the election, most newspapers instead devoting their columns mainly to European war news and to termination of international control over Tangier.


REDS SEE U.S. CORRUPTION
Moscow, Nov. 5 (UP) –

Pravda, official organ of the Communist Party, in its first lengthy article on the United States elections today, made no comment on the candidacy of President Roosevelt, but described Wendell L. Willkie as "an outstanding businessman, banker and industrialist connected with the house of Morgan.

Pravda said the America electorate were being conducted in “an atmosphere of extreme political corruption.”

It said that votes were being bought and voters terrorized and that “all means of crooked machinations were being employed.”

Norman Thomas was dismissed as follows:

The political influence of the Socialists, as is well known, is negligible.

There was one short paragraph on Earl Browder, Communist presidential candidate, but there was no editorial comment on his candidacy.


U.S. ELECTION HAILED
Buenos Aires, Nov,. 5 (UP) –

Morning newspapers hailed the United States elections today as a manifestation of the Democratic processes.

La Prensa said:

We are witnessing a comforting spectacle. The American people give us a new, grand example of strength and loyalty to our democratic institutions, practiced under the ideals of this land in order to serve as a model for all countries which aspire to a dignified life for free and respectable men.

La Nacion said:

Now, as before, we are in the presence of a powerful nation which maintains the ideal of liberty in the face of a current of ideology in states where liberty has disappeared to be substituted by the subjugation of their peoples.

Interest in the campaign has prevailed here, with a strong pro-Roosevelt sentiment dominating and reaching its height during the last few days when it was reported that Willkie’s strength was growing.

FAVOR F.D.R. RE-ELECTION
Buenos Aires, Nov. 5 (UP) –

Prominent Argentine political and trade union leaders yesterday issued statements favoring re-election of President Roosevelt. They said he was the champion of the Good Neighbor policy in the Western Hemisphere, and the symbol of the democratic forces in the world.


SEE POLICY MAINTAINED
Santiago, Chile, Nov. 5 (UP) –

Conservative political quarters shared the view today that the United States would continue its present policy in South America regardless of the outcome of the election.

Influential economists andf financial quarters, however, believed that a victory for Mr. Roosevelt would mean the expansion of the policy of aiding South American out of the economic depression caused by the European war and the loss of markets. They feared that Willkie’s anti-New Deal stand might result in a retrenchment in the field of foreign activity.

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FIRST RETURNS

Roosevelt Takes Carolina Town, 24 to 0
Henderson, N.C. – Nutbush precinct in Vance County cast its entire 24 votes for President Roosevelt today.

Alabama Town Solid for Roosevelt
Martin Station, Ala. – Martin Station, first Alabama community to report on the presidential

Roosevelt Trails in First Missouri Returns
St. Louis – Incomplete, unofficial returns from 16 of Missouri’s 4,484 precincts gave Roosevelt 307; Willkie 1399. The returns were from rural districts.

Goshen, Mass., Vote: Willkie 141, Roosevelt 11
Goshen, Mass. – Goshen, the first Massachusetts town to report returns, gave Willkie 141 and Roosevelt 11. In 1936, the vote was Landon 115, Roosevelt 10.

All of Town’s Voters Cast GOP Ballots
Waterville, N.H. – All seven of Waterville’s ballots were cast for Wendell Willkie, the town clerk, Mrs. Harriet Austin, reported a few minutes after the polls closed at noon. Two of the town’s nine registrants did not vote. In 1936, the vote was Landon 4, Roosevelt 1.

Roosevelt Piles Up Lead in Georgia
Carrollton, Ga. – Of the first 600 persons to vote in the main Carrollton precinct this morning. 572 cast ballots for President Roosevelt and 28 for Wendell L. Willkie.

First Michigan Town Goes for Willkie
Pointe Aux Barques, Mich. – This hamlet on the tip of the Michigan “thumb” maintained its record today of being the state’s first precinct to report. It gave Roosevelt 2 and Willkie 13.

Willkie Takes Slight Lead in Kansas
Kansas City – Returns from 22 scattered precincts in five counties today gave Wendell L. Willkie a lead over Franklin D. Roosevelt in the presidential race. The count from those precincts gave Willkie 951 and Roosevelt 721.

Massachusetts Town Favors Willkie
Mt. Washington, Mass. – This Berkshire County town today gave Willkie 32, Roosevelt 10. In 1936, the vote was Landon 26, Roosevelt 15.

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N.Y. FOR ROOSEVELT BY 260,000

Closest Presidential Election in Empire State Since 1928

Albany, N.Y., Nov. 6 (UP) –

President Roosevelt has carried his home state by a plurality of 265,150, almost complete returns from yesterday’s election showed today.

With only 73 scattered districts unaccounted for, the President had polled 3,270,197 and his Republican opponent, Wendell L. Willkie, 3,005,047.

The unreported districts were in rural counties where the Republican vote is the heaviest, but a check of the number of registered voters in the \areas made it virtually certain that Willkie would not be able to overcome the lead.

Tabulated votes disclosed the closest presidential election in New York since former President Hoover defeated Alfred E. Smith in 1928. Hoover’s plurality was slightly more than 100,000.

Unexpected Strength

Mr. Roosevelt showed unexpected strength in many Republican strongholds. He was only slightly behind in Schenectady County and captured Erie, home of Republican State Chairman Edwin F. Jaeckle.

Willkie’s upstate vote, which Republican leaders had hoped would go to a 750,000 majority, was well behind the 650,000 obtained by District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey in his unsuccessful bid for governor two years ago.

With Mr. Roosevelt the remainder of the state ticket was virtually assured victory.

Sen. James M. Head, Buffalo Democratic incumbent, had a substantial lead over Rep. Bruce Barton, New York City advertising executive. Barton conceded the election shortly after midnight.


MARTIN HAS LEAD FOR HOUSE SEAT
Boston, Nov. 6 –

Representative Joseph W. Martin Jr., Republican National Committee chairman, seemed assured of retaining his seat in the House, returns from 50 of 111 precincts indicated today. Me. Martin had 38,302 votes against 20,678 for Harold E. Cole, his Democratic opponent.

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STATES PICK GOVERNORS

Nine Democrats and Six Republicans Assured Of Victories

Washington, Nov. 6 (AP) –

Democrats marked up nine victories to six for the Republicans in yesterday’s 33 governorship contests, but neck-and-neck races materialized in 18 others to leave their outcomes in doubt.

The Democratic wins swept two New England Republican governors out of office, but these gains were nullified as Republican piled up commanding leads in Illinois and Nebraska, where the Democrats now are in power.

Shortly before noon today 15 governors were virtually certain of election, while the remaining contests still were in doubt. Following is the lineup:

Governors Elected

Arkansas Homer Adams D
Connecticut Robert Hurley D
Florida Spessard Holland D
Georgia Eugene Talmadge D
Illinois Dwight Green R
Iowa George Wilson R
Nebraska Dwight Griswold R
North Carolina Joseph Broughton D
Ohio John Bricker R
Rhode Island J. Howard McGrath D
South Dakota Harlan Bushfield R
Tennessee Prentice Cooper D
Texas W. Lee O’Daniel D
Vermont William Willis R
West Virginia Matthew Neely D

Democrat Leading

Arizona Sidney Osborn
Idaho Chase Clark
Indiana Henry Schricker
Michigan M. D. Van Wagoner
Missouri Lawrence McDaniel
New Mexico John Miles
New Jersey Charles Edison
North Dakota John Moses
Utah Herbert Maw
Washington Clarence Dill

Republicans Leading

Colorado Ralph Carr
Delaware Walter Bacon
Kansas Payne Ratner
Massachusetts Leverett Saltonstall
Minnesota Harold Stassen
Montana Sam Ford
New Hampshire Robert Blood
Wisconsin Julius Heil
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ROOSEVELT WINS 39 STATES
55% of Vote Favors Third Term

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G.O.P. LOSES SEATS IN HOUSE; PRESIDENT BREAKS THROUGH NEW ENGLAND BULWARKS

BULLETIN
Bismarck, N.D., Nov. 6 –

Wendell Willkie took a slight lead over President Roosevelt in North Dakota late today with only one-third of the precincts reporting. This gave Mr. Willkie the lead in none states, of which only two are certain, however.


New York, Nov. 6 –

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s election for a third term as President became an Electoral College landslide this afternoon.

Latest returns put Wisconsin in Mr. Roosevelt’s column 2 the 40th state to go to the Chief Executive.

Compared with 472 apparent Electoral College votes for the President, Mr. Roosevelt’s popular vote totaled about 55%. Wendell Willkie was ahead in only eight states, with 59 electoral votes.

The incomplete popular vote:

Roosevelt 22,527,302
Willkie 18,842,340

Mr. Willkie appears to have piled up the largest popular vote ever cast for a losing candidate.

Mr. Willkie capitulated at 10:30 a.m. and sent a congratulatory telegram to the President.

I know that we are both gratified that so many American citizens participated in the election. I wish you all personal health and happiness.

In reply, Mr. Roosevelt asked Mr. Willkie to “accept my sincere thanks for your message of congratulation.”

The returns conclusively gave Mr. Roosevelt 25 states with 348 electoral votes. He led in 15 other states with 124 electoral votes. That makes a total of 472 electoral votes.

Mr. Willkie had clinched five states with 28 electoral votes and was ahead in three states with 31 electoral votes. That would give him 59 electoral votes.

The New Deal broke through Republican defenses in New England and in the great industrial states of the Middle East. The Solid South held solid and the Far West went to Mr. Roosevelt although Oregon was fighting ground. The Middle West proved a Willkie stronghold.

The President told his Hyde Park, N.Y., neighbors that they would find him “the same Franklin Roosevelt that you have known for a great many years.” His first public appearance as President-elect was scheduled for this afternoon – the laying of a cornerstone for the Hyde Park post office. This occasion may enable him to give a first hint of the policies of his third administration.

Shut out of the White House, it appears also that the G.O.P. again lost the House of Representatives. On the basis of incomplete returns, the House seems to have remained Democratic with substantial and perhaps increased majorities. There never was a chance that the G.O.P. could contain control of the Senate in yesterday’s election.

Republicans may have gained some gubernatorial posts.

But the unmistakable trend to the Republican Party shown in the 1938 general elections was reversed.

On the basis of incomplete returns, Democrats had a net gain of 10 House seated but a net Republican gain of two seats was indicated in the Senate.

Indications were that Republicans would pick up one governorship, net. Democratic gubernatorial candidates won Republican posts in Connecticut and Rhode Island and were leading in Michigan and Idaho. Republicans won a Democratic governorship in Delaware and were leading in Illinois, Montana and Nebraska.

The Senate shifts were indicated in Nebraska, Ohio and Indiana, where Republicans lead for Democratic seats and in Delaware where a Republican seat evidently was transferred to a Democrat.

There was rejoicing in Great Britain where the election was headlined by newspapers above the war. British editors assumed the victory of their “old and trusted friend.”

Authorized German quarters said that the voting “shows how interested are the United States people in the question of intervention or non-intervention in the present war.” They added that both candidates placed intervention “in the forefront.”

Whatever Roosevelt does toward making effective his promises and statements made throughout the campaign is a question of time and cannot be forecast.

Japan was intensely interested. A Foreign Office spokesman said he hoped United States Far Eastern policies now would be reconsidered.

Italians were pessimistic, fearing Mr. Roosevelt quickly would “whip up war fever” in the United States.

Western Hemisphere neighbors seemed pleased.

No major Senate charges were indicated. On the basis of incomplete returns it will consist of 68 Democrats (a loss of one), 26 Republicans (a gain of one)l one Progressive, one Independent. The closest Senate race was in Wisconsin where Robert M. La Follette, Progressive incumbent, had a small lead over Fred H. Clausen, Republican.

James M. Tunnel, Democrat, defeated Senator John G. Townsend Jr. (R-DE). and Mayor Harold L. Burton of Cleveland, won the Democratic Senate seat vacated by Vic Donahey. Hugh A. Butler, Republican, appears to have defeated Roy L. Cochran, in Nebraska, for the Senate seat now held by Edward R. Burke, Democrat.

Senator Sherman Minton (D-IN) was leading Raymond E. Willis, Republican, by 2,500 votes.

There were pleas for national unity today, for consideration by the victors for the losers.

William Allen White, the Kansas editor, proposed community bonfires in which to burn all the insignia of political dispute and bitterness, the campaign literature of both sides and the campaign buttons.

Mr. Roosevelt, himself, conceded the re-election of Representative Hamilton Fish (R-NY), who represents the presidential Congressional district and whose defeat he sought in a personal campaign among his neighbors. Kenneth L. Simpson, Republican, was elected to the House seat relinquished by Rep. Bruce Barton (R-NY), to run for the Senate. Mr. Barton was defeated by Sen. James M. Mead, a Democrat.

Rep. Vito Marcantonio (ALP-NY) defeated James J. Lanzetta (D), who made a campaign issue of his charge that Mr. Marcantonio followed the Communist Party line. Mr. Marcantonio cast lone ballots against many defense bills.

McNARY AND WALLACE EXCHANGE MESSAGES
Washington, Nov. 6 (UP) –

Henry Wallace, Vice President-elect, received a congratulatory telegram today from his defeated opponent, Senator Charles L. McNary.

Mr. McNary’s telegram said:

Heartfelt congratulations. Wishing you all grace and administration all prosperity.

Mr. Wallace replied:

Just received your gracious wire and want you to know that your fine attitude had been greatly appreciated. I know we shall enjoy working together for the national safety which comes from preparedness and for the defense which comes from a united spirit. That part of the general welfare which springs from the well-being of agriculture will, of course, command our understanding and united support.

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VOTES IN NEW YORK (MY HOME STATE)

County Roosevelt Willkie Other
Albany 77,052 58,912 210
Allegany 5,077 15,611 79
Bronx 418,931 198,293 6,980
Broome 32,092 44,013 179
Cattaraugus 11,924 22,987 144
Cayuga 13,985 21,032 156
Chautauqua 21,524 35,536 256
Chemung 15,203 22,156 140
Chenango 5,241 14,168 43
Clinton 11,378 10,369 53
Columbia 8,591 13,527 44
Cortland 5,147 12,233 31
Delaware 5,968 15,684 48
Dutchess 25,598 32,329 122
Erie 189,779 183,664 992
Essex 5,545 11,868 38
Franklin 9,479 11,446 33
Fulton 9,040 14,896 79
Genesee 6,664 14,503 62
Greene 6,425 10,153 38
Hamilton 840 2,029 4
Herkimer 13,013 17,590 54
Jefferson 14,581 25,584 97
Kings 742,668 394,534 8,365
Lewis 3,466 8,049 17
Livingston 6,397 12,629 58
Madison 6,301 15,262 99
Monroe 120,613 114,383 1,099
Montgomery 15,079 15,546 34
Nassau 73,171 143,672 450
New York 478,153 292,480 7,466
Niagara 33,207 36,729 165
Oneida 49,109 52,362 271
Onondaga 67,481 91,056 485
Ontario 9,110 18,932 120
Orange 27,632 38,913 145
Orleans 4,525 10,958 36
Oswego 13,459 22,688 83
Otsego 7,798 16,771 78
Putnam 4,794 7,164 39
Queens 288,024 323,406 2,524
Rensselaer 32,387 39,648 97
Richmond 38,307 38,911 249
Rockland 14,897 20,040 362
Saratoga 15,037 21,298 98
Schenectady 32,041 34,101 334
Schoharie 4,073 7,316 25
Schuyler 2,211 4,936 24
Seneca 4,203 8,364 31
St. Lawrence 15,569 24,339 82
Steuben 14,651 27,587 127
Suffolk 33,853 63,712 270
Sullivan 9,785 11,877 76
Tioga 4,081 9,618 59
Tompkins 7,118 14,325 250
Ulster 20,403 27,186 107
Warren 7,226 13,657 40
Washington 7,977 15,960 38
Wayne 7,358 19,196 62
Westchester 110,114 182,883 694
Wyoming 4,393 11,323 39
Yates 2,170 7,084 21
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SEES FOREIGN POLICY UPHELD

News-writer Interprets Large Vote for F.D.R. As Approval of Acts

By Lloyd Lehrbas

Washington, Nov. 6 (AP) –

The great tide of votes for President Roosevelt was interpreted today as insuring uninterrupted continuation of an American foreign policy predicated on all aid “short of war” for Britain, and a firm stand against the policies and acts of aggressor nations.

The diplomatic consensus, too was that it would add momentum to the Pan-American program to strengthen the defenses of the Western Hemisphere.

Most observers took it as a foregone conclusion that Cordell Hull, co-author and spokesman of the administration’s international policy, would remain as Secretary of State in the new administration.

Common Front Expected

Since the foreign policies advocated by Wendell Willkie, the Republican candidate, closely paralleled the basic foreign policies of the Roosevelt administration, the expectation also was that – with the election past history – the national ranks would close up again, with Democrats and Republicans presenting a common front ion American relations with the rest of the world.

The European war and its ramifications, particularly those which might touch American interests in the Western Hemisphere, already have created a distinct “coolness” in relations between the United States and the Axis Powers. The attitude adopted by the American government in sympathizing with, and assisting Great Britain, has been resented in both Berlin and Rome.

The United States has exchanged 50 destroyers (urgently needed by Britain) for naval base sites on British possessions in this hemisphere, and daily has been increasing both the manufacture and shipments of goods and war supplies of all kinds for England.

Numerous other political, economic and financial questions involving American relations with Britain, Germany, Italy and nations defeated in Nazi blitzkriegs, complicated the foreign policy picture.

Two Questions Unsettled

Two immediate questions of direct interest to the United States remained unsettled as the votes were counted. They involved American protests against Italian bombing of American-owned oil property in Saudi Arabia, and a bombing in the Sudan in which an American missionary was killed.

With the spread of the war into the eastern Mediterranean the United States must take further measures to insure the protection of Americans in Greece, the Balkans, and other countries in that area, and arrange for their repatriation of possible. Application of Neutrality Act provisions to embattled Greece likewise is pending.

The Axis success in Europe has caused officials of the United States and the other American republics to fear extension of the war to the Western Hemisphere.

To guard against that, the United States has signed a joint defense pact with Canada and likewise has entered into negotiations with Central and South American republics which may lead to similar defensive agreements.

Issue on French Possessions

France’s defeat and the possibility (resulting from German-French negotiations) that the status of French colonies in this hemisphere may be changed, has raised questions which are now under discussion between American and French governments. The American neutrality patrol, established to prevent encroachment on American territorial interests and waters has been providing actual protection pending any developments.

Another question resulting from France’s fall and German-French negotiations now in progress – the future disposition of the French fleet – also has been under close watch by American officials.

The major questions in foreign affairs in the Far East facing President Roosevelt and Secretary Hull spring from developments resulting from Japan’s “new order in Asia” policy.

That policy, incubated in Japan’s invasion of China and extended to French Indo-China after France’s fall, now threatens to be extended southward where American officials consider it would imperil the Philippines, as well as British and Dutch colonies in the East Indies, Malay, India and Australia, whence the United States obtains many strategic raw materials.

In an attempt to stop Japan’s actions, the United States has already imposed an embargo on scrap iron and “moral” embargoes on shipments of war materials and supplied to Japan.

A major question now facing the administration was whether to reinforce the earlier embargoes by prohibiting ex[ports of oil, a vital necessity for the Japanese war machine. A companion topic concerns what, if any, additional financial, economic or other assistance may be given China.

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