Cary Grant’s screen job is now a ‘military secret’
Destination Tokyo set closed to visitors and film must get Navy ‘OK’
Destination Tokyo set closed to visitors and film must get Navy ‘OK’
By Ernie Pyle
Somewhere in Sicily, Italy – (by wireless, delayed)
After being ashore all the first day of our Sicilian invasion, I went back to the ship and stayed aboard almost a week before coming ashore more or less permanently.
It was my hope to do a complete picture of the Navy’s part in such actions as this, and the Navy’s part didn’t end the moment it got the assault troops ashore. In the days that followed, our headquarters vessel patrolled back and forth between the American sectors, kept an eye on the shore in case help was needed, directed the fire of other ships, mothered new convoys by wireless, issued orders and advice throughout the area, and from time to time scurried in swift circles when planes appeared in the sky.
For despite the enemy’s obvious air weakness, he did manage to sneak over a few planes several times a day. The day after D-Day, “General Quarters” was sounded 15 times on our ship. Nobody got any rest, day or night. The sailors worked like Trojans.
Out of the way!
When I try to picture our soldiers and sailors in camps back home now, I always visualize – and no doubt wrongly – a draftee who is going through his training like a man, but still reluctantly and without interest. There isn’t a breath of that left over here. Once you are in action that’s all gone. It goes because now you are working. You are working to stay alive, and not because somebody tells you to work.
You should see our sailors when General Quarters sounds. They don’t get to their stations in the manner of schoolkids going in when the bell rings. They get there by charging over things and knocking things down. I have seen them arrive at gun stations with nothing but their drawers on. I’ve seen officers upset their dinner and be clear out of the wardroom by the time the second “beep!” of the alarm signal sounded.
Whenever we had General Quarters, I always just froze wherever I was for about five minutes, to keep from getting bowled over in the rush.
Too busy to be afraid
And the boys on the guns – you would hardly recognize them. Shooting at planes isn’t a duty for them; it’s an outlet. I doubt if they ever watched a ball game or gave a girl the eye with the complete intentness with which they follow a distant plane in the sky. A gun has one blessing in addition to the one of protecting yoi: it occupies you.
Having no vital part to play in moments of extreme danger is one of the worst curses of being a correspondent. Busy people aren’t often afraid.
Bombs fell in our vicinity for several days. The raiders went mostly for the beaches, where the barges were unloading. The number of narrow escapes we had must have been very discouraging to the Axis fliers. The Axis radio said our beaches were littered with the wrecked and burned-out hulks of our landing ships. Actually, in our 14-mile area they hit very few. But we had our tense moments.
Alone – desperate, helpless
The enemy fliers were brave, I’ll have to say that. They would come right in through the thickest hail of fire I have ever seen thrown into the sky.
Dozens of our ships had escapes that were uncanny. Once two bombs hit the water just a good stone’s throw from the stern of our vessel. And late one afternoon a lone Italian – I really believe he must have gone mad, for what he did was desperate and senseless – dove right down into the midst of a hundred ships. He had no bombs, and was only strafing. He went over our fantail so low you could almost have caught him in a net. Everything in the vicinity cut loose on him at once. It was like throwing a bucketful of rice against a spot on the wall. He was simply smothered with steel.
Yet somehow, he pulled out and up to about 1,000 feet, charged at our barrage balloons like an insane bee, and shot two of them down afire. And then at last the bullets we had put into him took effect. He burst all aflame and fell in wide circles until he hit the water. No parachute ever came out.
Enemy quits cold
Air raids at night were far more nerve-racking than the daylight ones. For you can’t see the enemy, you only hear him. You do see the ghostly flares and the sickening bomb flashes, and hear the heavy thunder of it roll across the water.
With us it was always a game of hide and seek. Sometimes we would sit on the water as quiet as a mouse. No one would speak loudly. The engines were silent. You could hear the small waves lapping at our sides. At other times we would start so suddenly that the ship would almost jump out from under us. We would run at full speed and make terrifically sharp turns and churn up an alarmingly bright wake in the phosphorescent water. But we always escaped.
And then after the third day, all of a sudden there was never an enemy plane again. They quit us cold. If they still fought, they fought elsewhere than our front.
Army doesn’t like it, Murphy disavows it, but ‘now you see it, now you don’t’
By Helen Kirkpatrick
U.S. State Department (August 2, 1943)
740.00119 European War 1939/1556: Telegram
Bern, August 2, 1943 — 4 p.m. [Received 6:20 p.m.] 4659.
138, July 31, from Tittmann. My 131, July 26.
For the moment it would appear Badoglio Government less preoccupied by prospect unconditional surrender to Allies than by possibility public disorder and uncertainty as to intentions of Germans. I am told of indications that predominant emotion Italian official circles today is fear and that this possibility should not be lost sight of when evaluating situation.
Vatican officials are following closely all Allied pronouncements with regard to surrender of Italy and are on lookout for anything that might imply “terms”. Thus far however efforts to assess in this light, various public statements made by Allies would seem to have resulted only in their confusion. In some quarters suggestion has been reiterated that an early landing on peninsula by Allied forces would be desirable from point of view Italian security and that we would meet with little opposition if we attempted to do so. [Tittmann.]
740.0011 European War 1939/30493: Telegram
London, August 2, 1943 — 9 p.m. [Received 10:12 p.m.] 5032.
Thank you for your good message 4636, August 1, 1 p.m., which came in late last night. I could not reach Eden until 3 o’clock this afternoon London time as he was out of town. I found that since I sent you my message 4862, July 26, 6 p.m., he had communicated with the Russians., He explained to me that he felt obligated to do this because of the British-Russian treaty. I know that he had the support of the War Cabinet in this although I was not informed.
I will let him state the action taken in the aide-mémoire which I asked him to prepare for me and which, together with copies of the documents given to the Russians, follow below:
Aide-mémoire. A day or two ago the Soviet Chargé d’Affaires was given a summary of the draft instrument of Surrender, which is still before the United States Government (annex 1). It was made clear that this instrument was purely provisional, pending agreement with the U.S. Government, and that its terms might have to be modified. A note has now been received from Monsieur Sobolev saying that the Soviet Government consider the provisions contained in this summary to correspond fully to the existing conditions, and have no objection to them.
Since communicating the above to the Soviet Government, the President has suggested a shorter formula for a purely military arrangement to be used by General Eisenhower in case of necessity. The Prime Minister has indicated to the President that in case of emergency General Eisenhower may be authorized to present this document. But he has asked the President to consider further the draft instrument already communicated to Washington, so that, if agreement can be reached on it before the emergency arises, General Eisenhower may be authorized to present this fuller document in reply to any Italian request.
The Soviet Government are now being given a summary of the shorter document (annex 2) with an explanation of the circumstances in which it was drafted, and in which it may be used. End aide-mémoire.
Begin annex 1 to aide-mémoire. Summary of draft instrument of surrender for Italy.
The governing consideration is the prosecution of the war against Germany. Our aim is thus to secure the maximum strategic advantage and to avoid unnecessary commitments involving any dissipation of the war effort.
Provision is made for:
Begin annex 2 to aide-mémoire.
Immediate cessation of all hostile activity by the Italian armed forces.
Italy will use its best endeavors to deny to the Germans facilities that might be used against the United Nations.
All prisoners or internees of the United Nations to be immediately turned over to the Allied Commander-in-Chief, and none of these may from the beginning of these negotiations be evacuated to Germany.
Immediate transfer of the Italian fleet and Italian aircraft to such points as may be designated by the Allied Commander-in-Chief, with details of disarmament to be prescribed by him.
Agreement that Italian merchant shipping may be requisitioned by the Allied Commander-in-Chief to meet the needs of his military-naval program.
Immediate surrender of Corsica and of all Italian territory both islands and mainland to the Allies, for such use as operational bases and other purpose as the Allies may see fit.
Immediate guarantee of the free use by the Allies of all airfields and naval ports in Italian territory, regardless of the rate of evacuation of the Italian territory by the German forces. These ports and fields to be protected by Italian armed forces until this function is taken over by the Allies.
Immediate withdrawal to Italy of Italian armed forces from all participation in the current war from whatever areas in which they may be now engaged.
Guarantee by the Italian Government that if necessary it will employ all available armed forces to insure prompt and exact compliance with all the provisions of this armistice.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces reserves to himself the right to take any measure which in his opinion may be necessary for the protection of the interests of the Allied forces or for the prosecution of the war, and the Italian Government binds itself to take such administrative or other action as the Commander-in-Chief may require and in particular the Commander-in-Chief will establish Allied military government over such parts of Italian territory as he may deem necessary in the military interests of the Allied Nations.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces will have a full right to impose measures of disarmament, demobilization and demilitarization. End annex 2 to aide-mémoire.
In so far as the communications that have passed between the President and the Prime Minister in regard to terms with Italy are concerned, I have been fully informed, but there has been no discussion with me as regards the Russians except as I reported to you following my talk with Eden on July 26. The first information given to the Russians was on July 30.
Eden thought that the statement you forwarded was excellent but of course recognized that it was too late to make it a joint statement. He suggested that we make it our own statement and add at the end of it that “we understand that the British Government has kept you informed of our joint ideas on the terms of surrender to be exacted from Italy,” and perhaps add that “we were in accord with this procedure.”
I helped draft the above statement, except the last sentence. It is my opinion that your statement with the added paragraph would be worth doing. You have asked the Russians in the last paragraph of the statement for suggestions and agreed to reply to specific inquiries. The British have done neither; they have limited both their messages to simply informing them. Their method calls for no reciprocal action beyond giving them information in similar circumstances. Ours puts the Russians under an obligation to seek suggestions from us and to reply to specific inquiries by us if we choose to make them.
Völkischer Beobachter (August 3, 1943)
dnb. Aus dem Führer-Hauptquartier, 2. August –
Das Oberkommando der Wehrmacht gibt bekannt:
Der eigene Angriff an der Miusfront brachte weiteren Geländegewinn. Die beherrschende Höhenstellung wurde erreicht und im Sturm genommen. Die Sowjets erlitten hier besonders hohe Verluste an Menschen und Kriegsmaterial. Südöstlich von Orel sind die mit starkem Panzer- und Luftwaffeneinsatz geführten Angriffe der Bolschewisten unter Vernichtung von zahlreichen Panzern blutig abgewiesen worden. Die Luftwaffe griff an den Schwerpunkten der Kämpfe mit Kampf- und Nahkampffliegergeschwadern ein. Sechs Transportzüge und ein Panzerzug wurden getroffen. An der Kandalakschafront stellten deutsche Grenadiere im wegelosen Urwald zwei feindliche Bataillone und zersprengten sie.
An der sizilianischen Front setzten die Briten und Nordamerikaner besonders im Mittelabschnitt der Front ihre Angriffe fort. Alle Durchbruchsversuche scheiterten jedoch an der hartnäckigen Abwehr unserer Truppen unter schweren Verlusten für den Feind.
Ein überraschend geführter Gegenangriff brachte wichtiges Gebirgsgelände wieder in unsere Hand.
Schnelle deutsche Kampfflugzeuge versenkten im Hafen von Palermo einen Munitionsdampfer von 5000 BRT., acht weitere große Transporter wurden schwer getroffen. Im Hafengebiet selbst entstanden Brände.
Deutsche Jäger und Flakartillerie der Luftwaffe vernichteten gestern über der italienischen Küste sechs, Bordflak der Kriegsmarine ein feindliches Flugzeug.
Am 1. August versuchte ein amerikanisches Bombergeschwader von etwa 125 viermotorigen Flugzeugen, einen geschlossenen Angriff auf das rumänische Ölgebiet durchzuführen. Deutsch-rumänische Luftverteidigungskräfte traten ihnen rechtzeitig entgegen und zersprengten den feindlichen Verband so wirkungsvoll, daß nur 60 bis 70 Flugzeuge zu einem zersplitterten Angriff kamen. Von diesen wurden 36 viermotorige Bomber abgeschossen. Viele weitere erhielten so schwere Beschädigungen, daß auch von ihnen ein Teil auf dem langen Rückflug über See mit Sicherheit verlorengegangen ist. Die verursachten Schäden in den Angriffszielen sind nicht bedeutend.
Über dem Reichsgebiet fanden keine Kampfhandlungen statt.
Über dem Atlantik wurde ein feindliches Großflugboot im Luftkampf weit auf See zum Absturz gebracht.
Von unserer Stockholmer Schriftleitung
The Pittsburgh Press (August 3, 1943)
Reported Roosevelt plan includes arrest of war criminals
By William D. Dickinson, United Press staff writer
Berne, Switzerland (UP) –
Scores of persons were reported injured today when Italian police armed with sabers sought to break up demonstrations in Genoa against the government of Marshal Pietro Badoglio.
Port workers at Genoa gathered at the Piazza De Ferrari, reports said, and demonstrated against the failure of Badoglio to seek peace with the Allies.
At first mounted police intervened, but when the people refused to go back to work, Carabinieri with sabers joined in the effort to suppress the demonstrations.
London, England –
Radio Rome belligerently criticized a purported seven-point armistice proposal by President Roosevelt today despite reports of new popular demands for peace, including a left-wing manifesto calling for an army revolt.
The so-called armistice plan, which Radio Rome attacked as showing that the Allies had no intention to “give peace to our country,” was alleged to be based on “latest reports” and provided:
The German DNB News Agency attributed the peace plan reports to the newspaper Popolo di Roma.
The German news agencies, which have recently quoted the Italian newspaper Tribuna when citing Italian opinion in their propaganda broadcasts, said that the Italians were “disciplined” and strongly behind the government of Premier Marshal Pietro Badoglio.
The Tribuna was quoted as saying:
Italy knows that the war is continuing and that the people must hold out until [they are] victorious if they are to have a life worth living.
Information from Italy reaching the Swiss frontier was sketchy, but it appeared that disorders were increasing in the industrial north. Milan was emptied of much of its civilian population in fear of Allied air raids.
The Vichy radio said that 20 persons were sentenced to more than a year each in prison for breaking the curfew regulations. A London radio report said that Italian artillery at Larissa in Greece had refuted German attempts to force them to disarm and were surrounded by Nazi troops.
Reports reaching Madrid from France said Italian government leaders met at the Quirinal Palace to discuss making peace, but were unable to reach a decision.
Other Spanish reports asserted that Italian workers were deserting war factories in droves.
Radio Brazzaville quoted European reports that 18 German divisions have taken up “defensive positions” in northern Italy and Madrid heard that the Germans were increasing their control in the Fiume and Trieste areas.
Underground reports from France said the Germans are sending reinforcements into Corsica by sea and air to take over defense of the island in the event of Italian capitulation.
A Rome dispatch to the Zürich newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung said the food situation was serious in the Italian capital because of transport troubles despite a large exodus of residents.
Military courts start
Reports from the Italian frontier said military courts had begun functioning and numerous executions of accused “foreign agents” had been carried out. One convicted was said to be Rino Parenti Como, a Fascist dignitary.
Riotous joy at Mussolini’s resignation had been replaced by deep anxiety because of failure of the new government to take steps toward ending the war, the frontier dispatches said.
The Italian underground station Radio Leghorn was heard broadcasting that crews of Italian warships and merchant vessels had been placed in a state of alert to prevent the Germans from seizing or harming them.
The British War Cabinet met last night to discuss the Italian situation, but the authoritative Press Association said the ministers primarily discussed the Sicilian offensive.
Peace demonstrations throughout Italy took on renewed vigor as word spread of the Allies’ intention to bomb the country into surrender as a result of the government’s failure to capitulate.
King Victor Emmanuel III, Crown Prince Umberto, Count Dino Grandi and Adm. Paolo Thaon di Revel (new president of the Senate) were said to have favored an immediate peace, at a conference of leaders in Rome yesterday, while Premier Pietro Badoglio and Foreign Minister Raffaele Guariglia held out for an attempt to negotiate for favorable terms.
The London Daily Mail quoted Italian frontier reports that the latest peace plan advocated in Rome would turn over southern Italy to the Allies, the Po Valley in the north to Germany and create a buffer Italian state in the center, but even the most optimistic Italians were said to realize that the Allies would not agree.
A group of Italian senators was reported to have met Sunday in Rome and informed Badoglio that they believed Italy should withdraw from the war immediately, even if it meant unconditional surrender.
Yanks push toward Mt. Etna; Canadians threaten enemy flank at Catania; 8th Army smashes ahead
By Virgil Pinkley, United Press staff writer
Allied HQ, North Africa –
Allied troops captured three more important towns in a general advance on a 65-mile front in northeastern Sicily today and fought fiercely over rough mountain country for the knockout punch against the wavering Axis armies.
Americans of the 7th Army, who conquered the entire western half of the island in a lightning campaign, captured the important Axis defense point at Troina after a 12-mile drive from Nicosia and pushed eastward toward Bronte at the base of Mt. Etna.
Canadian forces to the south of the Americans drove forward seven miles and took Regalbuto from the German 15th Panzer Division and provided a good wedge for the Allied attack on the Axis flank at the western end of the Catania plain.
8th Army attacks
The British 8th Army, attacking the length of the southern front, captured Centuripe, six miles southeast of Regalbuto.
The Americans also took Capizzi and Cerami while racing up the winding road to Troina, and a headquarters announcement said they had cleaned up at least 12 small villages.
Units of Lt. Gen. George S. Patton’s 7th Army that captured San Stefano on the northern coast were moving eastward along the coastal road and were reported within 60 airline miles of Messina, nearing San Stefano.
The Canadians and the British had driven a large bridgehead into the Catenanuova sector, just southwest of Regalbuto and north of Ramacca, from which they could start rolling down the Catania plain.
The American advance threatened to tear apart the Axis defense around Mt. Etna. From Bronte, they would be able to branch out north and south on the road encircling Etna.
U.S. troops had reached a densely-wooded district. Resistance by the Germans and Italians had stiffened and most of the Allied gains were made by infantry, because of the rugged terrain and the fact that the retreating Axis had blown up toads and bridges.
Feel out Axis strength
The British 8th Army carried out a series of artillery engagements and were advancing from Ramacca, feeling out the enemy’s strength.
Capture of Troina and Centuripe was first announced by Prime Minister Churchill in the House of Commons. Military observers in London said that the Allied offensive threatened to crush all Axis resistance in Sicily within a few days.
Allied air fleets increased their direct support of land troops with attacks on harbors, communications and front positions.
The British were engaged in patrol activity and artillery shelling in the Catania area along the east coast of the island.
Allied troops were fighting their way uphill at many points and were sweltering from the hot sun and intense humidity. The battle was one of foot-slogging and slugging at close quarters after artillery had laid down barrages.
British Wellingtons took over the offensive against Italy’s big supply and reinforcement port of Naples, blasting its docks, railway yards, harbor installations with hundreds and blockbusters, while medium and fighter bombers strafed and bombed troop concentrations and supply roads.
Blow up dumps
A dispatch from an advanced Allied airdrome said the Germans were blowing up the remaining forward dumps in the Mt. Etna region, an indication that they do not hold out much hope of prolonged resistance. An unusually large number of Axis ship was also reported gathering in Messina Strait, but there was no immediate sign of whether these were to be used for an escape attempt or to reinforce the faltering armies in their last stand.
Relays of Kittyhawk bombers with escorts of Spitfires attacked the ships in the narrow strait and it was believed likely that Allied motor torpedo boats would also join in the raids.
Blast enemy harbors
The Allied air forces concentrated on enemy harbors in Sicily through which supplies have been reaching the Axis, road and rail transport in the northeastern part of the island and against enemy trenches and gun emplacements.
U.S. medium bombers blasting at Adrano, 18 miles northwest of Catania while other planes dumped explosives on Randazzo, 27 miles northwest of Catania. Both are important Axis communication centers. U.S. fighter-bombers made low-level attacks on the docks at Milazzo, Messina and Reggio Calabria, the latter across the Messina Strait in Italy.
In all yesterday’s air operations, six enemy planes were destroyed and seven Allied planes were missing.
No wedding, but they’ll remain good friends, Miss Polk says
Far East ‘economist’ interpreted ‘portraits of changing world’ in series of rhythmic rituals
Figure bears out warning of production loss
Property damage estimated at $5 million
New York (UP) –
Harlem was quiet today as authorities investigated yesterday’s riot which resulted in five deaths, more than 500 injured, 500 arrests and an estimated $5 million in property damage.
Police stood guard over the thickly-populated Negro district to prevent recurrence of fighting, looting, arson and robbery.
Backing up police were 8,000 New York State Guardsmen who assembled at their armories last night in readiness to enter the debris-littered area should the disturbances break out again.
Volunteers on duty
A volunteer civilian patrol of 1,500 residents, mostly Negroes, helped keep the peace. City patrol units, military police and air-raid wardens were on guard.
A 10:30 p.m. curfew imposed by Mayor F. H. La Guardia kept virtually all of the district’s 300,000 Negro residents indoors all night.
And for the first time in months, lights in Harlem shone brightly as the Army permitted suspension of dimout regulations to help police keep order.
Only one incident has reported during the night. Five Negro youths were arrested for throwing a stone through a store window.
Police reported that seven Negroes were injured last night and early today in scattered fistfights and stabbings.
Police Commissioner Lewis J. Valentine said police were investigating reports that hoodlums from southern cities had been sent into Harlem to cause trouble. Police have not been able to confirm these reports, he said.
Offensive at Jap base in final phase
By Brydon Taves, United Press staff writer
Americans forced to rout German soldiers individually
By Richard Mowrer
Northern Sicily, Italy –
The Americans late yesterday took another hill. It was a hard one to take, a long ridge nearly 1,000 feet high that drops sharply to the sea on Sicily’s northern coast.
Our fellows call it Lucky Ridge because in the seesaw fighting of control of the heights preceding our final attack yesterday, our artillery observation post up there had to clear out five different times and never lost a man in the process.
Yesterday’s attack, though, was different. The Americans were up against Germans and had to climb a steep hill under fire. Fortunately, our artillery gave them good support and now we hold Lucky Ridge, which had given the Germans a wonderful view of our territory along the coast and which now gives us a view of still more hills that we are going to have to take.
Ferret out Nazis
This is mountain warfare. The fighting consists of sniping with every arm from pistols to big 155s. The Germans have to be ferreted out almost individually from caves and rocks.
The only good road is the coast road from Palermo to Messina and, as the Germans retreat, they blow up bridges, cause rockslides to block the road, or blow up the road where it winds along the steep cliff’s edge to the sea.
This morning, we climbed Lucky Ridge. It is stony and steep, even if you follow a rocky mile trail part of the way up, but at least we did not have to crawl to the top under enemy fire the way our fellows did yesterday.
Find trouser leg
Getting on toward the town, we came upon somebody’s trouser leg with somebody’s leg was that of an American drab uniform. It had been cut off, presumably in order to bandage a leg wound.
A few yards farther up, we saw what had happened. An American rifle was leaning against an olive tree. Another one was on the ground at the foot of a steep sort of bluff about eight feet high. At the foot of the bluff, we found the remnants of an American first-aid kit. Near the remnants of the first-aid kit was an empty container for American hand grenades.
We climbed up to the top of a six-foot high bluff and saw the rest of the story – a dead German. Apparently, the hand grenade had got him.
Come upon grave
Farther up Lucky Ridge, we found a shallow hole, dug under an olive tree. In the hole were a bloodstained German-Italian dictionary and a Mauser rifle and ammunition but no German. But then, five yards off, we found his grave: A mound of earth with stones on top of it, and a piece of shingle marked “German soldier.”
Nearby, in the shade, some of our fellows were getting ready to move forward. Then we saw the German prisoner. He was stripped to the waist and bareheaded. He had been burying the German dead of Lucky Ridge. He said he was 18 and had been in the German Army since the age of 16, in the Polish, French and Romanian campaigns and at Stalingrad.
This was worse than Stalingrad, he said.
Marines in Pacific listen with scorn to Japs’ efforts to discourage them
By Gilbert Cant