America at war! (1941--) -- Part 2

Roosevelt-Giraud conversation, 11:05 a.m.

United States France
President Roosevelt General Giraud

The conversation appears to have been given over in large measure to a discussion of two memoranda concerned with the political relationship between Giraud and the Anglo-American authorities and with the rearmament of French military forces in North Africa.

Roosevelt-de Gaulle conversation, 11:40 a.m.

United States United Kingdom France
President Roosevelt Mr. Macmillan General de Gaulle
Mr. Hopkins
Mr. Murphy
Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt

Roosevelt sought unsuccessfully to persuade de Gaulle to accept the text of a draft joint statement or communiqué regarding his meetings with Giraud.

Roosevelt-Churchill meeting with de Gaulle and Giraud, about noon

United States United Kingdom France
President Roosevelt Prime Minister Churchill General de Gaulle
Mr. Hopkins Mr. Macmillan General Giraud
Mr. Murphy
Lieutenant Colonel Roosevelt

The principal subject of discussion was the joint statement to the press to be made by de Gaulle and Giraud. It appears to have been agreed that the two French leaders would prepare such a statement after Roosevelt and Churchill had left Casablanca.

Roosevelt-Churchill press conference, 12:15 p.m.

A parenthetical statement on the source text reads as follows:

This Press Conference was held jointly by the President and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain, on the lawn at the rear of the President’s villa, which adjoined the Anfa Hotel, and which was part of the general term “Anfa Camp,” comprising the Hotel surrounded by 15 villas, which in turn was surrounded by barbed wire and troops.

The newspapermen – about 50 in number – sat cross-legged in front of the President and the Prime Minister, who were seated in chairs.

United States United Kingdom
President Roosevelt Prime Minister Churchill

Transcript of Press Conference

Casablanca, January 24, 1943.


The President: This meeting goes back to the successful landing operations last November, which as you all know were initiated as far back as a year ago, and put into definite shape shortly after the Prime Minister’s visit to Washington in June.

After the operations of last November, it became perfectly clear, with the successes, that the time had come for another review of the situation, and a planning for the next steps, especially steps to be taken in 1943. That is why we came here, and our respective staffs came with us, to discuss the practical steps to be taken by the United Nations for prosecution of the war. We have been here about a week.

I might add, too, that we began talking about this after the first of December, and at that time we invited Mr. (Josef) Stalin to join us at a convenient meeting place. Mr. Stalin very greatly desired to come, but he was precluded from leaving Russia because he was conducting the new Russian offensive against the Germans along the whole line. We must remember that he is Commander in Chief, and that he is responsible for the very wonderful detailed plan which has been brought to such a successful conclusion since the beginning of the offensive.

In spite of the fact that Mr. Stalin was unable to come, the results of the staff meeting have been communicated to him, so that we will continue to keep in very close touch with each other.

I think it can be said that the studies during the past week or ten days are unprecedented in history. Both the Prime Minister and I think back to the days of the First World War when conferences between the French and British and ourselves very rarely lasted more than a few hours or a couple of days. The Chiefs of Staffs have been in intimate touch; they have lived in the same hotel. Each man has become a definite personal friend of his opposite number on the other side.

Furthermore, these conferences have discussed, I think for the first time in history, the whole global picture. It isn’t just one front, just one ocean, or one continent – it is literally the whole world; and that is why the Prime Minister and I feel that the conference is unique in the fact that it has this global aspect.

The Combined Staffs, in these conferences and studies during the past week or ten days, have proceeded on the principle of pooling all of the resources of the United Nations. And I think the second point is that they have re-affirmed the determination to maintain the initiative against the Axis Powers in every part of the world.

These plans covering the initiative and maintenance of the initiative during 1943 cover certain things, such as united operations conducted in different areas of the world. Secondly, the sending of all possible material aid to the Russian offensive, with the double object of cutting down the manpower of Germany and her satellites, and continuing the very great attrition of German munitions and materials of all kinds which are being destroyed every day in such large quantities by the Russian armies.

And, at the same time, the Staffs have agreed on giving all possible aid to the heroic struggle of China – remembering that China is in her sixth year of the war – with the objective, not only in China but in the whole of the Pacific area, of ending any Japanese attempt in the future to dominate the Far East.

Another point, I think we have all had it in our hearts and heads before, but I don’t think that it has ever been put down on paper by the Prime Minister and myself, and that is the determination that peace can come to the world only by the total elimination of German and Japanese warpower.

Some of you Britishers know the old story – we had a General called U. S. Grant. His name was Ulysses Simpson Grant, but in my, and the Prime Minister’s, early days he was called “Unconditional Surrender” Grant. The elimination of German, Japanese and Italian warpower means the unconditional surrender by Germany, Italy, and Japan. That means a reasonable assurance of future world peace. It does not mean the destruction of the population of Germany, Italy, or Japan, but it does mean the destruction of the philosophies in those countries which are based on conquest and the subjugation of other people.

(this meeting is called the “unconditional surrender” meeting)

While we have not had a meeting of all of the United Nations, I think that there is no question – in fact we both have great confidence that the same purposes and objectives are in the minds of all of the other United Nations – Russia, China, and all the others.

And so the actual meeting – the main work of the Committee – has been ended, except for a certain amount of resultant paper work – has come to a successful conclusion. I call it a meeting of the minds in regard to all military operations, and, thereafter, that the war is going to proceed against the Axis Powers according to schedule, with every indication that 1943 is going to be an even better year for the United Nations than 1942.

The Prime Minister: I agree with everything that the President has said, and I think it was a very happy decision to bring you gentlemen here to Casablanca to this agreeable spot, Anfa Camp, which has been the center – the scene – of much the most important and successful war conference which I have ever attended or witnessed. Nothing like it has occurred in my experience, which is a long while – the continuous work, hours and hours every day from morning until often after midnight, carried on by the Staffs of both sides, by all the principal officers of the two nations who are engaged in the direction of the war.

This work has proceeded with an intensity, and thoroughness, and comprehensiveness, the like of which I have never seen, and I firmly believe that you will find that results will come from this as this year unfolds. You will find results will come from it which will give our troops, and soldiers, and fliers the best possible chance to gather new victories from the enemy. Fortune turned a more or less somber face upon us at the close of last year, and we meet here today at this place – we have been meeting here – which in a way is the active center of the war direction. We wish indeed it was possible to have Premier Stalin and the Generalissimo (Chiang Kai-shek), and others of the United Nations here, but geography is a stubborn thing; and the difficulties and the pre-occupations of the men engaged in fighting the enemy in other countries are also very clear obstacles to their free movement and therefore we have had to meet here together.

Well, one thing I should like to say, and that is – I think I can say it with full confidence – nothing that may occur in this war will ever come between me and the President. He and I are in this as friends and partners, and we work together. We know that our easy, free conversation is one of the sinews of war – of the Allied Powers. It makes many things easy that would otherwise be difficult, and solutions can be reached when an agreement has stopped, which would otherwise be impossible, even with the utmost goodwill, of the vast war machinery which the English-speaking people are operating.

I think that the Press here have had rather a hard, provoking time, because it isn’t possible to have everything organized at once when you throw yourselves on a shore. Some of our earliest and brightest hopes have not yet been fulfilled, and you gentlemen have no doubt felt baffled in the work you want to do, and therefore a trial is imposed upon you. I beg you to rise to the level of that; namely, not to allow the minor annoyances of censoring, et cetera, make you exaggerate these details. To keep your sense of proportion is a patriotic duty.

Tremendous events have happened. This enterprise which the President has organized – and he knows I have been his active Lieutenant since the start – has altered the whole strategic aspect of the war. It has forced the Germans to fight under the very greatest difficulties. And I think that it gives us in a very marked way the initiative. Once we have got that precious treasure into our hands, we must labor hard to keep it. Hitler said you never could tell what would happen, because he wasn’t dealing with competent military experts but with military idiots and drunkards. He said he didn’t know where he was, and that was a preliminary forecast of the explanation which he will no doubt offer to the Nazi Party for the complete manner in which he has been hoodwinked, fooled, and out-maneuvered by the great enterprise which was launched on these shores.

We are still in full battle, and heavy action will impend. Our forces grow. The Eighth Army has taken Tripoli, and we are following (Field Marshal Erwin) Rommel – the fugitive of Egypt and Libya – now wishing, no doubt, to represent himself as the deliverer of Tunisia. The Eighth Army have followed him a long way – 15 hundred miles – from Alamein where I last saw them, now to Tripoli. And Rommel is still flying before them. But I can give you this assurance – everywhere that Mary went the lamb is sure to go.

I hope you gentlemen will find this talk to be of assistance to you in your work, and will be able to build up a good and encouraging story to our people all over the world. Give them the picture of unity, thoroughness, and integrity of the political chiefs. Give them that picture, and make them feel that there is some reason behind all that is being done. Even when there is some delay there is design and purposes, and as the President has said, the unconquerable will to pursue this quality, until we have procured the unconditional surrender of the criminal forces who plunged the world into storm and ruin.

The President: I think – the Prime Minister having spoken of the Eighth Army – that you should know that we have had a long talk with General (Harold R. L. G.) Alexander, Admiral (Sir Andrew) Cunningham, (Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur) Tedder. (Lieutenant) General (Dwight D.) Eisenhower has been here, as has (Major) General (Carl) Spaatz – (Lieutenant) General (Mark W.) Clark too. We have had a pretty good picture of the whole south shore of the Mediterranean, at first hand.

This afternoon there will be given to each of you a communiqué from the Prime Minister and myself, which is really the formal document stating the history of this conference, and the names of all the people who have taken part; nothing very much in it in addition to what we have talked about as background for you all.

You will want to know about the presence of General (Henri Honoré) Giraud, and General (Charles) de Gaulle. I think that all that should be said at this time is that the Prime Minister and I felt that here we were in French North Africa and it would be an opportune time for those two gentlemen to meet together – one Frenchman with another Frenchman. They have been in conference now for a couple of days, and we have emphasized one common purpose, and that is the liberation of France. They are at work on that. They are in accord on that, and we hope very much that as a result of getting to know each other better under these modern, new conditions, we will have French armies, and French navies, and French airmen who will take part with us in the ultimate liberation of France itself.

I haven’t got anything else that relates to the United Staffs conference, but – it is purely personal – but I might as well give it to you as background. I have had the opportunity, during these days, of visiting a very large number of American troops – went up the line the other day and saw combat teams and the bulk of several divisions. I talked with the officers, and with the men. I lunched with them in the field, and it was a darn good lunch. We had to move the band, because it was a very windy day, from leeward to windward, so we could hear the music.

From these reviews we went over to a fort – I don’t know whether you can use the name or not – that is up to (Brigadier) General (Robert A.) McClure. Actually, it was at the mouth of Port Lyautey where the very heavy fighting occurred and where a large number of Americans and Frenchmen were killed. Their bodies, most of them, lie in a joint cemetery – French and American. I placed a wreath where the American graves are, and another wreath where the French graves are.

I saw the equipment of these troops that are ready to go into action at any time; and I wish the people back home could see it, because those troops are equipped with the most modern weapons that we can turn out. They are adequately equipped in every way. And I found them not only in excellent health and high spirits, but also a very great efficiency on the part of officers and men, all the way from top to bottom. I am sure they are eager to fight again, and I think they will.

I’d like to say just a word about the bravery and the fine spirit of the French whom we fought – many of whom were killed. They fought with very heavy losses, as you know, but the moment the peace came and fighting stopped, the French Army and Navy, and the French and Moroccan civil population have given to us Americans wholehearted assistance in carrying out the common objective that brings us to these parts – to improve the conditions of living in these parts, which you know better than I do have been seriously hurt by the fact that during the last two years so much of the output, especially the food output of French North Africa, has been sent to the support of the German Army. That time is ended, and we are going to do all we can for the population of these parts, to keep them going until they can bring in their own harvests during this coming summer.

Also, I had one very delightful party. I gave a dinner party for the Sultan of Morocco (Sidi Mohammed) and his son. We got on extremely well. He is greatly interested in the welfare of his people, and he and the Moroccan population are giving to us the same kind of support that the French population is.

So, I just want to repeat that on this trip I saw with my own eyes the actual conditions of our men who are in this part of North Africa. I think their families back home will be glad to know that we are doing all we can, not only in full support of them, but in keeping up the splendid morale with which they are working at the present time. I want to say to their families, through you people, that I am mighty proud of them.

This is not like a Press Conference in Washington. We have 200 to 250 that crowd into one rather small room, and it is almost impossible there to meet everyone personally. You are an elite group, and because it is not too big a group, the Prime Minister and I want to meet all of you.

One thing, before we stop talking – on the release date of this thing – sometimes I also am under orders. I have got to let General McClure decide the release date. There are certain reasons why it can’t be for a few days, but as I understand it, one of your problems is the bottleneck at Gibraltar. I think you have enough background to write your stories and put them on the cables, and General McClure will decide what the actual release date will be. I told him that it should be just as soon as he possibly could.

The Communiqué

Casablanca, 24 January 1943.

The President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Great Britain have been in conference near Casablanca since January 14. They were accompanied by the Combined Chiefs of Staff of the two countries, namely, for the United States:

  • General George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army
  • Admiral E. J. King, Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Navy
  • Lieut. General H. H. Arnold, Commanding U.S. Army Air Forces

and for Great Britain:

  • Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound, First Sea Lord,
  • General Sir Alan Brooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff,
  • Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, Chief of the Air Staff.

These were assisted by:

  • Lieut. General B. B. Somervell, Commanding General, Services of Supply, U.S. Army,
  • Field Marshal Sir John Dill, Head of the British Joint Staff Mission in Washington,
  • Vice Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, Chief of Combined Operations,
  • Lieut. General Sir Hastings Ismay, Chief Staff Officer to the Minister of Defence,

together with a number of Staff Officers from both countries.

They have received visits from Mr. Murphy and Mr. Macmillan; from General Eisenhower, the Commander-in-Chief Allied Expeditionary Force in North Africa; from Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham, Naval Commander Allied Expeditionary Force in North Africa; from General Spaatz, Air Commander Allied Expeditionary Force in North Africa; from General Clark, U.S. Army and from Middle East Headquarters, from General Sir Harold Alexander, Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder and Lieut-General F. M. Andrews, U.S. Army.

The President was accompanied by Mr. Harry Hopkins and was joined by Mr. Averell Harriman. With the Prime Minister was Lord Leathers, the British Minister of War Transport.

For ten days the Combined Staffs have been in constant session meeting two or three times a day, and recording progress at intervals to the President and the Prime Minister. The entire field of the war was surveyed theatre by theatre throughout the world and all resources were marshalled for the more intense prosecution of the war by sea, land and air. Nothing like this prolonged discussion between two Allies has ever taken place before. Complete agreement was reached between the leaders of the two countries and their respective Staffs upon the war plans and enterprises to be undertaken during the campaign of 1943 against Germany, Italy and Japan with a view to drawing the utmost advantage from the markedly favourable turn of events at the close of 1942.

Premier Stalin was cordially invited to meet the President and the Prime Minister, in which case the meeting would have been held very much farther to the East. He was, however, unable to leave Russia at this time on account of the great offensive which he himself, as Commander-in-Chief is directing.

The President and the Prime Minister realized to the full the enormous weight of the war which Russia is successfully bearing along her whole land front, and their prime object has been to draw as much of the weight as possible off the Russian armies by engaging the enemy as heavily as possible at the best selected points.

Premier Stalin has been fully informed of the military proposals.

The President and the Prime Minister have been in communication with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. They have apprised him of the measures which they are undertaking to assist him in China’s magnificent and unrelaxing struggle for the common cause.

The occasion of the meeting between the President and the Prime Minister made it opportune to invite General Giraud to confer with the Combined Chiefs of Staff and to arrange for a meeting between him and General de Gaulle. The two Generals have been in close consultation.

The President and the Prime Minister and the Combined Staffs having completed their plans for the offensive campaigns of 1943, have now separated in order to put them into active and concerted execution.

24. 1. 43

La Stampa (January 24, 1943)

Le truppe dell’Asse si concentrano in Tunisia dopo avere sgombrato la città di Tripoli

Quattro piroscafi nemici affondati da nostri aerosiluranti e sommergibili

Il Quartiere Generale delle Forze Armate ha comunicato ieri il seguente Bollettino N. 973:

Combattimenti tra le opposte unità motocorazzate sono proseguiti nella giornata di ieri a sud di Tripoli: l’aviazione dell’Asse è intervenuta ripetutamente in appoggio alle azioni terrestri.

Questa notte, dopo i duri combattimenti dei giorni precedenti Tripoli è stata sgombrata dalle truppe dell’Asse, che si dirigo no verso occidente.

In Tunisia le truppe italiane e germaniche hanno ampliato vantaggi conseguiti nei giorni precedenti. Un velivolo americano è stato abbattuto dalle artiglierie contraeree di una nostra divisione.

Nella sera del 22 nostri reparti da bombardamento hanno agito sul porto di Bona, centrandone le installazioni e provocando incendi ed esplosioni.

Successivamente, una formazione di aerosiluranti raggiungeva la baia di Bona, ad onta delle avverse condizioni atmosferiche, e, individuati tre piroscafi, li centrava con siluri, affondandone sicuramente due e danneggiandone gravemente un terzo.

Altro mercantile veniva colpito all’imboccatura del porto. Tutti i nostri velivoli facevano ritorno alla base.

Nostri sommergibili hanno affondato nel Mediterraneo due unità mercantili nemiche.

Aerei nemici hanno bombardato Ispica in provincia di Ragusa, Pachino (Siracusa) e Noto. Tre morti e un ferito tra la popolazione civile.

Völkischer Beobachter (January 24, 1943)

Botschafter Kurusu über die letzten Verhandlungen in Washington
Die USA. wollten Japan aus dem Dreierpakt drängen

dnb. Mailand, 23. Jänner –
In einem interessanten Interview mit dem Tokioter Vertreter des Popolo d’Italia kommt der japanische Botschafter Kurusu auf seine Sondermission in Washington zu sprechen, die in letzter Stunde den Frieden im Pazifik retten sollte.

„Von der Serie meiner Begegnungen mit Roosevelt und Hüll,“ so erklärte Kurusu:

…sind mir die erste und die letzte Begegnung unauslöschlich im Gedächtnis geblieben. Die erste war am 17. November 1941, die letzten diplomatischen Besprechungen waren am 26. November mit Hüll und am 27. November mit Roosevelt. Sie waren dramatisch oder vielmehr tragisch. Während der Begegnung am 26. November überreichte uns Hüll die „unmögliche Note,“ mit der er Admiral Nomura wie mich überraschte. Die USA. wollten – das war nunmehr bewiesen – das Schicksal der Verhandlungen mit dieser Note besiegeln. Nomura und ich sahen Hüll am 7. Dezember zum letztenmal, als wir ihm unsere Note überbrachten. Aber das war keine diplomatische Begegnung mehr.

Auf die Frage, welches die Einstellung der japanischen Bevollmächtigten gegenüber der USA.-Forderung vom 26. November hinsichtlich der Lossagung Japans vom Dreimächtepakt war, und ob diese unter den übrigen’ unannehmbaren Vorschlägen von zweitrangiger Bedeutung für die Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten war, antwortete Kurusu wie folgt:

Die Einstellung Washingtons zum Dreimächtepakt war in der Tat eigenartig. Von den uns gestellten Forderungen stand an Bedeutung gerade jene an erster Stelle, die die Aufkündigung des Dreimächtepaktes enthielt. Als die Regierung der Vereinigten Staaten sah, daß wir in diesem Punkt absolutunnachgiebig waren, gab sie zu verstehen, daß sie geneigt wäre, eine gemäßigtere Form anzunehmen als jene, uns zu verpflichten, den Pakt als toten Buchstaben anzusehen, falls die japanisch-us.-amerikanischen Verhandlungen zu einem guten Abschluß gebracht würden. Auch dieser Kompromißvorschlag stieß auf unsere entschiedene Ablehnung.

Wie kommt es nur, so fragten wir Hull, daß ausgerechnet die Vereinigten Staaten, die immer die unverletzbare Fleiligkeit der internationalen Verpflichtungen predigten, uns jetzt absolut dazu verleiten möchten, einer solchen nicht nachzukommen. Ist das nicht seltsam?

Überdies ist der Pakt selbst, so unterstrich Kurusu, rein friedlicher und defensiver Natur, wovon sich jeder überzeugen kann, falls er sich die Mühe nimmt, den Text genau zu studieren und die Reden zu prüfen, die Ribbentrop und Ciano bei seiner Unterzeichnung hielten.

Allein die Tatsache, daß die USA. so sehr darauf bedacht waren, uns aus dem Pakt austreten zu lassen, bewies uns klar, daß die Vereinigten Staaten sich aktiv, wenn auch heimlich, auf die Teilnahme am Krieg vorbereiteten, mit anderen Worten, die Vereinigten Staaten versuchten, sich eine zeitweilige Stabilität im Pazifik zu sichern, um den Krieg im Atlantik um so bequemer führen zu können. Die USA.-Pläne wurden so enthüllt und in ihr wahres Licht gerückt. Alle Informationen der ausländischen Nachrichtenbüros, die von einem angeblich möglichen Eingehen auf die USA.-Forderungen hinsichtlich des Dreierpaktes wissen wollten, waren und sind offenkundig grundlos und absurd.

Roosevelt und Hüll hatten, erklärt Kurusu weiter, drei fixe Ideen:

  1. Auflösung des Dreierpaktes,
  2. die Zurückziehung unserer Truppen aus China und
  3. die Verstärkung der Politik der offenen Tür in Ostasien, trotz der Tatsache, daß eine solche Politik in anderen Gegenden völlig unanwendbar bleiben würde.

Brooklyn Eagle (January 24, 1943)

Eighth Army streams through Tripoli

British chase Rommel as U.S., French, halt Nazis in Tunisia

Cairo, Egypt (UP) – (Jan. 23)
The victorious Imperial Eighth Army swept through Tripoli tonight, completing the destruction of Benito Mussolini’s dreams of empire, and on toward the Tunisian frontier and the expected final battle against the Axis in Africa. All day long, dusty, battle-scarred veterans of the 1,500-mile trans-African pursuit of Marshal Erwin Rommel’s Afrika Korps streamed into the queen city of the once-great Italian Empire.

But there was no relaxation of the 30-mile-a-day pace which Gen. Harold Alexander’s forces had set all the way across Africa from their breakthrough and takeoff at Alamein.

Even before the first main troop contingents had rolled into Tripoli, advance scouting forces were driving on relentlessly to the west.

Nazis bolt for Tunisia

The Tunisian frontier lies only 100 air miles west of Tripoli and the remnants of Rommel’s once-proud army were seeking desperately to get across the border and obtain at least temporary shelter 100 miles deeper in Tunisia behind the French-built Mareth Line of fortifications.

The straggling Axis troops were under constant harassment from U.S. and British planes which rained bombs along the road known as the “Hundred Miles of Hell” and dove low over transport columns to rake them with murderous machine-gun fire.

A U.S. air communiqué reported heavy damage inflicted to the fleeing Axis army with many fires started in convoys to the west of Tripoli and one particularly large explosion, possibly caused hv detonation of an ammunition train.

Navy shells Axis post

The Axis, driven buck to air bases in Tunisia, offered virtually no challenge to the Allied rule of the skies.

Along the African coast west of Tripoli, British light naval forces added to the punishment being inflicted on the Afrika Korps.

They blasted at Zuara, a small harbor about 65 miles west of Tripoli, which remains the only port east of Gabes in Tunisia, which the Axis can employ for even small coastal shipping. The British ships suffered neither damage nor casualties.

Both fighter and bomber planes also attacked Zuara, causing great damage to small ships attempting to scurry out of the harbor.

Other squadrons raced ahead to Ben Gardane, just over the Tunisian frontier, where Rommel was reported to have located his advanced field headquarters, and blasted the newly-established German airdrome there.

With their range steadily increasing through the use of advanced airfields in Tripolitania, Allied planes dropped bombs rom Sicily to the Tunisian shores.

Allied intruder planes took the air over Sicily during the night, inflicting heavy damage on railroad targets and store warehouses, while long-range fighters carried out daylight attacks on Axis shipping along the Tunisian coast.

Two columns enter city

The entry into Tripoli of advance Imperial elements started at 5 a m. today with the British coastal column moving in through Castel Verde, the big Axis air base site, and the southern column through Azizia.

The troops found the city itself little damaged. However, the Germans carried out extensive demolition of the dock and storage facilities.

The Germans fought a strong rearguard action to delay the British entry as long as possible and afford additional time for the escape of their troops into Tunisia.

British engineers were expected to lose no time in starting the rehabilitation of Tripoli port facilities.

After you, Duce

By the United Press

Berlin today let Rome take the Axis honors in announcing the fall of Tripoli.

Despite the fact that Marshal Erwin Rommel is in command of the joint German-Italian forces in North Africa, the first Axis admission of the fall of the city came from Rome.

German news agencies circulated the report of the capitulation under a Rome dateline and the initial version of the day’s Nazi High Command communiqué did not even mention the loss.

Several hours later, a “corrected” version of the communiqué was circulated by radio which included the news of Tripoli.

Allied HQ, North Africa (UP) – (Jan. 23)
U.S. and French troops, fighting side by side, stopped a German drive today along the mountain ranges that line the Ousseltia Valley southwest of Pont du Fahs, while elsewhere in Tunisia, Allied planes blasted Axis airdromes, supply lines and communications.

The Allied forces were reported to have bent back both prongs of German tank and infantry attack. A British and French spearhead halted the northern German thrust along the Kebir River Valley and drove the enemy back four miles. Fighting was last reported in progress six miles north of Rebaa.

There were indications that the Germans had abandoned the northern drive and were concentrating toward Ousseltia. This attack, too, stalled in the mobile battle with the Americans and French.

‘Chutists rounded up

German parachutists dropped behind the Allied lines were rounded up quickly with the aid of French gendarmes and Arabs, an Allied spokesman said.

Positions changed quickly in what was described as a “fluid battle.” Allied bombers and fighters bombed and strafed German communications at the northern end of the Ousseltia Valley in an effort to halt reinforcements. Warhawk fighters flown by Americans and members of the French Lafayette Escadrille attacked vehicles and machine-gun posts, while Douglas A-20s scored direct hits on German tanks 17 miles northeast of Ousseltia.

Raid Tunis airdrome

Between 15 and 20 enemy machine-gun emplacements were destroyed.

U.S. planes destroyed nine Axis aircraft and damaged five in yesterday’s operations. Allied losses were placed at five planes.

U.S. heavy and medium bombers made three strong attacks on the El Aouina Airdrome at Tunis within three and a half hours, causing heavy damage to planes on the ground and to airport installations. Flying Fortresses, Mitchells and Martians, escorted by Lightning Fighters, set fire to buildings and parked planes.

Fifteen Messerschmitts challenged the raiders. Three were shot down and four damaged. One U.S. medium bomber crashed in flames.

French troops were reported holding a height southwest of Pont du Fahs.

The Méharist Camel Corps, cutting across the Libyan desert from southern Tunisia, was reported by the French to have captured the oases of Seheuet and El Barka, near Gat, taking more than 200 prisoners.

The Royal Navy announced that a British submarine operating in the Tyrrhenian Sea off Italy had reported sinking two Axis merchant ships and an anti-submarine schooner. A trawler was also hit and driven ashore.

Yanks ended Jewish indignities in Africa

Boro private writes of joy with which Jews met Americans
By Claude Porter

Allies hold vital talks; major decisions near

Free French believe U.S. has ace in hole to pacify de Gaulle
By Joe Alex Morris, United Press foreign editor

London, England – (Jan. 23)
Transatlantic negotiations between Britain and the United States tonight were expected to result in imminent announcement of important decisions.

These negotiations have been at a most active stage through the usual diplomatic channels [four words censored], by transatlantic telephone and more direct means.

The results of the negotiations are believe to be ready for announcement almost Immediately [13 words censored].

The inclusion in cables transmitted from London of notations of censorship of specific numbers of words is a most infrequent practice.

The negotiations have not been limited to British and American representatives, but include both Fighting French representatives and spokesmen for the North African French.

Far-reaching effects

A major task of the conferences was said to be the straightening out of North African political and military problems [four words censored].

The negotiations are expected to [One paragraph censored] …have far-reaching effects generally.

Most observers agreed that the North African problems must be cleaned up as a prelude to development of broad Allied strategical plans.

Some Fighting French sources believe the Americans hold a card up their sleeve which they may play very soon in an effort not only to pacify Gen. Charles de Gaulle but to obtain fullest cooperation from other French elements.

Lebrun’s name mentioned

In this connection, the name of Albert Lebrun, last President of the French Republic, has again been mentioned as possible head of a French regime which would satisfy most French. The whereabouts of Lebrun are unknown, but some quarters insist the possibility should not be ruled out that he might turn up in North Africa any day.

Well-informed quarters believed that once North Africa is settled, the Allies will concentrate on the greatest possible aid to Russia, presumably by coordinating Western operations with those on the Eastern Front.

Flying Fortresses join 24-hour attacks on Nazis in Europe

London, England (UP) – (Jan. 23)
U.S. Flying Fortresses today joined the Allied 24-hours-a-day attack on the Nazi-held European continent, carrying out a daylight smash at the Nazi submarine bases of Brest and Lorient.

Five of the big Boeing bombers were lost in the attack, a joint U.S.-British communiqué reported, but “excellent results were obtained.”

The Flying Fortress attack came after Allied planes had been pounding objectives in Europe hour after hour through the day and night.

In the course of the attacks, fighter squadrons carried out supporting operations – sweeps of Nazi bases and strongpoints.

Off on night raid

Watchers at a southeast coast town heard RAF planes crossing the Channel just after dusk. A few moments later, heavy explosions were heard in the direction of the French coast.

Radio stations at Paris and in Luxembourg led the air, possibly indicating the presence of British planes.

Not long before the RAF planes took off on their night mission, fast, deadly American-built Mustangs of the Army Cooperation Command streaked over northern France in a daylight raid, attacking German transport.

The Mustangs, North American planes known in the United States as P-51s, strafed from low-level and “considerably dislocated German transport,” the Air Ministry announced.

They attacked 27 railroad locomotives, inflicted many casualties on a company of German troops, and strafed a dredger and five barges, one of which was set afire.

Tell the world about it with a star of honor

Eagle to supply silver emblems showing someone you love is in service

He’s called, she joins, goes home in uniform, finds him – rejected!

Flynn affirms his honesty as hearing concludes

La Guardia on stand refuses to testify – cites bitter enmity

144 of every 1,000 Yanks have worked with motors

MacArthur’s men poised to widen drive on Japs

Papuan battleground cleared of enemy in final clashes

Want to bomb Berlin? Here is your chance

Flying Fortresses will carry the names of neighborhoods buying $350,000 in bonds

Sky pilots talk battle: Heroes pray – and fire!

Veteran chaplains of major engagements saw no hysteria, even among wounded
By William Juengst

U.S. State Department (January 24, 1943)

Roosevelt-Churchill dinner, 8 p.m. (Marrakech)

United States United Kingdom
President Roosevelt Prime Minister Churchill
Mr. Hopkins Sir Charles Wilson
Mr. Harriman Commander Thompson
Rear Admiral McIntire Mr. Martin
Captain McCrea Mr. Rowan
Colonel Beasley Captain Churchill
Vice Consul Pendar
Sergeant Hopkins

The conversation ranged over a number of topics including Morocco, the Arab problem, the de Gaulle-Giraud controversy, and the rebuilding of France.

Roosevelt-Churchill meeting, about midnight (Marrakech)

United States United Kingdom
President Roosevelt Prime Minister Churchill
Mr. Hopkins Mr. Martin
Mr. Harriman Mr. Rowan

The meeting was given over to the final revision of the joint messages from Roosevelt and Churchill to Stalin and Chiang.