Terms of WLB accepted; operation to resume tomorrow
Three-party non-salaried boards will help regional directors
Wounds in this one send him back to home for rest
The situation is well in hand on Guadalcanal as U.S. forces – occupying only a small section of the mountainous island – hold their own and even carry the fight to the enemy. Yesterday the Navy announced that Army troops east of Henderson Field had driven the Japs back several miles. An enemy attack was repulsed east of the field. U.S. troops are also holding Tulagi, Tanambogo and Gavutu Islands.
San Francisco, California –
For the first time in the history of the San Francisco Stock Exchange, girls are now being used for marking up quotations.
Territory’s resources are significant in world short of supplies
Washington (UP) – (Nov. 7)
French Africa, which U.S. forces entered tonight, comprises the biggest part of the great northwest shoulder of Africa which thrusts out into the Atlantic.
The National Geographic Society pointed out:
The vast territory of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and French West Africa has an area of more than 2,800,000 square miles – or almost that of the continental United States.
The total population of more than 30 million represents a considerable reservoir of manpower. During World War I, the well-trained and picturesquely-dressed native troops of North and West Africa proved extremely valuable to the motherland both for labor and in battle. In supplies, too, French Africa contributed generously to the Allied war effort, with such essentials as wheat, wool and leather.
Today, France’s overseas resources of farm and pasture are still significant in a warring world short of many of the basic human requirements of food and clothing. French North Africa particularly, with its somewhat limited but intensely cultivated agricultural and grazing regions, is a heavy producer of grains, vegetables, and many fruits. Its hides, wool and cotton are valuable for boots, blankets and uniforms, as well as for the manufacture of depleted civilian supplies. Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia all have mineral resources, increasingly developed, including phosphates, iron, coal, lead, zinc and petroleum.
French West Africa, stretching from the north-central portion of the continent to the Atlantic, is less productive than the North African regions, partly because of its wide stretches of rocky desert. Yet its more fertile areas provide such important supplies as rice, corn, millet, vegetable oils, cotton and gum.
Has vast coastline
Algeria, together with a tiny strip of Morocco, occupies a West Mediterranean coastline of well over a thousand miles, extending from a point opposite southeast Spain to a position just south of Italian Sardinia. Tunisia, with its once powerful naval and air base of Bizerte, overlooks the narrows of the Mediterranean across from Sardinia and Sicily.
On the Atlantic side, the French West African port of Dakar is not only the closest African base to the Americas, but it overlooks the sea lanes along which travel many of Great Britain’s economic and military necessities.
Casablanca, Morocco, is another French station on the Atlantic. An excellent artificially-made port, situated within a few hundred miles of Gibraltar, this city lies on normally busy sea and air routes to Western Europe and the Mediterranean.
Regime of pro-Axis chief expected to fall
Washington (UP) – (Nov. 7)
Some diplomatic observers tonight believed the American invasion of French North Africa foreshadows the end of the Axis-dominated regime of Pierre Laval, Vichy Chief of Government and the No. 1 French advocate of collaboration with Germany.
There was some belief in informed quarters that the aged French Chief of State, Marshal Philippe Pétain, knew that ultimately the United Nations would have to move into the French African colonies.
Pétain, since the fall of France, has been much less receptive toward collaboration with Germany than has Laval, the ranking pro-Nazi of the French government.
Laval has been primarily responsible to the German occupants of France for forced cooperation of his war-weary people with their conquerors. This policy of cooperation obviously covered the vital French colonies in Africa and if they are taken by the Allies, Laval will undoubtedly suffer in some means at the hands of his German collaborationists, though it might be only loss of positions which has been forecast for some time.
Army spokesman in London calls attack start of real U.S. war in European Theater
By Edward W. Beattie, United Press staff writer
London, England –
U.S. troops descended on the coasts of North and West French Africa today in a nutcracker operation designed to drive the Axis from Africa, regain control of the Mediterranean and open the way for an attack northward to the European coast.
The operation was of vast scope, involving U.S. land, air and naval forces, British naval and air forces and a small group of British infantry.
Initial announcements did not specify the landing points of U.S. forces, but Vichy reports that a huge Allied battle squadron had been observed steaming east of Oran, on the central Algerian coast, indicated that Algeria, Tunisia – immediately at the rear of the Axis positions in Libya – Morocco and Senegal may be involved.
‘The real American war’
A U.S. Army spokesman asserted that:
This is the start of the real American war in the European Theater of Operations.
He said that:
The action far overshadows any American action in this hemisphere previously and will be carried out with the utmost vigor.
This marks the turning point from the training point to actual fighting.
The spokesman said that the action, timed to coincide with the defeat of Marshal Erwin Rommel in Egypt, was designed to drive the Axis completely out of Africa. Asked if it would be called a “pincer move,” he said:
A pincer is only two parts – this is in many parts.
French reaction awaited
There was no immediate word as to the reaction of the French forces in the African colonies.
However, it was not doubted that resistance would be encountered. The French African governors and commanders have been engaged in almost constant consultation and preparation for such a move for more than a month and they are in a position to dispose powerful forces.
The chief French concentrations are believed to be at Dakar, the strategic Senegalese port on the West African port, at Casablanca on the northwest Moroccan coast, at Oran and Algiers in Algeria and at Bizerte in Tunisia.
Have 10,000 men
It is believed that France has about 100,000 men, many of them native troops and not too well-equipped, in Africa. Their Air Force has been estimated at 500 planes but this may be an overestimate. The French are known to have few tanks and probably not too ample supplies of munitions. For nearly two years, they have been largely dependent upon skimpy supplies of oil and gasoline from the United States.
A major factor was expected to be the action of the French Fleet which is not divided in two fairly equal parts between the Metropolitan French base of Toulon and various African points.
The largest French African naval concentration is at Dakar which has the large (but damaged) 35,000-ton battleship Richelieu, believed to be in position to be fired as a fixed fortification.
Has three cruisers
In addition, there are three cruisers known to be at Dakar (the Gloire, Montcalm and Georges Leygues), three destroyers (Le Fantasque, Le Malin and Le Terrible), about 12 submarines, the supply ship Jules Verne, three minesweepers, 10 corvettes and some light units.
At Casablanca, the French are believed to have another cruiser and about three destroyers. It is believed the French have other light cruiser and destroyer forces at bases on the Mediterranean coast of Africa.
Vichy attitude unknown
What attitude the Vichy government would assume in the face of a gigantic and all-out Allied offensive to take over French Africa was not known. Informed sources frankly said that the era of “sweetness and light” with regard to U.S. relations with Vichy was over and added the suggestion that Vichy did not count too much in the present operation.
Greater interest was directed to the question of what forces the Axis might be able to hurl into the struggle and how quickly they could be assembled.
Aid by Rommel doubted
With Rommel teetering on the verge of a knockout at the Egyptian-Libyan frontier, it was not believed that he was in a position to spare many troops for the Western Mediterranean.
The Germans had been reported rushing four new divisions to Africa via the Athens-Crete-Libya air route early this week, but it was doubted that so large a movement could have been completed yet.
The effect of the Allied invasion upon the Russian front was still uncertain. Russian sources have insisted that at least 30 or 40 divisions must be pulled out of the Eastern Front to affect the Red Army’s operations favorably and it was not known whether Adolf Hitler would divert troops in that quantity to Africa.
Axis radio jittery
However, the Axis radio recently displayed an extreme case of jitters over the possibility that the Allies would take over North Africa and use it as a base to strike at Italy, generally agreed to be the weak spot in the Axis structure.
Allied military strategists admitted that the African front was not the classic second front desired by Russia but said that it was not only the best that could be provided at the moment but promised the biggest immediate returns and the greatest potential drain on German strength.
There were reports from Switzerland of air alerts along the bomber route to Northern Italy and it seemed likely that the RAF might be carrying out another attack on such targets as Genoa, similar to the powerful blows struck at this are coincident with the launching of Lt. Gen. Bernard L. Montgomery’s offensive in Egypt.
Seek support of French
Every effort was being made to obtain the support of the French, both the French military and the French populace, but there was no overoptimism about the prospects of no French resistance. By leaflets dropped from places and by constantly reiterated broadcasts, the French were being told in the words of President Roosevelt and Lt. Gen. Dwight Eisenhower, the U.S. Commander-in-Chief, that the operation was the initial step to the liberation of France.
Should the Germans attempt to rush support to Africa by pulling out their occupation troops in the occupied area of France, it was suggested they would leave the coast open to assault by Allied troops operating across the English Channel.
Nazi move doubted
However, it was regarded as doubtful that the Germans would risk moving troops out of occupied France because of the rising hostility of French workers toward their effort to draft them for labor in German war factories. Vichy also, it was noted, has apparently felt it the better part of valor not to attempt to use outright force in fear of inspiring an active uprising among the French populace.
There was no certainty here that actual landing operations were being made at Dakar which is generally regarded as the strongest French base in Africa. It was noted that if the northeast and north coasts of Africa fall to the Allies, Dakar will be cut off and forced to succumb in time without a costly frontal assault.
It was agreed generally here that the landings in Africa are only the initial step in a carefully-integrated offensive plan designed to confront the Axis with increasingly difficult strategic problems.
New York – (Nov. 7)
First word of the American landing in French Africa to be carried by the Axis radio was a brief flash by the Nazi Transocean News Agency shortly before 11 p.m. which merely quoted the announcement from Washington.
After making this announcement, the Berlin radio switched into a lengthy description of the strength of German fortifications along the occupied western coast of Europe from France to the tip of Norway, obviously attempting to reassure its home audience as to the extent of measures taken to prevent an Allied invasion of Europe.
The fortifications are particularly strong at seaports, and heavy German Navy and Army batteries guard every foot of coastline in France, Norway and Denmark, the Berlin radio said.
It asserted that enormous new fortifications were erected recently along the Danish coast.
Allied plea broadcast to people in Europe
Washington – (Nov. 7)
Text of a joint British-American declaration broadcast to the people of Metropolitan France, asking them to remain on the alert, but not to start an uprising in France itself at this time:
Here is a spokesman of the U.S. government and the British government.
The landing of the American Expeditionary Force in French North Africa is the first step toward the liberation of France. The object of the present operation is to destroy the German Italian forces in North Africa.
Our forces arrive in French North Africa as friends. The day when the German and Italian threat shall no longer weigh on French territories, they will leave. The sovereignty of France on French territories remains unaffected.
We enter, today, into the offensive phase of the war of liberation. This is the beginning.
Gen. Eisenhower, Commander-in-Chief of the American Expeditionary Force, is appealing to the active cooperation of the French in North Africa. Nevertheless, the moment has not yet come to appeal to the French nation as a whole. For the moment, we ask the French population in France itself (I repeat “in France itself”), to remain on the alert (I repeat “to remain on the alert”).
The hour of national uprising has not sounded. We have already promised you that we will warn you when this hour shall have come.
Today that moment is closer.
We will keep our promise.
Gen. Dwight Eisenhower – commands U.S. African invasion.
Washington (UP) – (Nov. 7)
The man directing the American operations in French Africa is Lt. Gen. Dwight D. “Ike” Eisenhower. Since June 25, he has been Commander of American forces in the European Theater, preparing for just such a major operation.
Eisenhower is widely known as an expert on war strategy and on planning war operations. But his “thinker” reputation is backed up by long years of practical experience in the field, particularly with the tank corps. Also, he holds a civilian airplane pilot’s license – which he used a lot – although he has had no direct connection with the Army Air Corps.
Eisenhower is a protégé of Gen, Douglas MacArthur, He was aide to MacArthur when the latter was Chief of Staff in the early ‘30s, and from 1935 to 1939, he was assistant military adviser to the Philippine Commonwealth, next only to MacArthur.
MacArthur made no secret of his confidence in “Ike’s” ability. Eisenhower had a large part in drafting the insular defense planes which MacArthur put into action when he so valiantly held off the Japanese invaders last winter.
A pioneer tank man, Eisenhower was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for the “unusual zeal, foresight and marked administrative ability in the organization, training and preparation for overseas service of technical troops in the tank corps” which he displayed as commander of the Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, tank corps training center in
Born in Denison, Texas, Oct. 14, 1890, Eisenhower graduated from West Point in 1915 and became a Second Lieutenant of infantry. The following year, he married Miss Mamie Geneva Doud, and they have one son, John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower.
After the war, he served in various domestic posts and the Panama Canal Zone before going to the Philippines.
1941 maneuvers showed ability
Eisenhower attracted considerable notice by his work as Chief of Staff of the Blue Army in the huge 1941 war maneuvers, and on last Feb, 16, he was named Chief of the War Plans Division of the War Department General Staff. That division fell by the wayside when the Army was reorganized a few days later, but Eisenhower did not. He became Assistant Chief of Staff in charge of the Operations Division under the new setup.
He has advanced rapidly in rank during the last two years, although his permanent rank is still Lieutenant Colonel – the rank he held when he returned from the Philippines.
Bald and of medium height, Eisenhower is a good talker, studious, and he possesses a keen sense of humor. He and a younger brother are both listed in Who’s Who. The brother is Milton S. Eisenhower, executive assistant to Director Elmer Davis of the Office of War Information.
Washington (UP) – (Nov. 7)
Lt. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, commander of the U.S. forces invading French North Africa, tonight broadcast a proclamation in French to the inhabitants of that area saying that the United Nations intended to save them from Italo-German invasion.
Here is the text of his proclamation:
Here is a communication from the American General Eisenhower, Commander-in-Chief of the forces now disembarking in French North Africa. This is one of the general staff officers who speaks to you. This communication of the highest importance is addressed to the French armies on land, sea, and air in North Africa:
Frenchmen of North Africa, the forces which I have the honor of commanding come to you as friends to make war against your enemies.
This is a military operation directed against the Italian-German military forces in North Africa. Our only objective is to defeat the enemy and to free France. I need not tell you that we have no designs either in North Africa or on any part of the French Empire. We count on your friendship and we ask your aid.
I have given formal orders that no offensive action be undertaken against you on condition that for your part you take the same attitude.
To avoid any possible misunderstanding, make the following signals:
By day, fly the French Tricolor and the American flag, one above the other. I repeat, by day, fly the French Tricolor and the American flag, one above the other, or two (I repeat two) tricolors, one above the other.
By night, turn on a searchlight and direct it vertically toward the sky. I repeat, by night, turn on a searchlight and direct it vertically toward the sky.
However, for reasons of military security, we are obliged to give you the following orders. Any refusal to follow them will be interpreted as hostile intention on your part. Here are the orders.
TO ALL NAVAL AND MERCHANT MARINE UNITS: First, stay where you are. Secondly, make no attempt to scuttle your vessels.
TO COAST GUARD UNITS: Withdraw from the neighborhood of your cannon and your stations.
TO AVIATION UNITS: Do not take off. All airplanes must remain in their usual places.
GENERAL ORDERS: In general, you must obey all orders given to you by my officers.
We come, I repeat, as friends, not as enemies. We shall not be the first to fire. Follow exactly the orders which I have just given you. Thus, you will avoid any possibility of a conflict which could only be useful to our enemies. We summon you as comrades to the common fight against the invaders of France. The war has entered the phase of liberation.
Says practice hurts ‘living theater’ and that studios should buy only the best plays
By Barton Rascoe, special to the Pittsburgh Press
Growing manpower requirements in the coming year demand that non-war industry give some five million employees to war work and the armed services. An additional 3,600,000 not now working or not classes as unemployed will enter war work or service, to swell the manpower figure to 62,300,000. These charts show the manpower picture of today, and what it will be a year from now.
U.S. to adopt British system of numbered stamps shortly after Christmas
Eight U.S. companies get funds frozen since start of war
Agreements to increase subcontracting made by U.S. agencies