America at war! (1941– ) (Part 1)

U.S. Navy Department (December 12, 1941)

Communiqué No. 4

Naval forces continue to coordinate their efforts with the Army on land, sea and in the air against heavy Japanese attacks on the island of Luzon. There is no confirmation of the alleged occupation of Guam by the Japanese. The resistance of Wake and Midway continues. No further air activity over Hawaii has been reported. The situation in the Atlantic remains unchanged.

The above is based on reports up to noon today.


The Pittsburgh Press (December 12, 1941)

WAR DEPARTMENT OFFERS 18-64 DRAFT BILL
Women ‘deferred;’ full survey of manpower in U.S. asked

Only those from 19 to 45 face actual call, Rayburn says

Washington (UP) –
The War Department today presented to Congress legislation that would require all men in the United States between the ages of 18 to 64, inclusive, to register with the Selective Service System.

Only those from 19 to 45, Speaker Sam Rayburn said, will be liable for military service.

The broad registration will be for the purpose of getting an accurate survey of American manpower.

Chairman Andrew J. May (D-KY) of the House Military Affairs Committee introduced the War Department’s legislation shortly after the House convened at noon.

Reviewed at conference

The legislation was reviewed in a conference at Mr. Rayburn’s office also attended by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson; Selective Service Director Lewis B. Hershey; House Majority Leader John W. McCormack (D-MA); Rep. James Wadsworth (R-NY), co-sponsor of the original Selective Service Act; Rep. Walter G. Andrews (R-NY), ranking minority member of the Military Affairs Committee, and War Department and Selective Service aides.

Men who have already registered will not be required to do so again.

The new registration will take in all unregistered men who have reached the age of 18 and have not reached the age of 65.

New registrants may be called up for military service ahead of those who were entered in the past two registrations.

The bill provided that alien residents of the United States holding citizenship in neutral nations may apply for exemption for registration for military service under the American flag but if they do, they are forever barred from becoming citizens of this nation.

Mr. May announced that hearings in the bill will start tomorrow and that Gen. Hershey will be the first witness.

Selective Service officials said they had no intention at this time of seeking authority to register women.

Mr. May said his bill will not change the existing system of classifying Selective Service registrants.

Mr. Hershey disclosed that a proposal was now under consideration to establish some sort of government support if married men and other with dependents, who are now deferred, were found to be needed.

Million already available

Mr. Hershey told the conferees that an additional million men can probably be combed out of present registrants between 21 and 27 and that 1,200,000 men reach the age of military service annually.

He said:

We may need a lot of men and we’ve got to find out now where we can get them.

Gen. Hershey told reporters yesterday that he favored a long-range registration of the 40 million men between 18 and 64 years. He estimated that 10 million could be made available to the Army and Navy for actual service. Registration of women, he said, would be handled by such agencies as the Office for Civilian Defense.

The first phase of the program probably will be to draw upon the 17,500,000 men in the already registered 21-35 age group. Only about 800,000 inductions have been made to this class, but Gen. Hershey believes this could be increased to four million men.

Immediate reclassification of the 10 million registrants in the 21-27 age bracket is possible and legislative action may be sought to make available the 7,500,000 men in the 28-35 age group.

Gen. Hershey suggested that lowering selection standards in the 21-27 group would yield more than a million men to the current million in Class 1-A, and that “fully a million able-bodied men” might be obtained from the 28-35 group, now exempted.

The Army is expected to notify Selective Service headquarters at once of its needs for January and February quotas. They have been averaging about 65,000 per month recently. Gen. Hershey indicated that they would be “doubled or tripled.”

That might mean that 500,000 men would be called to the colors during the next two months.

Loopholes sought

Authorities are seeking to close loopholes on occupational deferments. Conferences with defense manufacturers have been held recently, and Gen. Hershey believes 200,000 men may be made available for military service from defense industry workers.

Selective Service headquarters have notified local draft boards to reclassify ex-servicemen who were deferred in Class 4-A. They were told that the provision permitting deferment from service in peacetime no longer applies.

Men who had served three years in the Army, Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps, National Guardsmen with two years service in the militia and one in federal service, National Guards with six years service, the reserve officers with six years service were in that category.


Connally shies from phrase in war resolution

‘World conquest’ allusion deleted from draft of State Department
By Marshall McNeil, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
If the State Department suggestion had been followed, Congress would have acknowledged formally that Germany and Italy are working together on a plan for world conquest.

But at the insistence of Senator Connally (D-TX), Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, the declarations of war against the Axis powers contained no such preambles as the Department suggested.

Confusion over whether to accept the State Department version accounted for the interruption in Senate proceedings between the reading of the President’s war message and the Senate’s unanimous vote to declare war.

Confer on floor

During this interruption, Senator Connally conferred on the Senate floor with Rep. Bloom (D-NY), Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, and House Majority Leader McCormack (D-MA).

One Senator said in a stage whisper:

Sol and Tom are having a joint session of Congress right here on the floor.

Before calling the Foreign Relations Committee to meet at 11:30 a.m. EST yesterday, Senator Connally had conferred with Secretary Hull. He went back to the Capitol, and said the State Department was drafting a proposed war resolution. At the same time, his office put the legislative drafting service to work on a similar resolution.

Preamble opposed

The Department’s proposal made known both to Senator Connally and House leaders, started this way:

Whereas Germany is pursuit of a plan of world conquest has committed repeated acts of war against the government and the people of the United States, and has now declared war on the United States…

Senator Connally wouldn’t accept this. He said it was true the Nazis have a plan of world conquest, and that they have committed repeated acts of war against us. But we have known these things for months, he said, without declaring war. Moreover, he wanted the full support of his committee on both resolutions of war.

So, he and the Committee deleted this preamble.

House leaders agree

Rep. Bloom and McCormack, who were prepared to accept the State Department preamble, heard that the Senate was not, and hurried over to find out the facts. The Senate, without formality, suspended its business; Messrs. Connally and Bloom held their “joint session” in the center aisle; the House leaders were informed the Senate was not accepting the State Department preamble; they agreed and the war declarations were speedily approved.

Following the signing of the declarations by the President later in the afternoon, Senator Glass (D-VA) related how Mr. Roosevelt commented to legislators at the signing ceremony that some members of the Connally Committee had wanted to phrase the declarations in a manner to spare the feelings of Axis civilians.

Mr. Glass told the President:

Hell, we not only want to hurt their feeling, we want to kill them!


Plane-vs.-ship case reopened by sea losses

Reappraisal of value of aircraft and vessels due in Congress
By Charles T. Lucey, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
The destruction of naval vessels by airplanes in the Pacific appeared likely today to bring a reappraisal by Congress of the relative importance of aircraft and warships.

Senator Walsh (D-MA), Chairman of the Senate Naval Affairs Committee, commented that this week’s events seemed to indicate a new shift of strength from surface vessels to aircraft.

He pointed out that he had stressed repeatedly the importance of aircraft in naval warfare, and expressed a belief that his committee would reexamine the old controversy of plane-vs.-battleship in the light of the new developments.

Sinkings provide test

Senator Wiley (R-WI), a member of the Walsh Committee, went further. He said:

Recent events show that the navies of the air are more significant than the naves of the sea.

Mr. Wiley said the record of Norway and Crete, as well as this week’s news from the Pacific, had demonstrated the growing supremacy of aircraft.

Senator Lucas (D-IL), also a Committee member, said:

I certainly would think that some more emphasis should now be given to the bombing plane.

He said the sinking of British capital ships by the Japanese, and of Japanese ships by U.S. fliers, presented a much fairer test than the Honolulu engagement Sunday, where planes attacked ships which were apparently tied up in harbor.

Too early for answers

There was less inclination among members of the House Naval Affairs Committee to accept the plane-battleship tests on the Pacific as indicating a need for greater emphasis on aircraft.

Rep. Mass (R-MN), the Committee’s ranking minority member warned against jumping at conclusions. He said a navy must be strong both in the air and on the surface, and pointed out that German aviation had not been able to bring defeat of England.

But Rep. Cole (R-NY), also a Naval Affairs Committee member, said that:

Developments have caused all of us to question the military usefulness of the battleship.

But it is still too early to get a final answer, he said.


$10-billion war bill placed before Senate

Congress moves to gear U.S. Armed Forces for long, hard struggle

Washington (UP) –
The Senate votes today on a $10-billion supplemental national defense appropriation – the first step since the declaration of war against the Axis to gear the Armed Forces for a “long, hard war.”

The Senate Appropriations Committee will send the bill to the floor at noon after adding nearly $2 billion in cash and contract authorizations, including $500 million for naval warplanes, to the House-approved version.

The bill, boosting the war program to more than $69 billion, was approved by the committee yesterday only a few hours after the declaration of war against Germany and Italy.

Called first in series

Acting Committee Chairman Kenneth McKellar (D-TN) said the bill was the first of what may be an extensive series “necessary to supply the implements and arms for a long and hard war against three foes.”

RAdm. John H. Towers, Chief of the Bureau of Naval Aeronautics, asked the committee to increase funds for naval fighting planes from a House-approved total permitting construction of an additional 2,020 airplanes. McKellar did not reveal the type or number of fighting craft to be constructed from the $500-million fund.

Votes power program

In an effort to provide power necessary “to make aluminum needed for the defense of the country,” the committee added a power facility program embracing four additional dams in Tennessee. Initial construction costs provided in the bill total $25 million for the dams located on the Watauga River, near Elizabethtown; the Holston Rover near Bristol; at Dole Hollow on the Obed River, and at Center Hill on the Caney Fork River.

Other items added by the committee include: Another $7 billion for Army and Civil Aeronautics Administration land fields raising the total for this purpose to $57 million; $100 million for the President’s emergency blank check fund, and increased appropriations for government buildings in the District of Columbia.

Transfers funds

The committee transferred $1,500,000,000 of funds set aside by the House for Lend-Lease purposes to the general War Department account. McKellar declared that this move indicated no innovation in Lend-Lease administration, adding that it was considered advisable by War Department officials to lump the Lend-Lease monies with general War Department appropriations “to free the department’s hands in spending.”

Other expenditures include $742 million for feeding and clothing Army personnel; $269 million for vessel construction and machinery; and $33 million for the Interior Department for defense construction purposes.

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WAR BULLETINS!

British, Reds to map strategy

London, England –
Important British-Russian negotiations, it was learned tonight, will be held shortly to deal with political collaboration and the grand strategy of the war against the Axis.

Japs gain near Hong Kong

Singapore –
British forces held off the Japanese attack on Malaya today but Hong Kong reports admitted some Japanese penetration of the outer mainland defense of that island fortress. British reports said the Japanese strengthened their hold on the Kota Bharu Airdrome close to the Malay-Thai border. Japanese artillery was reported to be shelling Stonecutters Island which lies off Hong Kong Island.

Chiang offers all-out aid

Washington –
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, in a message to President Roosevelt has offered on behalf of China:

…all we are, and all we have, to stand with you until the Pacific and the world are freed from the curse of brute force and endless perfidy.

Planes strafe Jap barges

London, England –
The Air Ministry reported today that Royal Air Force and Australian Air Force planes attacked and set afire to between 50 and 60 Japanese power-driven boats and barges in the first stages of the Japanese attack on Kota Bharu, Malaya.

British sub hits cruiser

London, England –
The Admiralty said today that a British submarine torpedoed and probably sank an enemy cruiser in the Central Mediterranean. The date of the attack was not given.

Marines still hold Wake Island

Washington –
The small U.S. Marine garrison is still holding Wake Island against Japanese attacks, President Roosevelt said today. He told his press conference that the Marines at Wake Island – a lonely station in the mid-Pacific – is small and has done a magnificent job in withstanding Japanese assaults. Last night, it was announced that the Marines had sunk a Japanese light cruiser and a destroyer in air action from Wake.

Japs seize 1,000 American workmen

Washington –
The American Federation of Labor said today it has been advised by the Navy that more than 1,000 American workmen were “captured and taken prisoner” at Midway and Guam Islands in the Pacific. The men were all members of the AFL’s Building Trades Union, and were sent to the island to construct military facilities. The Navy did not specifically say whether Midway or Guam had fallen into the hands of the Japanese.

Haiti joins U.S. against Axis

Port-au-Prince, Haiti –
Haiti today declared war on Germany and Italy. A declaration of war against Japan was made last Monday.

Slovakia declares war on U.S.

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London, England –
The official German news agency broadcast a Bratislava dispatch today saying that Slovakia had declared war on the United States and Great Britain.

Indian leader arrested

New Delhi, India – (Dec. 11, delayed)
Sarat Chandra Bose, brother of Subhas Chandra Bose, former Mayor of Calcutta and former president of the All-India Nationalist Congress, has been arrested at Calcutta because of his “recent contacts with the Japanese,” it was announced today. Subhas Chandra Bose fled last January and is reported in Germany.

Nazis claim four sinkings

Berlin, Germany – (by Berlin radio)
German submarines in the Atlantic have sunk four British ships totaling 27,700 tons, the High Command said today.

The ships included a tanker. In addition, two patrol vessels and a tanker were damaged by torpedo hits.

Vichy declares neutrality

London, England –
Radio Tokyo said this morning that the Vichy government has informed the Japanese ambassador that France will maintain strict neutrality in the war between the United States and Japan.

San Diego blacked out

San Diego, California –
San Diego was blacked out for an hour early today and Los Angeles was placed on “alert” when the Fourth Interceptor Command reported unidentified aircraft offshore.

Here the Command said the planes were heard off Point Loma at the entrance to San Diego Bay. At Los Angeles, the Command said merely that they were “probably offshore.”

Australia has air-raid alarm

New York –
The British radio reported today that Port Darwin on the north coast of Australia had an air-raid alarm during the night, the first in the Commonwealth. No details were given.

Japan, Indochina sign pact

London, England –
The official German news agency reported from Tokyo today that Japan and French Indochina concluded a military alliance Monday.

The Berlin broadcast attributed the report to Japanese Imperial Headquarters.

Brussels University closed

Stockholm, Sweden –
The newspaper Dagens Nyheter reported from Berlin today that German military authorities had closed the University of Brussels to its 3,000 students and arrested 10 of its officials. The University board refused to accept five German appointments to the faculty.


Companies reject air-raid insurance

New York (UP) –
Insurance companies refused today to insure property in the United States and its territories against air-raid damage although demands were heavy and increasing.

The companies could not agree on a standard rate.

To determine what course to take, the Executive Committee of the General Brokers’ Association of the Metropolitan District, Inc., appointed a committee to confer with federal and state authorities.

Another group of insurance men was reported to be already in Washington, trying to find out whether the government is willing to take complete assumption of war risks as the government of Britain did when the Germans were air-raiding the British Isles.


Practice blackouts urged

Chicago, Illinois –
Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia of New York, director of the Office of Civilian Defense, said today he believed Chicago and all major cities of the United States should have practice blackouts soon.

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U.S. bans casualty lists as giving aid to enemies

Washington (UP) –
No more casualty lists will be issued by the War and Navy Departments.

President Roosevelt explained to his press conference today that the Army and Navy felt that publication of lists of men killed or wounded in action would provide information of aid to the enemy, enabling the enemy to determine where and when large numbers of American soldiers and sailors suffered losses.

He said the Army and Navy would notify next of kin of the casualties immediately by telegram. The government will release for newspaper publication only total figures on casualties.

The President asked that press associations, newspapers and radio stations refrain from compiling their own casualty lists from the notices sent to next of kin.

Newspapers, he said, should confine themselves to brief stories that the next of kin – wife, mother, or whatever the case may be – of a given man in the paper’s individual areas has been notified by Washington. This information from next of kin, the President felt, should not be made into the form of lists covering even a given community.

All belligerents in the war, prior to the outbreak of hostilities between Japan and the United States, followed the policy of not making casualty lists public, the President said. They have notified next of kin, and from time to time made public figures on total casualties.

The War Department has issued three casualty lists – one each Wednesday, yesterday and today. The Navy had not released any casualty list up to the time of today’s decision. The Navy is now preparing figures on the dead and seriously wounded to date.

A Navy announcement said:

The Navy Department today announced that for military reasons no list of names of casualties will be released to the public. The next of kin and dependents of naval casualties are being notified and are being asked not to divulge the names of the ship or station to which the relative was attached.

To requests for additional information on the Japanese attack against Hawaii, the President replied that further statements must await the return or report of the Secretary Frank Knox, now in Honolulu.

The President said strongly that no one should publish anything about the Hawaiian attack or present conditions there until the government has heard from Mr. Knox. He added, in response to a question, if such stories are published the government will remember well the people who did it.

He was asked about the propriety of reporting statements made in Congress, giving purporting details of the situation in Hawaii. Correspondents referred particularly to statements made in the Senate yesterday and told the President they had no choice but to print them.

The President agreed that such reports from Congress could not be ignored, but said they should be characterized as not entirely factual.

The President said one Senator yesterday made certain statements about Hawaii with knowing a thing about the situation.

This Senator, the President said, reported somebody’s gossip and made his report as a statement of fact which he had no right to do.

Senator Charles W. Tobey (R-NH) told the Senate yesterday that there had been a “debacle” at Pearl Harbor and charged that the defenses of Pearl Harbor were unprepared.

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Mowrer: Keep a close eye on Hitler for surprise

Nazis still main show, and Atlantic may be next background
By Edgar Ansel Mowrer

Washington –
Repel the Japanese but keep your eye on Hitler – this is the policy being followed today by the American administration, the Army and the Navy.

The sinking of a Japanese battleship, a cruiser and a destroyer makes it just that much easier. People here are convinced that in preparing for Japan the magnificently audacious plan that the Nipponese carried out so effectively (and treacherously) last Sunday, the Germans wanted to create a diversion serious enough to force the American authorities to strip the Atlantic and rush to repair the damage in the Pacific and avenge it.

Since the work of avenging has begun without any reinforcements from the Atlantic, for the main route to the Philippines is now largely in the hands of the Japanese, there will be less temptation to forget that, outside of the main area of Singapore, Hitler and his Nazis are still the main show.

In order to induce the Japs to go all out and risk their precious material, Hitler, it is believed here, must have promised them powerful support. What people here intend to find it – and expect Hitler to reveal soon – is what form this support is going to take.

Several things are open to the Nazis, now that they have admitted they cannot take Moscow this winter and must wait until spring. A Russian announcement claiming that they now have control of the air over the front suggests strongly that the Germans have withdrawn a portion of their air force from that region. This might take the form of a new air onslaught against Great Britain, and/or an intensified airplane, plus submarine, plus surface, campaign in the Atlantic.

Defeated in his frantic effort to reach the oil of the Caspian, Hitler’s marshals, by shortening their lines and withdrawing divisions from Russia, may amass a powerful mass for a campaign all along, or in special parts of, the Mediterranean.

This might mean a smash at Turkey, with the idea of reaching the Caucasus along the southern shore of the Black Sea, or turning down toward Iraq and eventually Iran, or driving straight south on Syria, Palestine and the Suez Canal. It may mean an intensified effort to cross the Mediterranean and get into North Africa in time to reinforce Gen. Erwin Rommel’s battered divisions before they have to give more ground. For this purpose, Hitler desperately needs the French fleet.

Pessimists in Washington believe that Japan’s success at Pearl Harbor may have been the final argument in convincing the men of Vichy that Americans are blunderers anyway. Without this fleet, and a fine French base like Bizerte or Oran to land at, the Germans and Italians will have some difficulty sending reinforcements across the British-controlled Mediterranean.

Spain a pushover

They can, however, take over Spain and Portugal anytime they choose. A somewhat sinister statement from Madrid that Spain will soon announce its position toward the war with the United States leads people here to believe that the Franco Spaniards, despite more than generous handling from the United States, have decided to proclaim non-belligerence favorable to the Axis and allow German troops to pass freely.

This would mean a siege of Gibraltar and the unquestioned crossing of the Straits there by at least some German troops. It would mean the taking over of French Morocco, probably of Algeria as well. It might mean an attempt to take over Dakar, though Dakar is a long walk from the Straits.

In any case, many possibilities are open to Hitler, and those who have given most attention to studying the man and his works are convinced that he will not wait long to act.


Latin America rallies to U.S. support in war

War declarations and assurances of solidarity are issued

Buenos Aires, Argentina (UP) –
Latin America rallied strongly to the support of the United States today with four nations having already declared war against Germany and Italy and others expected to follow soon.

Nine Latin American countries declared war on Japan after Sunday’s attack on Hawaii and four followed yesterday with declarations against Germany and Italy.

Cuba went to war with the three major powers at midnight EST, when President Fulgencio Batista signed a declaration that had been passed by the Senate, 50–0, and by the House of Representatives, 222–0. Cuba declared war on Japan Tuesday.

Mexico breaks relations

Costa Rica, the first Latin American nation to enter World War II with a declaration against Japan, declared war on Germany and Italy yesterday. Guatemala and Nicaragua, both already at war with Japan, also declared war against Germany and Italy.

Mexico broke diplomatic relations with Germany and Italy, severing all ties with the Axis powers and becoming an ally of the United States in everything short of an actual war declaration.

Mexico ordered the freezing of German and Italian funds, as it had frozen Japanese funds, and continued movement of troops to its west coast to protect Baja California.

Solidarity reaffirmed

Argentina reaffirmed its solidarity with the United States and sent a message to the American Congress condemning the “treasonable” Axis action. It was expected to proclaim the United States “non-belligerent” as regards Germany and Italy today, paralleling a similar declaration as regards Japan. The action permits U.S. warships to enter Argentine ports without risking internment under neutrality regulations.

Sources at the Foreign Office said German and Italian funds would probably be frozen today.

San Salvador, already at war with Japan, and Bolivia have already blocked Axis funds. The Bolivian order was regarded as a major blow to Axis operations in Latin America, because most Bolivian business is controlled by German, Italian or Japanese interests. The Bolivian decree also applies to non-belligerent Axis allies, the Finance Ministry said.

Will buy arms from U.S.

In Uruguay, which had also declared the United States non-belligerent in its war with Japan, the Senate passed a bill authorizing a $17-million purchase of arms in the United States.

President Getúlio Vargas of Brazil reaffirmed his nation’s solidarity with the United States in view of the spread of the war. He ordered six infantry companies to guard strategic air bases.

Peru, Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic also assured the United States of their support.

President Manuel Prado of Peru cabled President Roosevelt a few moments after the German and Italian declarations:

I reaffirm the principle of solidarity which emanated from the inter-American pacts. Peru reiterates at this opportunity, its firm decision to omit no effort in favor of common defense of the continent.

Oil lines protected

In Venezuela, the world’s third largest petroleum producer, President Isaías Medina said:

The aggression against the United States places a tragic threat at the very doors of America and makes it imperative that each country of the New World fully assume its responsibilities.

He said the government was “cooperating fully” with petroleum companies for the protection of oil fields, pipelines, refineries and other facilities.

In Washington, Generalissimo Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, strongman of the Dominican Republic, said his country, already at war with Japan, would declare war against Germany and Italy. He said:

The land, sea and air of the Dominican Republic are available to the land, naval or air forces of the United States at any time they may desire to use them.


Mikado to be given despite Pacific War

Washington (UP) –
Performances of the Gilbert & Sullivan operetta, The Mikado, will be presented here next week as scheduled, it was announced today, but the printed program will carry an explanatory note, saying, in part:

Almost three-score years have passed since William Gilbert wrote this, depicting the Japanese in the light that history now records – sly, wily and deceitful, unconscionably corrupt and treacherous.

The operetta satirizes British characters who are given Japanese names.

An employee of the Gilbert & Sullivan Opera Company yesterday announced that three local performances at the National Theater had been cancelled because Baltimore audiences Monday received the production coolly, particularly its opening song “We Are Gentlemen of Japan.”


U.S. and Axis reporters expected to return home on ‘truce’ ships

By the United Press

American newspapermen in Axis countries were under arrest or police supervision today and were unable to communicate with the United States.

It was understood that the U.S. State Department was arranging for the exchange of the newspapermen for Axis reporters under arrest in this country. The correspondents would leave Axis countries with U.S. diplomatic personnel and would return to America on a “truce ship” guaranteed safe passage of the Atlantic. Axis diplomats and reporters would return home by the same method.

German and Italian journalists detained in America were being kept in hotels rather then locked up, and were being well-treated. Information from abroad indicated that American correspondents were receiving the same treatment. They were barred from filing news dispatches since early Wednesday.

When American correspondents in Berlin appeared at the Foreign Office press conference Wednesday, they were asked to leave the room and go to their apartments because Axis correspondents in the United States had been arrested. Wednesday midnight CET (5:00 p.m. Tuesday EST), they were rounded up and placed under arrest. They were first taken to Alexanderplatz Police Station and then confined in a private villa.

The offices of American press associations and newspapers were closed Thursday afternoon, according to a Berlin dispatch of the Swedish newspaper Tidningens of Stockholm, after the heads of the bureaus had been allowed to cable the U.S. State Department protesting against the arrest of German correspondents in Washington and New York.

It was understood, Tidningens said, that this cable was approved by the Chargé d’Affaires at the U.S. Embassy.

A broadcast of DNB, the official German news agency, said the American correspondents in Paris were barred from official press conferences yesterday and asked to go to their homes. Later, they were also placed under arrest.

DNB said that, in Rome, working American newspapermen were put under police surveillance or arrested. The agency said that four American correspondents were arrested and two others ordered to remain in their apartments.

It was not revealed whether any action was taken against employees of American press associations or newspapers who are citizens of Axis countries.

The names of American correspondents arrested were not announced by the authorities, but the only exception reported was Guido Enderis, Berlin correspondent of The New York Times. Tidningens said that he had been exempted and allowed to remain at the hotel. In New York, the Times said it knew of no reason why an exception was made in the case of Mr. Enderis, but that he was not being allowed to work.

Tokyo reported that three or four unidentified British and American newspapermen were detained “as a precaution and for their protection and well-being.”

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Today’s developments in the war in the Pacific

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U.S. pilot dives into Jap ship’s guns, vanishes

Battleship goes down in blast; ex-Pitt student wrecks 14 planes

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Capt. Colin Kelly Jr., vanished in explosion.

Manila, Philippines (UP) –
Three daredevil American aviators flew to fame – and one to death – today against the Japanese.

Terse statements from military and naval sources in Manila told the story of how U.S. and Filipino aviators struck back against powerful enemy assaults. The name of 26-year-old Capt. Colin Kelly Jr. of Florida, who was killed in action, heads the roll of the heroes.

His diving airplane vanished in a roaring explosion that sank the 29,000-ton Japanese battleship Haruna off the coast of Luzon Island as the pilot plunged his craft straight down at the enemy and released a stick of high explosives almost into the mouths of flaming Japanese guns.

Capt. Kelly was only one of the defense fliers and who made American skill and daring in the air felt against the invaders.

Around the air bases, they told of blows struck by Lt. Boyd D. Wagner of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, who like Kelly flew an Army Air Corps plane. Lt. Wagner raced northward to the tip of Luzon Island as the Japanese sought to land reinforcements under aerial protection in the Aparri sector.

Half a dozen enemy craft tackled him and two of them went down after a fierce dogfight. Lt. Wagner then streaked on toward the enemy landing field and dropped down until his plane was skimming treetops, his machine guns spattering bullets against Japanese craft on the ground. A dozen planes were wrecked when – his fuel running low – he turned back toward his home base.

Lt. Wagner is a former University of Pittsburgh student.

They were talking, too, of Lt. C. A. Keller of the U.S. Navy Air Force, and how he “shadowed” a Japanese battleship of the Kongo class northwest of Luzon despite steady and fierce enemy anti-aircraft fire. Lt. Keller kept his plane within sight of the 29,000-ton enemy craft until naval bombers led by Lt. Cdr. J. V. Peterson arrived and pressed home an attack that put the vessel out of action.

But the American fliers were not the only ones who stood out in the battle against invasion forces.

Adm. Thomas C. Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet, told how Filipino fliers in the defense forces had shot down two Japanese planes out of 11 bagged since early this morning. Hart also said that Lt. H. Tutter of the U.S. Navy Air Force, had been attacked by three Japanese fighter planes at sea. He shot down one and then made a forced landing on the water, taxiing his plane to the shore where he repaired minor damages. The next morning, he returned to base.

Capt. Kelly was 26. He graduated from the University of Florida, and then went to West Point, from which he graduated four years ago. He was married and had one son.

In 1938, he finished the Primary Flying School of the Army, and the Advanced Flying School bombardment course in 1939.

He was accepted as a combat pilot in September 1940 and served in Hawaii until he was assigned to the Philippines.

Hero always wanted to be a soldier

Madison, Florida (UP) –
Capt. Colin Kelly Jr., who died in successfully dive-bombing the 29,300-ton Japanese battleship Haruna off Luzon, his father said today, “always wanted to be a soldier – ever since he was about 12 years old.”

The father said:

He always had talked about aviation. Sometimes, I thought he was almost too crazy about it.

But I’m proud that he did his part for our country. He was a fine specimen of manhood and I guess fairly bright. That’s how he got an appointment to West Point.

Capt. Kelly visited his home here last February. His father said he was stationed at March Field, California, before being transferred to Honolulu. He was a graduate of Madison High School and attended the Marion Military Institute in Alabama for one year.

Hero’s mother has busy day

Johnstown, Pennsylvania –
As it had been every day since the war began, the Wagner home was quiet and unmoving this morning.

Boyd D. Wagner Sr., the father, had gone to work. Mrs. Wagner, herself a clerk in a store here, sat at the breakfast table, her thoughts wandering to the far-off Philippines.

If only there would be some word of their son…

To be sure, they had received a radiogram Tuesday from Lt. Boyd D. Wagner Jr., saying he had received the Christmas gifts, thanks, and everything is alright.

Radiogram sent Friday

But the radiogram had been sent out Friday – and since then the Japanese had attacked the Philippines and the very air base at which their son was stationed as a commander of the 17th Pursuit Squadron. If only…

Then suddenly the radio boomed. It was Manila coming in.

It said:

Among the first heroes of the war announced by the Navy today was Lt. Boyd D. Wagner, who accounted for 14 enemy planes single-handedly.

Mrs. Wagner said:

I just can’t explain the feeling I got then. I was happy enough just to hear he was alive. But to be a hero – my!

Breakfast was forgotten.

Mrs. Wagner grasped a phone to call her husband, an electrician, and tell him of the good news. But the line was busy. She said:

And it’s been busy all day.

All of Johnstown – and more – has been calling me. I haven’t been able to get a bit of work done. I guess it’s the same with Mr. Wagner.

And so it’s been here all day long – ever since the Navy first announced that Lt. Wagner had earned a hero’s rating by downing two Japanese planes in dogfights above the Philippines and destroying 12 others on the ground at Aparri, in northern Luzon, where the Japs are fighting to gain a foothold.

Studied at Pitt

Only 25, Lt. Wagner is a native of Emeigh, near here, and a graduate of Nanty Glo High School. He studied aeronautical engineering at the University of Pittsburgh for three years, joining the Flying Cadets in 1937.

He was commissioned a second lieutenant July 17, 1938, after completing his course at Randolph and Kelly Fields, in Texas, then ordered to active duty at Selfridge Field, Michigan.

Promoted to a first lieutenant Sept. 9, 1940, he was shifted to Manila three months later. He was made commander of the 17th Pursuit Squadron four months ago.

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Uncle Sam hits back –
U.S. aircraft begin to even Pacific score

Second Jap battleship hit; Axis satellites may declare war
By Lyle C. Wilson, United Press staff writer

Washington –
Further war declarations or ruptures of diplomatic relations with the United States by Axis satellites were likely today as U.S. airmen began to even the naval score with Japan in the Pacific.

The successful bombing of a second Japanese capital ship cheered the capital.

The nation is at war on two points – Atlantic and Pacific. But the Western Hemisphere is becoming more solidly aligned by the minute against the Axis and the period of disunity at home seems to have ended with the first bomb explosion in Hawaii.

Good news starts

Against Germany, Italy and Japan is being thrown the force of the world’s most perfectly machined and industrialized nation. And the good news is beginning to come in.

First word is awaited from the Atlantic front, where war began yesterday with declarations of hostilities by Rome and Berlin which were immediately acknowledged by the United States. Whether the Axis will attempt a “morale” air raid on Washington, New York or some other seaboard city is unknown. The fighting forces hope to stop it offshore if it comes.

Bombs of Army, Navy or Marine fliers have already sunk one Japanese battleship, one cruiser, one destroyer and badly damaged a second battleship.

Seek to restore balance

At that rate, it appears the U.S. flying men shortly will be able to restore the balance of naval power in the Pacific as it existed before Japan sank the British battleship HMS Prince of Wales, the battlecruiser HMS Repulse and inflicted unrevealed damage on our own fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. It was announced by the Governor of Hawaii that 20 Japanese planes were lost in Sunday’s attack on Hawaii.

The last “good news” came in the Navy Department’s Communiqué No. 3, which said:

Adm. Thomas C. Hart, Commander-in-Chief of the Asiatic Fleet, reported that Navy patrol planes scored bomb hits on a Japanese battleship of the Kongo class off the coast of Luzon. The ship was badly damaged. This is the second Japanese battleship to be bombed effectively by U.S. forces.

Haruna sunk

The first battleship attacked by U.S. forces was the 29,000-ton Haruna. It was sunk. The second, Adm. Hart reported, was believed to be the 29,300-ton Kongo.

Earlier in the day, the Navy has revealed that a small garrison of Marines were making a valiant stand to defend Wake Island, the tiny outpost between Hawaii and Guam. That garrison sunk one cruiser and one destroyer which had tried to attack.

Sufficiently accurate information on what was lost in Pearl Harbor is now common knowledge here – although unpublishable – and the rate at which U.S. fliers are reducing the Japanese fleet is encouraging.

Remains less favorable

But the balance of naval power remains considerably less favorable to the United States than it was before Sunday’s attack. Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox arrived in Honolulu last night for a personal survey of the damage which the public will scarcely minimize after White House emphasis upon its seriousness.

Hungary is almost in step with the Axis today with the formal announcement in Washington that diplomatic relations with the United States have been broken. Hungary explained here that she was not declaring war.

Radio Berlin broadcast that Hungary has declared war against the United States.

Romania may follow

Romania is another subordinate European state which may follow that course.

The course of the neutrals – Spain, Switzerland, Sweden and Portugal – remains to be seen, nor is it known here what Germany may demand of that part of France governed from Vichy.

Finland, already at war with the Soviet Union and with Great Britain, is seeking to avoid involvement in the general war flaming throughout the world. The situation is further complicated by Great Britain’s recent declaration of war against Hungary and Romania.

Greece, Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands and Norway are captive countries, seized forcibly by Nazi arms, and Albania fell early to Italy.

Meets in January

The Western Hemisphere was rapidly falling in line with the anti-Axis powers in a worldwide choose-up-sides for battle and there will be a conference in Rio de Janeiro in January among the 21 American republics.

Here next week, Mr. Roosevelt has called a conference of management and labor to agree on a changeover from war to peace production efforts which must adopt a seven-day production week, and without strike or lockout interruptions, too. The accomplishments of the conference are expected to take the place of drastic anti-strike legislation which was roaring through Congress when Japan struck.

The Congressional isolation bloc has vanished as though bombed and it is the present intention of Congress to vote all the funds and authority the administration and its military advisers ask to prosecute the war. Restrictions against sending National Guardsmen and selectees outside the Western Hemisphere were voted away unanimously yesterday and the Senate turned immediately to consideration of a $10-billion supplemental national defense appropriation. The sum of the bill was increased by about $2 billion by the Senate Appropriations Committee.

Taxes will rise

Taxes are going up soon and far. Congressional leaders agreed that the burden will increase tremendously and other officials are arranging simultaneously to reduce the number of variety of things the public may buy with what is left over from the paycheck after taxes are paid.

National Selective Service Headquarters are pondering plans for registration of practically everyone for such essential service as may be necessary and draft deferment lists are already being revised to make more men immediately available for the armed services.

Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Maxim Litvinov, the Soviet Ambassador, conferred and predicted increased collaboration against the common enemy. But there is no word here about bases for our planes in Siberia so that they may shuttle back and forth between the Philippines and the Asiatic mainland, dropping their bombs on Japan as they cross each way. The Soviet Union and Japan are not at war. Instead, they have a mutual non-aggression pact.


Soviet Union, U.S. pledge rising war collaboration

Russia leaves no hint on possible aid in fight against Japan; Litvinov announces ‘full understanding’ reached in talk with Hull

Washington (UP) –
The Soviet Union and the United States are informally pledged to increased collaboration against their common enemy, the Axis, but there has been no hint as of today whether the Soviet plans to offer this country the use of Siberian air bases for its war against Japan.

The Soviet Union and Japan are not at war. They have a mutual non-aggression pact.

Diplomats here have felt that the Soviet Union would probably continue its present status with Japan unless attacked, because of the necessity of concentrating all efforts on the front threatened by Germany.

However, air and naval bases along the eastern Siberian coast would be strategic points for U.S. bombers to start raids over the Japanese mainland.

Nothing was mentioned about such aid yesterday after a conference between Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Soviet Ambassador Maxim Litvinov.

Litvinov said after the conference that the Soviet Union and the United States had reached a “full understanding” on their common struggle.

Soviet ‘to do share’

Mr. Hull said in a statement earlier that the Soviets “will do their full share” in the all-out fight against the Axis. He also pointed out that when Litvinov arrived here Monday – the day the United States declared war on Japan – President Roosevelt assured him of his “firm determination” to continue aid to the Soviets.

The Hull and Litvinov remarks came amidst reports from Europe that the Soviets had rejected Nazi proposals for peace. Some reports speculated that the halting of the German drive on Moscow might be a preliminary to a Russo-German peace. But Litvinov said:

I have no doubt whatever that we will continue resistance against the Germans to a final complete victory.

Mr. Hull’s statement – given out before he met Litvinov – appeared to be designed to refute reports that Russia was reluctant to move in the Far East lest she becomes involved in war with Japan.

Litvinov sidestepped all inquiries as to what assistance the Soviet Union might give this country.

His only answer to specific questions about bases was:

We shall see.

Naturally we have a common cause and a common enemy. We are fighting Hitler more than anyone else. We fully understand each other.

Litvinov’s conference with Mr. Hull was one of a series which included a talk with Harry L. Hopkins, Lend-Lease supervisor, and Lord Halifax, British Ambassador.


Nazi peace feeler spurned by Russia; Japan denounced

‘We shall see,’ Litvinov says about Soviet plans for bombing Tokyo after he confers with Roosevelt; Reds rap Nipponese treachery
By the United Press

Russia’s official Radio Kuybyshev broadcast today that the Soviet Union would never sign a peace treaty with Germany except in agreement with the United States and Britain and added:

By that time, there will no longer be a Hitler in Germany.

There was as yet no official announcement from Russia as to what action it will take in the Pacific War.

But in Washington, Maxim Litvinov, the new Russian Ambassador, the one man among great European statesmen who for years had said that joint defense by the democracies against aggressors was the sole hope of civilization, said to questioning newspaper correspondents:

Naturally we have a common cause and a common enemy. We are fighting Hitler more than anyone else. We fully understand each other.

Litvinov sees Roosevelt

Mr. Litvinov conferred yesterday with President Roosevelt, Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Lord Halifax, the British Ambassador.

Asked as to the extent of assistance Russia might give in the Pacific, such as bombing Tokyo from its Siberian bases, he said, “We shall see.”

“Fine!” he exclaimed when informed that a Japanese cruiser and a destroyer had been sunk off Wake Island.

Henry Shapiro, United Press correspondent in Kuybyshev (temporary Russian diplomatic headquarters), reported that Pravda, the official Communist Party organ, bitterly denounced Japan today, saying it had attacked the United States and Great Britain treacherously and obviously after long preparation.

See defeat for Japs

Pravda said:

The Japanese aggressor has plunged into a very hazardous adventure which bodes him nothing but defeat.

And if he counted on the possibility of a “lightning victory,” he is in for a disappointment no less than that suffered by the bloodthirsty Hitler as the result of his bandit attack on the Soviet Union.

In Washington, denying reports of a possible Russo-German peace, Mr. Litvinov said:

I have no doubt whatever that we will continue resistance against the Germans to a final complete victory.

Reds cite ‘powerful front’

Asked regarding the possibility of a firm American-British-Chinese-Dutch-Russian alliance, he said:

We shall see. Naturally we have a common cause and a common battle. I cannot make any statement about Japan.

Radio Moscow quoted an editorial in Pravda, which, in discussing the Pacific situation, mentioned the United States, Britain and China as constituting a “powerful front.”

The editorial said:

The first partial successes by Japan in the Pacific are not decisive. The fact that Germany and Italy have declared war on the United States does not alter the position materially.

The Japanese wanted a quick victory, but they will be disappointed. They are confronted by a powerful front of the United States, Britain and China.

Expect long war

The opening of a new front in the Pacific will mean increased activity on the Chinese front.

The United States, which was already against the Hitler front, has used the interval before the war declarations to increase its production of war materials. Its production is not on full-scale so far, but that will soon be made up.

The war in the Pacific will be long and difficult. The colossal superiority of manpower and the possession of raw materials by the United States will prove decisive.

A CBS correspondent in Kuybyshev said that the Russian government was advised officially of Japan’s declaration of war on the United States only yesterday when a State Department message reached the U.S. Embassy.

‘Dreams buried in snow’

He quoted Pravda as saying in substance:

Hitler hoped to capture Russia up to the Ural Mountains in one or two months. Now his dreams are buried in snow.

Hitler is ready to talk peace with Russia tomorrow if Russian leaders are willing to talk peace with him. Hitler is now dangling peace proposals before the Soviet Union, hoping that they will nibble. But the Soviet Union will sign a peace treaty with Germany only in common with Britain and the United States.

It was added that the article was written before the German declaration of war on the United States yesterday.


Newspapers assure Roosevelt of support

New York (UP) –
The American Newspaper Publishers Association said today that the nation’s newspapers had assured President Roosevelt of their support and “await your call for any service we can render.”

Press Secretary Stephen Early said in reply that Mr. Roosevelt:

…is most appreciative of the pledge of active support for the defense of the American way of life which you give on behalf of the newspapers of the United States.


ABCD means JIG is up for Axis bloc

Mexico, Missouri (UP) –
Said Col. C. R. Stribling of Missouri Military Academy when informed of America’s declaration of war:

It’s as plain as ABCD [America-Britain-China-Dutch East Indies] that the JIG [Japan-Italy-Germany] is up.


Roosevelt says ore supply is adequate

Washington (PWB) –
President Roosevelt, in a press conference announcement today, showed optimism over the winter supply of iron ore for defense manufacturing.

Noting that the Great Lakes ore traffic has now been closed down by ice, the President said that during the past season, ore deliveries had been boosted to 86 million long tons, in contrast to 60 million last year and the 66-million record in World War I.

Mr. Roosevelt said the result is that ore stockpiles contain two million more tons than at this time last year.

Additional ore boats will go into service next season, he added.


‘Dangerous’ aliens will be interned

Washington (UP) –
Enemy aliens will be interned for the duration of the war only in cases where there is “strong reason to fear for the internal security” of the United States, the Justice Department announced today.

This announcement, however, was not expected to save from detention camps the bulk of the 2,303 Germans, Japanese and Italians already seized as “dangerous” aliens. They will be given hearings by review boards in each judicial district. Altogether there are more than 1.1 million German, Italian, Japanese nationals in the country.

Attorney General Francis Biddle informed U.S. attorneys and the Immigration and Naturalization Service that aliens seized were to be permitted to see attorneys and their families. They may also send and receive censored letters and use telephones under supervision.


Walsh raps Tobey’s plea for inquiry

If Navy was derelict, Roosevelt will act, Senator says

Washington (UP) –
Senator David I. Walsh (D-MA), in a stirring rebuttal to renewed demands for a Congressional inquiry into Sunday’s Hawaiian setback, said yesterday that if the Navy High Command in Hawaii was derelict in its duty, President Roosevelt will act “in such a manner as to retain the confidence of the American people.”

The Senate Naval Affairs Committee chairman pledged he would make every effort to:

…strike a blow against inefficiency, against anyone derelict in his duty, against anyone slackening in the defense of our country.

He pleaded:

But at least in these early days of war and said disaster, let us have confidence in our President and trust he will lead us to victory.

His impassioned oration was in reply to Senator Charles W. Tobey (R-NH) who demanded to know whether Mr. Walsh’s committee contemplated an investigation of the initial “disaster.”

Former isolationists

Mr. Tobey’s question pitted against each other two men who only a week ago had been eye-to-eye as members of the isolationist bloc.

The “time is past” for criticism that is not constructive, Mr. Walsh told Mr. Tobey, who only a few minutes before had voted for the declaration of war against Germany and Italy.

We must have confidence in our war President – not a Democratic President, not a New Deal President, but a war President serving in a new role which will mark his place in history; and I hope and pray it will be a high place.

He told Mr. Tobey:

It is not always possible to obtain accurate information of a naval encounter immediately after it has happened.

Two questions

Every man there in the service had to ask himself the question:

Are they [the Japanese] coming back and what can we do to meet them?

…rather than:

Gather all the details, find out what has happened and report to Washington.

Mr. Walsh said:

Every man out there in the service must know the facts – they cannot be kept silent.

He pointed out that a war President must check “his natural impulse” to reveal all the facts; he must remember that “we cannot disclose too much that will comfort the enemy.”

Senator Walsh concluded:

I think we should wait until the Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy thinks it is his solemn duty – to retain the confidence of the American people – to speak for our information.

Tobey insistent

Mr. Tobey had insisted earlier that “the people in this crisis want the truth” and said he had “listened in vain” to Mr. Roosevelt for information on the Hawaiian attack.

His remarks came after Mr. Walsh had told the Senate the Navy had just received the Hawaiian casualty list, but that it would not be made public for two or three days so the next of kin could be notified first.

They were countered by Senator Millard E. Tydings (D-MD), World War I veteran, who told Mr. Tobey the President “would be wrong” to disclose the facts of the naval engagement to the Japanese.

Mr. Tobey then read from a Christian Science Monitor article of Dec. 9 and, emphasizing such phrases as one asserting that the Navy had been “caught napping,” said he had been told by two Senators that “the mechanical listening devices [at Hawaii] were not in working order.”

Senator Scott W. Lucas (D-IL) accused Mr. Tobey of being willing to “indict all those men in Pearl Harbor on information of a newspaper article and two Senators.”

Mr. Tobey shouts

Mr. Tobey shouted:

Why wasn’t the steam up? I could ask a thousand questions. I wouldn’t want to tell all I heard.

Mr. Lucas labelled Mr. Tobey’s remarks as “billingsgate and harangue,” based on admittance of a lack of facts.

Mr. Lucas said angrily:

You may think you can run the war from the floor of the Senate, but you can’t. When you come to the Senate and give to the world such information, you do an injustice to your country and your people.

Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg (R-MI) said:

The one consolation in this affair to me is that the distinguished Senator from Massachusetts is chairman of our Naval Affairs Committee. I have confidence that he is on guard and that he will move with courage and effectiveness whenever it is necessary.


Italians urged loyalty

New York –
The supreme duty of six million Americans of Italian origin is loyalty to the United States, Generoso Pope said today in a signed editorial in his daily newspapers, Il Progresso Italo-Americano and Corriere d’America.

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U.S. subs hunt near Manila; Japanese lose 27 planes

By Frank Hewlett, United Press staff writer

The Philippines battlefront

Fullscreen capture 332021 100543 AM.bmp
U.S. forces reported heavy fighting against the Jap invaders in the Philippines today at points indicated on the map above.
1) U.S. admits Japs land in large numbers in north. Aparri area reported recaptured by U.S.
2) U.S. Navy admits heavy damage at Cavite; Manila has two alarms, no bombs. Jap battleship knocked out of control by Navy planes.
3) Americans fight Jap landing parties in Legazpi region.

Manila, Philippines –
Adm. Thomas C. Hart, Commander of the Asiatic Fleet, revealed today that a Japanese battle fleet fled to avoid battle when U.S. warships approached.

Official communiqués reported that U.S. warplanes have taken a heavy toll of Japanese planes and ships.

Adm. Hart said a 29,300-ton Japanese battleship of the Kongo class had suffered one heavy hit and two lighter hits when bombed by a naval plane. The bombs put the warship out of control. This success was in addition to the sinking of 29,300-ton Haruna, Adm. Hart added to information released in Washington last night.

Adm. Hart said the U.S. fleet “contacted” the Japanese war fleet a considerable distance off Manila. The enemy ships sheered off to avoid battle.

Developments today:

  1. U.S. submarines are ranging the narrow seas of the war zone and are expected to report major success when they communicate with their home bases.

  2. U.S. and Philippine planes have struck hard at the Japanese Air Force; Filipino pilots were credited with shooting down two Japanese planes in action and the Americans bagged 25.

One U.S. Army aviator single-handedly accounted for 14 of the Japanese planes, shooting down two in the air and knocking out 12 on the ground at Aparri on the northern tip of Luzon this morning.

Jap’s attack heavy

The Japanese Air Force continued its heavy attacks, raiding Batangas Province, 50 miles southeast of Manila, twice and causing two more air-raid alarms in Manila.

An NBC reporter in Manila said it had been officially confirmed that the Kongo-class battleship hit by U.S. bombs was the Kongo itself. He reported that the Japanese sent at least 113 bombers over the Philippines today, attacking various objectives including an airfield at Batangas.

To decide on Spaniards

In Manila, all Axis aliens were placed in protective custody and a decision was being pondered concerning action against Spanish nationals and members of the Falange Fascist Party.

U.S. pilot killed

The Army announced that Capt. Colin Kelly Jr., 26, who scored the three direct hits which sank the first battleship, had been killed in action.

Lt. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, commanding U.S. forces in the Far East, replied today to a message from President Roosevelt, congratulating U.S. forces on their defense:

The Far Eastern Command appreciates deeply your message. We shall do our best.

Heavy damage at Cavite

U.S. and Philippine forces were reported to be fighting Japanese landing parties in the Legazpi area, at the southeast tip of Luzon Island, 210 miles from Manila, and it was admitted that Japanese troops were now in greater force in northern Luzon.

Adm. Hart said the Navy’s Cavite base, eight miles southwest of Manila, had been hit by a powerful Japanese airplane attack. There were extensive fires and great damage was done, he said. Small ships lying at the yard were also damaged.

One bomb directly hit a dispensary, Adm. Hart said, and everyone in it was killed, including nurses and doctors. He emphasized that the dispensary was in the center of a fortified area.

Await subs’ reports

He said that loss of life figures had not been completed but that it was known most of the dead were civilians.

Adm. Hart said that submarines of the Asiatic Fleet had not yet reported.

He added:

But we expect big results. When a torpedo hits a ship, it stays hit.

The submarines were the big game hunters of the fleet and they used only elephant guns, not shotguns, Adm. Hart said.

He announced the Lt. H. A. Utter had been attacked by three Japanese fighters. He shot down one, Hart said, and then made a forced landing, taxied his seaplane to the coast, repaired minor damage and took off next morning, returning to his base.

Filipinos win air victory

Describing the attack on the second Japanese battleship, Adm. Hart and Lt. C. A. Keller sighted it off northwestern Luzon and held contact with it for a long time despite anti-aircraft fire, guiding the attack of bombers led by Lt. Cdr. J. V. Peterson.

The Navy fliers then pressed their attack despite heavy gunfire, he said.

Adm. Hart said that the Navy had lost two large planes in the Gulf of Davao Monday, approximately one hour after the Pearl Harbor attack. One pilot was lost and some members of the crews were wounded, he said.

Since Monday, he added, one large Navy plane had been shot down at Laguna de Bay, 30 miles from Manila, and all members of the crew were killed.

He said Navy pilots had been most active and that several planes had suffered minor damage. Some fuel tanks had been punctured, he said. One pilot landed successfully with one of his two motors burning, he commented.

Philippine town raided

Discussing naval operations, Adm. Hart said that no Japanese battleship had yet approached within sight of the Philippine coast, and he deprecated reports which “always call every craft a battleship.”

An Army communiqué said a small Japanese force was reported to have pushed ashore in Legazpi, at Albay Bay.

Despite the improved position of the Japanese at the northern end of Luzon, the Army communiqué said the situation there had not changed materially.

BBC, heard by CBS, quoted a Manila dispatch as saying that U.S. forces in northern Luzon had recaptured the Aparri region on the north coast. BBC said:

United States troops are reported to have smashed every Japanese effort yesterday to set invading forces firmly ashore and it is reported that the enemy is even being driven back at Aparri, where they had established a temporary foothold. The region around Aparri is said now to be back in American hands.

Seven thousand civilians held to be non-essential were evacuated from the walled area of Manila, which contains the general headquarters of U.S. forces in the Far East, Fort Santiago and other military establishments.

The Philippine National Assembly, at a special session, approved an emergency powers bill which authorized President Manuel L. Quezon to spend all available unexpended public funds for national defense and civilian protection.


British estimate Jap fleet strength

London, England (UP) –
The Press Association, a British news agency, giving “reliable approximations” of the strength of the Japanese fleet, said today that the most recent information credited Japan with 15 aircraft carriers “not taking into account ships sunk by the U.S. Navy.”

The Japanese craft were said to include six seaplane carriers and nine other aircraft carriers.

Japan’s naval strength, which has been one of the world’s most closely guarded secrets, was believed to include 10 battleships, 12 8-inch gun cruisers, six 6-inch gun cruisers, 14 cruisers armed with 5.9-inch guns, about 126 destroyers and 86 submarines, the Press Association said.

The Japanese were also said to have a force of destroyers and small craft used in northern waters for the protection of the fishing industry and in the mandated islands.

The strength of the Japanese Fleet Air Arm was estimated at about 1,550 planes, about 500 of which were embarked on carriers and other ships. The rest were reported shore-based in Japan, Formosa, Indochina and the mandated islands.

There is no separate Japanese Air Force. The Army and the Navy each has its own. The Press Association gave no estimates of Japanese Army air strength.


Hitler nervous, Swiss paper says

Zurich, Switzerland (UP) –
The newspaper Die Tats reported today from Berlin that although Adolf Hitler spoke calmly in yesterday’s war speech to the Reichstag, definite nervousness could occasionally be detected in his voice.

Die Tats said that once while slowly approaching one theme, Hitler broke a match or pencil and at another time tore a scrap of paper to bits.


War Department gives communiqués

Washington –
A War Department communiqué indicated today that Japanese forces are making persistent attempts to land on Luzon, the main island of the Philippines group, from several directions.

The communiqué – the Army’s fifth of the U.S.-Japanese War – reported the Japanese to be making “a series of concentric thrusts” to Luzon.

It told of “enemy concentrations” off the coast of Zambales, a province just north of Manila, and at Legazpi, a port on the tip of Luzon about 200 miles south of Manila. It was the first mention of activity off Zambales, which is immediately north of the chain of forts protecting Manila.

The communiqué also reported that:

The enemy is augmenting its forces at Aparri and Vigan.

Communiqué No. 4, issued last night, said there was “reason to believe” that defenses in the north and northwest of Luzon – Aparri is in the north, Vigan in the northwest – were “continuing successfully.”

Today’s communiqué said nothing about progress of fighting.

It noted “no operations reported” in Hawaii, and “no change in the situation” on the West Coast.

The text of Communiqué No. 5, issued by the War Department as of 9:30 a.m. EST today:

Philippine Theater.
The Commanding General of the Far Eastern Command reports the Japanese are making a series of concentric thrusts on the island of Luzon. Enemy concentrations are reported at Legazpi and off the west coast of Zambales. The enemy is augmenting its forces at Aparri and Vigan.

Hawaii.
No operations reported.

West Coast.
No change in the situation.

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Ford to extend UAW contract to bomb plant

At least 60,000 men will be employed at Ypsilanti, Michigan

Detroit, Michigan (UP) –
An agreement, under which provisions of the Ford Motor Company’s union shop checkoff contract with the United Automobile Workers (CIO) would be extended to employees of the firm’s vast $58,500,000 bomber plant near Ypsilanti, Michigan, was disclosed today.

Ford personnel director Harry Bennett said no new contract would be required but that the 60,000-70,000 men eventually to be employed at the plant will be blanketed under the existing agreement with the UAW-CIO. Union sources confirmed the plan.

Extension of the agreement which already embraces 120,000 Ford workers throughout the country followed disclosure by CIO president Philip Murray last month that he had conferred with Ford officials on the matter during the CIO national convention.

Although present orders call for Ford to turn out 75 completed bombers and 100 complete sub-assemblies a month, they are expected to be stepped up considerably in view of the war against Japan, Germany and Italy. The bomber plant, which with the airport cover 975 miles, can be geared to build a four-motored bomber every hour.


‘I’ll go where my husband goes,’ says U.S. citizen wed to Nazi naval attaché

American wife of German envoy declares ‘I won’t go home’
By Evelyn Peyton Gordon, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
I telephoned the California-born wife of VAdm. Robert Witthoeft-Emden, German naval attaché here. A solemn but pleasant admiral answered the phone personally.

“Darling,” I heard him summon his wife.

I asked her:

Are you an American citizen?

“Yes,” said Frau Witthoeft.

What will you do when members of the German staff start for Europe?

I will go where my husband goes. Wouldn’t you?

At Warrenton, Virginia, is the Countess Caracciolo di Melito, visiting her father, former Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Oscar T. Crosby.

Miriam Crosby married her handsome Italian count at Naples in 1915, a few days after Italy declared war on Germany. She is an Italian citizen. Her husband is in unoccupied France on a repatriation commission, and their son, Ludovico, is in the Italian Navy. She has been in this country nearly two years.

For some weeks, the countess has been consulting the State Department and the Italian Embassy about her status, and both have advised her not to worry. But today the situation is more complex. Will she return to an Italy which at the moment is empty of both her husband and son? Can she remain at her father’s estate? Can she be interned?

Up in New York are Signore Lais and her daughter, Edna. Signora Lais is the American-born wife of a former naval attaché of the Italian Embassy. When Adm. Lais was recalled to Italy months ago because of a “leak,” his wife and daughter remained in New York. But they are Italian citizens, or were at least until recently.

In a beautiful villa in Florence, Italy, is Signora Rosso, the former Frances Wilkinson Bunker of Washington and Chicago. When she was married in Paris a few years ago to the then Italian Ambassador at Moscow, she became an Italian citizen, and eventually her assets in this country were impounded. Her ex-husband, Arthur Bunker, an OPM dollar-a-year man, has had no word from her. Neither has their daughter, Adele, who is selling Christmas books at Brentano’s.

Frau Thomsen, wife of the German Chargé d’Affaires, was not answering the telephone. Some time ago, when there was a threat that diplomatic relations would be broken, she said:

I won’t go home – ever. I won’t go back to that place.

Nobody believed that she felt as she often said she felt about Hitler. These next days will tell whether the titian-haired Hungarian Bebe Thomsen was only acting a part.


U.S. to recruit closed plants as arms works

Government will utilize factories shutdown by shortages
By John W. Love, Scripps-Howard staff writer

Washington –
Until the government gets a better slant on the present supplies and future flow of vital materials from the Far East, severe reductions will be applied to all the civilian industries using them. That appears to mean practically all metal industries.

The new case of factory shutdowns thus created, it is disclosed, will be utilized to turn over still more of these plants to armament manufacture. The emphasis is now definitely swinging to such conversion. Though a number of new plants are yet to be erected, the transformation of existing works is to be the main order of expansion in arms production for winter and spring.

Certainties of heavy disemployment in any circumstances for intervals of weeks to months, plus an imperative need for every tool which can be utilized are ending the long argument over whether planes and tanks should be turned out in revamped old plants or in specially designed new ones.

Auto rationing seen

For these reasons, members of the auto industry here would not be surprised to see the manufacture of passenger seats cease altogether by March, if not sooner. Rationing of new cars is expected in any event, with buyers required to have priority tickets.

Makers of cars were notified yesterday they could produce 102,000 passenger models next February, or a little more than a fifth of last February’s output, but the order temporarily stopping the sale of tires at retail impressed them more.

This order is expected to be followed by others which would husband the strategic metals derived from Chinese, East Indian and Philippine sources. Though all of these, except tin, can be obtained from American or nearby sources, time is needed to open new mines and enlarge others, and the risks are regarded as too great to permit chances to be taken until the whole story is known.

Agencies study supplies

Half a dozen agencies in Washington have been going over the American outlook for supplies which have been interrupted by the Pacific War, and in today’s meeting of the Supply, Priorities and Allocations Board, under the management of Donald M. Nelson, all this information was being brought together.

Orders similar to that applied to tires would remain in effect either until the naval situation cleared somewhat or the government determined the assured American supply.

May centralize purchasing

Out of the present uncertainties may come a centralized importing agency under RFC management, government takeovers of warehouse space for storing the materials it is about to acquire, and general standardization of the civilian goods still allowed to be made, from refrigerators on down.

Another upshot may be centralized purchasing by the Army, Navy, Maritime Commission and Lend-Lease.

Machinery adaptable

The uncertainty is partly the result of incomplete reorganization of the OPM and its related supply agencies. Further moves in this process are expected next week or the week after.

In the movement to convert existing plants to the production of arms, defense agencies have collected a quantity of information on the mechanical resources of these plants. It is understood that in the Chevrolet works in Buffalo, now being converted to make airplane engines, about 30% of the machinery is adaptable.

In a typical Detroit assembly system, about 40% of the machines and machine tools can be used to make bomber engines; about 50% can be used to make tanks; for machine guns, the proportion is lower. The rest of the tools would be greased up for storage.

Known as the Reuther Plan – for the officer of the United Auto Workers who proposed it – the conversion movement has not been so enthusiastically supported by workers in the industry in recent months because of the layoffs required during the changeover, and the discovery that fewer men would be employed afterward than before. This number may be increased, however, by running the plants day and night.


CANDIDLY SPEAKING —
Women needed for defense jobs, but not as wardens

They can be ‘much more valuable’ in other posts, officials say; work categories listed
By Maxine Garrison

WANTED: 500 first-aid instructors.
500 volunteer housing canvassers.
200 ambulance attendants.
200 water safety guides.

As many stenographers, typists and file clerks as are available.

NOT wanted: Women air-raid wardens.

There, in a classified ad nutshell, is the story of Pittsburgh’s Civilian Defense needs at the moment.

The great preference of women applicants for air-raid warden posts, coming on top of the fact that there have been 3,000 applicants (both men and women) this week alone, complicates matters at Civilian Defense offices in the City-County Building.

Men are preferred

It is explained that air-raid wardens are not the most immediate need and, besides, men are preferred for those posts.

But that women need not feel slighted… […]. Instructors are needed for the primary first air course (an instructor must have completed the first two courses).

There is an immediate call for canvassers to compile lists of available houses, apartments and rooms for defense workers. There is a shortage of ambulance attendants (who require first-aid training in such matters as lifting a patient from stretcher to ambulance).

Rush of clerical work

Water safety guides will be those people who can swim well and can handle small river craft in case of emergency.

The 3,000 applications within a week makes it clear why stenographers, typists and file clerks are wanted.

In brief, say Civilian Defense authorities:

We do want women – lots of them. But we don’t want women air-raid wardens, and we hope they’ll understand how much more valuable they can be in other capacities.

For efficiency’s sake, Pittsburgh’s Civilian Defense organization next week will inaugurate a method used here, as far as is known, for the first time in such work. To facilitate the enrollment of thousands of department store workers, registration centers will be set up in four downtown department stores.


Donate Christmas boxes early, Henderson urges

Washington (UP) –
If you’ve received any packages marked “Don’t Open Until Christmas,” please ignore that injunction.

That appeal was made today by Price Administrator Leon Henderson who asked that gift boxes and wrappings be contributed to the national waste paper collection campaign.

Mr. Henderson explained that paper board is in great demand to package war materials and the “raw material” from which it is made is used paper and cardboard cartons and boxes.


U.S. in seventh war

By the United Press

The United States was engaged in its seventh war today. They are:

War Started Ended
Revolutionary War April 19, 1775 Jan. 14, 1784
War of 1812 June 18, 1812 Feb. 17, 1815
War with Mexico April 25, 1846 May 30, 1848
Civil War April 15, 1861 Aug. 20, 1866
War with Spain April 21, 1898 April 11, 1899
World War I April 6, 1917 July 2, 1921
World War II Dec. 11, 1941
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America First set to disband; victory urged

National directors’ action approved ‘in advance’ by Lindbergh

America_First_Committee

Chicago, Illinois (UP) –
The America First Committee, pre-war foe of administration foreign policy, prepared today to disband its organization.

In a final statement announcing dissolution plans, national directors of the committee reaffirmed their belief in its principles but said the nation’s only wartime goal was “victory.” The statement said the committee’s objectives had been “an impregnable defense for our nation and avoidance of involvement in the European and Asiatic war.”

It said:

Our principles were right. Had they been followed, war could have been avoided. No good purpose can now be served by considering what might have been, had our objectives been obtained…

We are at war. Today, though there may be many important subsidiary considerations, the primary objective is not difficult to state. It can be completely defined in one word: Victory.

Gen. Robert E. Wood, national chairman, said the national directors’ action had been approved “in advance” by Charles A. Lindbergh, one of the committee’s principal spokesmen.

The statement appealed for preservation of “fundamental” American rights during the war and expressed hope that “secret treaties committing America to imperialistic aims or vast burdens in other parts of the world shall be scrupulously avoided.”

It also urged its members to support the nation’s war effort.


EXECUTIVE ORDER 8972
Authorizing the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy To Establish and Maintain Military Guard and Patrols, and To Take Other Appropriate Measures to Protect Certain National-Defense Material, Premises, and Utilities From Injury or Destruction

WHEREAS the United States is now at war; and Whereas there exists a serious and immediate potential danger of sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities which may menace our maximum productive effort; and

WHEREAS the Congress of the United States has in recent enactment recognized this danger by enjoining efforts to injure, interfere with, or obstruct the national defense, and providing severe penalties therefor; and

WHEREAS it is considered necessary in the interests of national defense that, in particular situations where hazardous, dangerous, or other unfavorable conditions may from time to time exist, special precautionary measures be taken by establishing and maintaining military guards and patrols or other appropriate means to protect from injury or destruction national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, whenever he deems such action to be necessary or desirable, and the Secretary of the Navy, whenever he deems such action to be necessary or desirable, to establish and maintain military guards and patrols, and to take other appropriate measures, to protect from injury or destruction national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities, as defined in the Act of April 20, 1918 (40 Stat. 533), as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940 (54 Stat. 1220), and the Act of August 21, 1941 (55 Stat 655).

This order shall not be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Justice, with respect to the investigation of alleged acts of sabotage.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
THE WHITE HOUSE,
December 12, 1941


EXECUTIVE ORDER 8973
Transfer of Employees Possessing Qualifications For National-Defense Work

WHEREAS there exists a critical shortage of persons qualified in certain occupations and professions essential to the successful prosecution of the national-defense program; and

WHEREAS there are in the executive branch of the Government employees possessing skills and qualifications in such occupations and professions who are employed in positions in which they can be replaced:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Civil Service Act (22 Stat. 403) and by Section 1753 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (U.S.C., Title 5, Sec. 631), it is hereby ordered that whenever the Civil Service Commission shall find (a) that there is employed in the executive civil service of the United States any person who is qualified to perform work directly connected with the national-defense program for which there is a critical shortage of qualified persons, and (b) that the position occupied by such person can be filled, the head of the department or agency concerned shall be requested by the Commission to authorize the release of such person for transfer to a public or private agency to perform work directly connected with the national-defense program; but no transfer under this order shall be made without the consent of the head of the department and of the employee concerned.

Any person, except one holding a temporary position, transferred under this order whose services are subsequently terminated without prejudice shall be entitled to reemployment benefits as stated below provided that he is still qualified to perform the duties of his position and that he makes application for reinstatement within forty days after the termination of his services or forty days after the present national emergency shall have ceased to exist:

  1. He shall be reinstated within thirty days of his application in the same department or agency, and in approximately the same locality, in his former position or in a position of like seniority, status, and pay, provided that such a position then exists.

  2. If such a position does not exist, and such person is therefore not reinstated within thirty days of his application, his name shall be entered on the Reemployment List established pursuant to Executive Order 5924 of September 20, 1932, to be considered for certification to positions for which he is qualified elsewhere in the Government service.

  3. No employee reinstated under this order shall be discharged from such position without cause within one year after his reinstatement.

FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT
THE WHITE HOUSE,
December 12, 1941

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1024px-Flag_of_Romania.svg

Romanian declaration of war on the United States
December 12, 1941

Guvernul Regal Român are onoarea de a comunica Guvernului Statelor Unite ale Americii că, în conformitate cu dispozițiile Pactului Tripartit și respectând obligațiile de solidaritate cuprinse în acest pact, ca urmare a stării de război care a avut apărută între Statele Unite ale Americii, pe de o parte, și Reich-ul german, Italia și Japonia, pe de altă parte, România însăși se află în stare de război cu Statele Unite ale Americii.

The Royal Romanian Government has the honor to communicate to the Government of the United States of America that, in conformity with the dispositions of the Tripartite Pact and respecting the obligations of solidarity contained in this pact, as a result of the state of war which has arisen between the United States of America on the one hand, and the German Reich, Italy and Japan on the other, Romania herself is in a state of war with the United States of America.

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1280px-Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg

Bulgarian declaration of war on the United States and Great Britain
December 12, 1941

След като Германия и Италия обявиха, че се намират в състояние на война със Съединените американски щати, тъй като смятат, че Съединените американски щати са извършили през последните месеци редица вражески действия, българското правителство, за да изпълни задължението си съгласно член III от Тристранния пакт, реши също да скъса дипломатическите отношения със Съединените американски щати и да обяви наличието на състояние на война с тях, както и със съюзника на Съединените щати - Великобритания.

After Germany and Italy declared that they are in a state of war with the United States of America, because they consider that the United States of America has committed in recent months a series of enemy acts, the Bulgarian Government, in order that it may fulfill its obligation in accordance with Article III of the Tripartite Pact, has decided also to break diplomatic relations with the United States of America and to declare the existence of a state of war therewith as well as with the United States’ ally, Great Britain.

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Völkischer Beobachter (December 13, 1941)

Japans Wehrmacht

Von Generalmajor Okamoto

Der ehemalige Militärattaché an der kaiserlich japanischen Botschaft in Berlin, Generalmajor Okamoto, hatte die Freundlichkeit, uns den nachstehenden Aufsatz zur Verfügung zu stellen. Der Artikel aus der berufenen Feder des ehemaligen kaiserlich japanischen Militärattachés zeigt den stolzen Geist der traditionsreichen japanischen Wehrmacht.

Die Wehrhaftigkeit einer Nation ist stets von der Stärke des Nationalstolzes und von der Höhe des kulturellen Standes abhängig. Nur ein Volk, das einerseits seine geistigen Fähigkeiten auf das höchste zu entwickeln vermag und auf der, anderen Seite das Soldatische und Kämpferische im Herzen besitzt, kann insbesondere heute allen Waffenerfordernissen und Wirtschaftlich politischen Voraussetzungen entsprechend die stärkste Wehrmacht entwickeln. Trotz allen modernen Errungenschaften ist für die Wehrhaftigkeit doch das Entscheidende, ob ein Volk in seinem innersten Kern die soldatische Natur besitzt oder nicht. Deutschland mit seinem Germanentum, Italien mit seinem Römertum und Japan mit seinem Bushido (Ahnenkult und Ehrenkodex) sind in der Weltgeschichte drei kulturbringende Völker mit glänzenden Traditionen des Soldatentums.

Die heutige japanische Wehrhaftigkeit ist unmittelbar auf den Geist des Samurai (Ritter) zurückzuführen. Der Samuraistand, der seit dem 13. Jahrhundert die führende Schicht des japanischen Volkes bedeutete, zählte bei seiner Auflösung im Jahre 1868 drei Millionen Familien.

Die Grundsätze der Samurai

Die Grundprinzipien des Bushido waren das Führerprinzip, absolute Treue der Gefolgschaft mit Lebenseinsatz und spartanischer Wehrschulung. Die große Familie des Ritterstandes mit seiner sieben- bis achthundertjährigen Wehrtradition wurde im Jahre 1872 durch den Tenno Meiji (den Gründer des modernen Japans) mit dem Gesetz der allgemeinen Wehrpflicht erweitert. Im Jahre 1882 verkündete Tenno Meiji für die gesamte Wehrmacht Japans fünf Grundsätze des Soldatenethos: Untertanentreue, Sittlichkeit, Tapferkeit, Pflichttreue und Einfachheit nebst Ehrlichkeit bei allem. Diese waren auch Wesenszüge des japanischen Ritterideals, die durchsieben bis acht Jahrhunderte hindurch gepflegt und immer wieder gestärkt wurden.

Die Reorganisation des japanischen Wehrwesens, die die Staatsreform von 1868 mit sich brachte, blickt trotz der Einführung der europäischen Kriegstechnik zu dem ursprünglich japanischen Vorbild der Wehrorganisation zurück.

Der Oberbefehl des Tenno über das Volksheer (das Prinzip der allgemeinen Wehrmacht). Im 11. Artikel der japanischen Staatsverfassung heißt es „Heer und Kriegsmarine stehen unter dem Befehl des Tenno (Kaiser Japans)“ und der 12. Artikel besagt: „Die Organisation von Heer und Marine und ihre Friedensstärke wurde vom Tenno festgesetzt.“

Auf diesen beiden Grundsätzen basiert das japanischer Militärgesetz. Tenno ist an sich nicht eine durch die Verfassung als Oberhaupt des Landes und der Wehrmacht bestimmte Persönlichkeit, sondern er ist der Repräsentant des japanischen Herrscherhauses, das in dem japanischen Glauben mythologischen Ursprungs ist. Tenno ist für das japanische Volk die leibhaft gewordene Gottheit in der Reihe des Göttergeschlechts der Sonnengöttin. Tenno tritt dem Volke gegenüber im Auftrag seiner Urahne als Verkörperung der drei Tugenden „Tapferkeit, seelische Reinheit und Barmherzigkeit.“ Im Vollzug dieser Herrscherprinzipien vertreten Generationen des Tenno (bis jetzt 124 Dynastien) durch Wort und Tat jene Haupttugenden des japanischen Volkes: „Opferwilligkeit und Opferfähigkeit.“

Das erhabene Vorbild des Tenno

Solches bedeutet für einen jeden Japaner, nach dem erhabenen Vorbild des Tenno, nicht nur sich selbst, sondern auch die Seinigen freudig zu opfern, wenn es in Zeiten großer Not, wo Körper und Seele zu leiden haben, um die Wohlfahrt und das Glück des Ganzen geht. Diese sittliche Auffassung vom Sinn der Opferbereitschaft des einzelnen für das Wohl des Ganzen ist in Japan eine traditionelle Selbstverständlichkeit und somit Nationalcharakter des japanischen Volkes bis auf den heutigen Tag.

Die Wehrhaftigkeit und kulturelle Leistungsfähigkeit scheinen sich gegenseitig zu widersprechen. Wohl können diese beiden Kampf- und Friedensleistungen nicht gleichzeitig auf derselben, Höhe bleiben, jedoch ergänzen sie sich, und keines von beiden war und ist ohne das andere möglich, wenn man die Geschichte eines Volkes als Ganzes Versteht. Denn in dem Kern der japanischen Kulturleistung floß – seit über 2000 Jahren ein einziger Strom – das gefühlsmäßige Erbgut des japanischen Volkes: die Einheit des Kaisertums, des Volkes und des Landes. Diese innerste Überzeugung eines jeden Japaners bedeutet zugleich die sittliche Forderung, die im Geiste des Samurai zur höchsten Entfaltung gelangte und im heutigen Soldatentum Japans unvermindert fortlebt.

Nach deutschem Muster

Zu dieser soldatisch-patriotischen Tradition der japanischen Wehrhaftigkeit trat bei der Modernisierung der Waffenführung ein großer Beitrag der deutschen Wehrfähigkeit hinzu. Zur Schaffung der modernen Einrichtungen in der japanischen Wehrmacht war es zahlreichen japanischen Offizieren vergönnt, in Deutschland sich mit der modernen Waffenführung vertraut zu machen. Außerdem hatten sich viele deutsche Offiziere als Lehrer für das japanische Heerwesen betätigt. Japans Heer hat in diesem Sinne den deutschen militärischen Kräften und Errungenschaften außerordentlich viel zu verdanken.

Die japanische Wehrmacht hat sich seit ihrer Gründung von 1872 bei jeder Auseinandersetzung glänzend bewährt und jedesmal den Sieg davongetragen, was die erfolgreiche Entwicklung Japans zu einer der stärksten Weltmächte wesentlich förderte.

Japan schreitet, nunmehr seiner historischen Aufgabe bewußt, mit entschlossenem Einsatz der gesamten Volkskräfte zur Schaffung einer ostasiatischen Völkergemeinschaft, in der der Zusammenschluß zwischen Japan, Mandschukuo und China die tragende Rolle spielt.

Der Zweck der japanischen Bestrebungen ist, mit den japanischen Kräften, die von Gerechtigkeitssinn erfüllt sind, alle ostasiatischen Völker, die den unmenschlichen Machenschaften raumfremdermächte ausgesetzt sind, aus ihrem Sklavenleben zu befreien und ihnen mit dem Prinzip des friedlichen Zusammenlebens und geteilten Wohles ein neues Leben zu schenken.

In diesem Sinne war die Lösung des mandschurischen Problems (1931) das erste Stadium zur Schaffung der Neuordnung Ostasiens. Das zweite Stadium dieser Entwicklung begann mit dem Chinakonflikt (1937) und endet mit der Lösung dieses Problems.

Der Entschluß zur Neuordnung

Mit dem Abschluß des Dreimächtepaktes, der am 27. September 1940 unterzeichnet wurde, trat Japan mit Ostasien in das dritte Stadium seiner Neuordnung.

Japan stärkte nunmehr seinen Entschluß, allen Schwierigkeiten zum Trotz, mit Deutschland und Italien zusammen, die für die Neuordnung Europas in erfolgreichem Kampf auf dem Wege der Zielerreichung stehen, Schulter an Schulter einer totalen Neuordnung der Welt entgegenzumarschieren.

Es besteht kein Zweifel darüber, daß die Durchsetzung unseres Zieles eine große geeinte Volkskraft erfordert, die eine mächtige Wehrmacht zum Kern hat. Gegenwärtig verfügt die japanische Wehrmacht über mehrere Millionen Mann Heer, eine mehrere hundert Einheiten zählende Flotte und mehrere tausend Flugzeuge. Diese Streitkräfte Japans befinden sich bereits seit 1931 entweder im Krieg oder in Kampfbereitschaft und sammelten ihre Erfahrungen. Die japanische Wehrmacht zu Lande, zur See und in der Luft (die Luftwaffe ist in Japan nicht selbständig, sondern ist verteilt auf Armee und Marine) wird immer mehr Vervollständigt, um mit den bereits siegreich bewährten Wehrmächten Deutschlands und Italiens gemeinsam dem wirklichen Frieden der Welt zu dienen.


Stärkster Widerhall auf die Führer-Rede –
Judas Kriegsagent ist nicht mehr weiß zu waschen

Eigener Bericht des „Völkischen Beobachters“

vb. Wien, 12. Dezember –
Die vernichtende Abrechnung des Führers mit dem Scharlatan Roosevelt, dem Treiber zum europäischen Krieg, dem Brandstifter auf dem ganzen Erdball, steht in allen Betrachtungen über die mitreißende Reichstagsrede im Vordergrund – auch beim Feind, denn gerade dort legt man den größten Wert darauf, den Kriegsagenten Judas weiß zu waschen. Im Übrigen zeigen diese Bemühungen ebenso wie die beispiellos verlogene Berichterstattung aus England und den USA über die Vorgänge im Pazifik und die Lage an den anderen Fronten an, daß auch die lautesten bisherigen Mauloffensiven noch beträchtlich überboten werden sollen.

Für Churchill sind die wohlüberlegte Erstickungsstrategie Roosevelts gegen Japan und die unverhüllte Kriegshetze seines Spießgesellen in Europa einfach nicht vorhanden. Er redete von „einem vorbedachten perfiden Angriff Japans,“ während sein Rundfunk es kurzweg ein „Märchen“ nannte daß Roosevelt den Krieg gesucht habe und es als „einzigartige Behauptung“ bezeichnete, daß der Führer den Kriegsplan Roosevelts für 1943 erwähnte, obwohl dieses Dokument in den USA überall veröffentlicht und besprochen worden ist.

Diese eifernde Verteidigung, die aus dem Infamsten Kriegstreiber aller Zeiten einen bewährten Friedensfreund zu machen sucht, beweist, daß man im feindlichen Lager vor allem die offenkundige Kriegsschuld Roosevelts als peinlich belastend empfindet und diese daher auf das rücksichtsloseste wegzulügen sucht.

Der entlarvte Heuchler

In den verbündeten und befreundeten Ländern vermitteln das Presseecho und die Äußerungen politischer Kreise der Öffentlichkeit mit größter Eindringlichkeit die Wahrheit über die Person Roosevelts, dem der Führer die heuchlerische Maske endgültig vorn Gesicht gerissen hat.

Die römische Morgenpresse legt in ihrer Bewertung der Reden des Duce und des Führers den größten Nachdruck auf die Eindeutigkeit, mit der von beiden Staatsmännern die Verantwortung des amerikanischen Präsidenten am Ausbruch des Krieges und an seiner Ausweitung über die ganze Erde hin betont wurde. Schreibt Messaggero:

In jeder Phase des allmählichen Zusammenbruches der Mächte einer veralteten Welt der Plutokratie, des Judentums und der Freimaurerei war die aufhetzende Tätigkeit Roosevelts unverkennbar.

Es handle sich jetzt nicht mehr darum, ein auf Gerechtigkeit beruhendes neues „europäisches Gleichgewicht“ zu schaffen, sondern darum, Europa selbst zu verteidigen. Der Sieg werde auf der Seite der Völker sein, die für die höchsten Ziele der Menschheit kämpften.


U.S. War Department (December 13, 1941)

Communiqué No. 6

Philippine Theater.
Japanese air activity continued throughout the day with raids on Manila and at Davao on the island of Mindanao. Attempted Japanese landings were repulsed south of Vigan and north of San Fernando as well as at Lingayen on the island of Luzon.

Operations of enemy parachutists were reported at Tuguegarao and Ilagan, in the extreme north and northeast in the island of Luzon. Some enemy troops landed in the vicinity of Legazpi in the extreme southern portion of the island of Luzon.

Previous reports of enemy naval concentrations west of Zambales Province on the western coast of Luzon were confirmed.

The Commanding General, Far Eastern Command, has notified the Commanding General, USAAF, of the brilliant performance of the U.S. Army and Navy fliers and the fliers of the Philippine Commonwealth in attacking enemy units with total disregard for their own safety.

One spectacular instance was the feat of Capt. Colin P. Kelly Jr. of Madison, Florida, who successfully attacked the battleship HARUNA, putting that warship out of commission. In this destruction of this important unit of the Japanese fleet, Capt. Kelly lost his life. Another brilliant victory was scored by Lt. Boyd D. Wagner of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who shot down two enemy planes and wrecked several others that were on the ground in the vicinity of Aparri in northern Luzon.

Hawaii.
There has been no renewal of Japanese attacks on Oahu since the initial operations on December 7, 1941.

West Coast, United States.
Rumors of landings of enemy parachute troops on the West Coast have been thoroughly investigated and completely discredited.


U.S. Navy Department (December 13, 1941)

Communiqué No. 5

The Navy Department announced that it is unable to communicate with Guam either by radio or cable. The capture of the island is probable. A small force of less than 400 naval personnel and 155 Marines were stationed in Guam. According to the last reports from Guam, the island had been bombed repeatedly and Japanese troops had landed at several points on the island.

Wake and Midway continue to resist.

The above is based on reports until 9:00 a.m. EST today.

Communiqué No. 6

U.S. airmen turned back the fishing vessel ALERT of U.S. registry in the Gulf of Nicoya, on the west coast of Costa Rica. The vessel was boarded on its return to port and was found to have seven Japanese in the crew. They were taken into custody. The ALERT was loaded with a cargo of 10,000 gallons of diesel oil.

No new developments have been reported from combat areas as of 3:00 p.m. EST today.


The Pittsburgh Press (December 13, 1941)

WAR BULLETINS!

Roosevelt summons aides

Washington –
President Roosevelt today called in Secretary of State Cordell Hull, Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and a group of Navy officials, presumably to discuss progress of the war and U.S. strategy.

Axis retreats in Libya

Cairo, Egypt –
Axis forces are falling back steadily along a broad front west of Tobruk and about 40 miles inland from the coast in an effort to avoid encirclement and destruction, dispatches reported today.

Navy base blacked out

Newport, Rhode Island –
The Newport Naval Base was blacked out for a half-hour early today on receipt of “certain advices,” but officials later said the precautionary measures were the result of “mistaken identity” of airplanes.

Chinese airmen bomb Canton

New York –
Radio Halifax, heard by the United Press, said today that Chinese planes had bombed Canton, and it was believed that the Chinese were preparing an offensive to retake the city, as part of their new drive to relieve pressure on Hong Kong.

Queen Wilhelmina pledges help

Washington –
Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands has assured President Roosevelt of cooperation in this country’s war against Japan.

Poles declare war on Japan

Washington –
The Polish Embassy announced today that Ambassador Jan Ciechanowski has received notice from his foreign minister in London that the Republic of Poland has declared the existence of war with Japan as of Dec. 11.

Reds rout Nazi reserves

Moscow, USSR (UP) – (TASS agency broadcast recorded in London)
Dispatches from the Kalinin Front northeast of Moscow today said the Germans had thrown hastily-formed reserves into an attempt to halt the Red Army offensive, but been forced to yield additional ground. The Nazis abandoned wounded men.

Japs claim air mastery

Berlin, Germany (UP) – (official news agency broadcast recorded in London)
Tokyo Imperial Headquarters said that in a battle over Malaya, the British Air Force in the Far East was practically destroyed and Japan is master of the air. British losses were put at 129 planes and Japanese losses at 17.

Puerto Rico has air-raid alarm

San Juan. Puerto Rico –
Army reports that unidentified airplanes had been sighted off the Puerto Rico coast resulted in an air-raid alarm throughout the island at 2:45 a.m. AST today and there was a blackout until dawn. There were no reports that bombs had been dropped.

Philippine airfields bombed

Washington –
War Department Communiqué No. 7 today said that Japanese aircraft bombed Cebu and Clark Field in the Philippines, and that the enemy’s plan appears now “clearly revealed” as an attempt to gain improvised air bases outside of the area held by our ground defenses.

Thailand due to freeze credits

Los Angeles, California –
Thailand, which capitulated to Japan, has frozen all U.S. and British assets and will break off diplomatic relations with those two nations, Radio Tokyo announced today in a broadcast heard here by NBC.

Florida on alert for air raid

Jacksonville, Florida –
Reports indicating the possibility of an air raid put naval and military establishments on the alert today and all radio stations in the Jacksonville area went off the air for nearly three hours, naval authorities reported.

Manila airfield raided

New York –
CBS’s Manila correspondent broadcast today that, according to a U.S. headquarters communiqué issued there today, Japanese bombers attacked several Philippine airfields. Nichols Field, just south of Manila, was raided but damage was believed slight, the broadcast said. A Japanese bomber was believed shot down by a harbor defense anti-aircraft gun.

Plea for Red war on Japs unlikely

London, England –
Reliable quarters said today that Britain had decided for the present to refrain from asking Russia for a declaration of war against Japan. British official quarters were represented as believing that Russia’s war with Germany should be pressed to the utmost without any major diversion.

Newsmen will leave Germany

London, England –
The German official news agency said today in a Berlin broadcast heard by the United Press that U.S. newspapermen in Berlin would leave with U.S. diplomats.

Nazis flying for Japanese

Washington –
Nazi pilots flying warplanes made in Germany have been operating over China recently and may have participated in the Japanese assault on Pearl Harbor and the Philippines, Maj. Gen. P. Kiang, chief of the Chinese military mission to the United States, said today.

North Luzon reported ‘clear’

New York –
The NBC correspondent in Manila, recorded by NBC in New York, said today that:

The U.S. High Command announced this morning that in northern Luzon, the area had been entirely cleared of Japanese invaders.

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Victory program –
Home front is organized; 10 million men may fight

Washington (UP) –
The fight for the survival of the United States took shape today on the home front and along the far-flung battle lines.

On the actual firing line, the Philippines have become the central theater of conflict in the Pacific.

The task at home has also become clearly defined.

More men will have to be called to the colors – perhaps 10 million in all.

More money will be thrown into the battle of production – about $5 billion a month – for more warships, more fighting planes, more guns.

More taxes are in store – a “several-billion-dollar” war tax bill is just around the corner.

And more sacrifices. People will have to get along with fewer of the things made of raw materials imported from the Far East.

Congress is getting ready to act on draft legislation that will require 40 million men from 18 to 65 to register. Only those between 18 and 44 (inclusive) will be subject to military service, permitting a draft army of 10 million strong. The rest will be subject to non-combatant duty under pending legislation which may be acted upon by the middle of next week.

Funds to equip the expanding forces with more weapons are provided in a $10,572,350,000 supplemental defense appropriations bill which was voted by the Senate yesterday and now goes to conference with the House.

On top of that, a new long-range naval expansion program to add 900,000 extra tons of fighting strength – 166 warships – to the fleet. This will cost in excess of $3 billion.

Heavy taxes to meet the staggering war bill will be discussed by Congressional experts starting Jan. 15.

Labor and industrial leaders will meet here next week to devise methods for uninterrupted armaments production. Mr. Roosevelt has given assurances that the 40-hour week will not be sacrificed in the contemplated seven-day week production schedule.

Spies mopped up

Coastal defenses are being bulwarked against the threat of enemy attacks. Potential spies and saboteurs are being mopped up by federal agents who have bagged 2,541 Axis aliens during the first week of the war. The War Department completed plans for radio blackouts when air raids impend.

The Senate appropriations measure – raising the government’s total stake in the war against the Axis to $69 billion – was passed by voice vote.

The Senate acknowledged the growing importance of planes in modern warfare by adding to the House version approximately $1 billion for Army and Navy air programs alone.

Allies to lead in planes

OPM Production Director W. H. Harrison said today American airplane output, coupled with Britain’s, will surpass that of Germany by next summer. The German monthly rate has already been surpassed, he said, and the future Allied program will outdistance Germany in actual numbers as well.

The Senate passed the bill after adding $360 million to the original $2-billion increase voted by its appropriations committee.

The floor additions included $68 million more for the Civil Aeronautics Authority for developing landing areas; a $290-million increase in funds for defense housing; and $1,500,000 to finance collection of the new $5 annual auto use tax and other levies in the last revenue bill.

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Tokyo admits attack failed on one island

AFL workers help to fight invaders in Pacific outposts

Washington (UP) –
The Stars and Stripes still fly over Wake and Midway Islands, tiny Pacific outposts, a Navy communiqué disclosed today.

A Tokyo communiqué admitted that U.S. Marines were still holding Wake Island against Japanese attacks.

Simultaneously, the AFL claimed that “on the basis of new information from authoritative sources,” a group of American construction workers in Guam:

…seized whatever weapons were available on the island and engaged the invaders in hand-to-hand fighting in which the American workers gave a very good account of themselves.

Advised of capture

The AFL previously said it had been advised by the Navy that about 1,100 workers in Guam and Midway were “captured and taken prisoner” by the Japanese.

The AFL said that on the basis of present information, “Guam remains in American hands.”

The Navy communiqué which announced continued American resistance at Wake and Midway said:

There is no confirmation of the alleged occupation of Guam by the Japanese.

Marines hold Wake

If confirmed, the AFL report of hand-to-hand fighting between American workmen and Japanese invaders in Guam would write another glittering page in the annals of American heroism. The report came 24 hours after a Navy communiqué revealed another brilliant “last stand” – the gallantry of the beleaguered band of Marines defending Wake Island.

The AFL announcement telling of the hand-to-hand fighting in Guam also said that:

In the Hawaiian Islands, the 10,000 AFL building trades workers, showing a contempt for Jap marksmanship, are staying on the job and have decided to work night and day to rush to completion American fortifications and other vital structures now being built there…

Free American workers will never be slaves. We are giving and will continue to give our sweat, our skill and our blood to blast the military masters of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Fascist Japan off the face of the globe.

The heroic stand of the handful of Marines at Wake Island drew high praise today from President Roosevelt who said the “devil-dogs” were doing a perfectly magnificent job. The Marines were revealed Thursday to have sunk a Japanese light cruiser and a destroyer, and to have repulsed four aerial attacks and one naval thrust.

Wake, a coral reef about four miles long, is 2,000 miles west of Hawaii. Guam is 1,300 miles farther. Midway is 1,300 miles northwest of Hawaii.

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Spoilers

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I could be here forever debunking what Hitler has said, but I just want to point out that the only German involvment in the American War for Independence were mercenaries known as the “Hessians” who fought for the British.
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Use wicked bolos –
Luzon natives beheading Japs

Enemy fails to gain; rain aids Philippine defense
By Frank Hewlett, United Press staff writer

Manila, Philippines –
Filipino civilians are fighting side by side with U.S. and Philippine forces against Japanese landing forces in the Aparri area of northern Luzon Island, dispatches from the front reported today.

An NBC correspondent in Manila, recorded by NBC in New York, said today that:

The U.S. High Command announced that in northern Luzon, the area had been entirely cleared of Japanese invaders.

Dispatches said townspeople, villagers, farmers and fishermen went from their homes to aid the defense forces and with their bolos, the wicked Philippine knives, beheaded many of the Japanese soldiers on the beaches as they landed.

Recruiting stations are crowded throughout the islands and youths of the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps are enlisting because they are too impatient to await their commissions.

Filipino morale is high and the people are tranquil despite heavy Japanese aerial bombings of the Manila area.

There was a dawn air-raid alarm, but the “all-clear” was sounded after 50 minutes without incident. The alarm was sounded because a small group of enemy planes was seen headed for Manila, but the planes were turned away.

An Army communiqué said last night was uneventful except for local activity in areas where the Japanese had landed troops.

It noted that Japanese forces at Legazpi, at the southeast tip of Luzon Island, had not been reinforced.

Rain aids defense

Rain, rare in the Philippines in December, had come to the aid of the defense forces in some parts of Luzon.

The Manila Bulletin reported that among Axis citizens arrested were four German brothers of De La Salle College and three clergymen of a Manila church.

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Navy censor named

Manila, Philippines –
G. H. Yette, manager of the Press Wireless Radio Office, was recalled to active duty today as a Navy warrant officer. He was assigned to be Navy censorship supervisor at the United Press radio station.

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Shifting into high –
Ford goes on 24-hour day, full week war schedule

Detroit, Michigan (UP) –
The Ford Motor Company, with defense contracts totaling more than $900 million, began turning out arms to beat the Axis on a 24-hour, seven-days-a-week schedule today.

Edsel Ford, president of the company, announcing the schedule, said it was in effect, wherever practical. Workers in the $37,500,000 Pratt & Whitney airplane engine factory at River Rouge, Michigan, were put on two 10-hour shifts, seven days a week.

An around-the-clock schedule was also instituted at the $58,500,000 plant near Ypsilanti, Michigan, which will be turning out Consolidated B-24E bombers by spring, its airfield, in the engineering laboratory, tool and dye plant and magnesium foundry.

Mr. Ford said:

We have taken this action in response to the government’s declaration of all-out effort on the war. We have asked employees in the present defense operations to volunteer for a seven-day schedule can be maintained for the shop while the individual employee puts in only the normal week. The response to this request has been unanimous.

The auto industry is closing down plants no longer needed because of restricted passenger car quotas, but Governor Murray D. Van Wagoner of Michigan said in Lansing that he did not believe layoffs would cause much unemployment. The war would speed up arms production, he said, and they would be absorbed by defense plants.

Harry Bennett, Ford personnel director, said the company would close most of its non-defense plants next week.

Charles E. Wilson, president of General Motors, has estimated that 90,000 of the corporation’s 300,000 employees throughout the nation will have to be laid off.

Meanwhile, officials of the UAW-CIO asked for an immediate conference with heads of Chrysler Corporation, to “conclude an honorable agreement” on the seven-day week “swing shift,” on defense work.

At the same time, a Chrysler spokesman said Plymouth, Dodge, DeSoto and Chrysler plants would close next Friday – four days earlier than previously scheduled.

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U.S. bombers force Jap ship back to port

Puntarenas, Costa Rica (UP) –
Three U.S. bombing planes today chased and overtook the Japanese fishing vessel Alert and forced it to return to Caldera Harbor. The incident gave rise to rumors that Japanese airplanes were attacking Costa Rica.

The planes chased the vessel, “harassing it with bombing,” after which the ship was brought back to port, where its crew of seven Japanese and three Americans were made prisoners.

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1280px-Flag_of_Hungary_(1915-1918,_1919-1946).svg

U.S. State Department (December 13, 1941)

740.0011 European War 1939/17497: Telegram

The Minister in Hungary to the Secretary of State

Budapest, December 13, 1941
[Received December 13 — 2:36 p.m.]

710

The Prime Minister informed me at 5:30 this afternoon that Hungary considers war to exist between Hungary and United States. All codes destroyed.

PELL

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