1930 02 The Worldwide Fascist Surge (not just the future Axis Powers, but worldwide)


With regards to Finland… I would add that the Suojeluskunta organization (White Guard or Civil Guard) had existed until the events of Mäntsälä as a paramilitary group distinctly separate from the actual Finnish military or civil authorities. It could be called for service by the Finnish military but it would have its own units (until about 1934). However after Mäntsälä the White Guard started to attain for more ‘civil guard’ style stance and was gradually integrated into a branch of actual military - becoming kind of like the US National Guard. Former suojeluskunta districts were turned into sort of local branches of the military facilitating the mobilization and the separate command structure they used to have was taken over by the actual Finnish military for example. Also this meant that separate Suojeluskunta units were abolished and instead the better equipped and trained members of Suojeluskunta were used to forms sort of a cadre or core for mobilized reservist units.

Not really strictly related to the fascist surge but shows how the things worked the other way around as well - that is the fascist surge in a way led to former right wing paramilitary group to be reduced into a military branch without its own say any longer.


A lot of the “fascist surge” had to do not just with economic conditions but also with the horror stories emanating from the Soviet Union by émigrés (many true stories, some false, some exaggerated). There seems to have been a genuine fear of communism (certainly not unwarranted) because of its revolutionary nature and the terror practised against civilians.

This led people to lean towards fascism more and more as the “lesser of two evils” or maybe as something people thought would work. Plus, the fascist experiment in Italy (despite some repression and even some terror) seemed on the surface to be working pretty well (emphasis on “on the surface”) which was in direct contradiction with the red terror in Stalin’s Russia. Mussolini’s concordat with the pope even earned him praise from FDR.

I believe many fascist supporters of the early 1930s may have been more anti-communist than they ever were pro-fascist.


it is not well known but the fascist dictator of greece Ioannis Metaxas provided the communists and anarchists with guns and ammunition during the spanish civil war. here is a link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrkal

what about that huh?


Bodosakis provided, not Metaxas, it was a private company, not state-controlled…


yes Bodosakis provided, but he couldn’t do it without the approval and help from Metaxas.


Greek Arms Dealing in the Spanish Civil War

We know that PYRKAL as a private company didn’t need the approval of Metaxas, but it is true that the Greek government after the fact had no problem of PYRKAL supplying both the Nationalists and the Republicans. Since the Republicans had more need for ammo than the Nationalists, they were better customers. Greece needed hard currency and the Spanish Civil War greatly helped PYRKAL to grew. About the personal involvement of Metaxas we are not sure (page 68), since he kept Greece strictly neutral and had representatives at both sides of the civil war.


well, in a country that at the time some songs needed approval from the government to be played, it is hard to believe that there was not a personal involvement of Metaxas, since he was a friend of Bodosakis, some arms were supposedely bound for the greek army, there was an undisputable involment of mexico in the case, there is at least one mention of Metaxas signature in a related document (that has been lost or destroyed, but there a mention to it) and of course there were many complains from the spanish nationalists. Not to mention the collaboration with the soviet union. I think it is impossible that Metaxas knew nothing about all of it and that his approval or help was not needed. Metaxas was not a puppet…
Anyway , the fact that greece (and poland) that was under a fascist and nationalistic regime was selling guns and munition to the communists and anarchists is a very interesting fact that i think it is underestimated, since it points how things really work.

Αθανασίoυ, I saw, some time before, the video about stratis mirivilis and i really enjoyed it, it was a pleasant surprise and something that i believe it was fitting and needed. I appreciate your contribution here :+1:


FYI, starting compiling/ doing research for this episode this week. It’s going to be B2W 1932 - 04. Thanks for all the contributions!